104 – Ya eyyuhellezine amenu la tekulu raina ve kulunzurna vesmeu* ve lil kafirine azabun elim
O you who have believed, say not (to Allah’s Rasul), “Ra’ina” (‘watch out for us’: the Jews used this word with a particular accent and emphasis to mean ‘foolish’; this warning was made due to this insulting behavior) but say, “Unthurna” and listen. For the deniers of the truth there is a painful suffering. (A.Hulusi)
O ye of Faith! Say not (to the Messenger) Ráìná, but say unthurna (i.e. say not words of ambiguous import, but words of respect); and hearken (to him): To those without Faith is a grievous punishment. (Abdullah Yusuf Ali)
Ya eyyuhellezine amenu la tekulu raina ve kulunzurna vesmeu O, you who believe. If you are honest with your claim of iman, don’t say “raina”, say “unzurna” and listen. ve lil kafirine azabun elim For those who deny the truth, there is a painful suffering waiting.
Dear friends, in this verse of Baqarah-104, especially over the expression of raina, lots of debates had formed between translators. Why is this raina word forbidden? First of all, we should stay on the meaning of raina. Raina; with a full concept, means, “Look at us. See us. Hear us.” According to some its the root of the word raunet, as in false man, ignorant man, he who frequently talks wrong in speech. Also some people from Tabiin says, raina word was being used as a slang among the society of Madina, it had a history. Generally means; “Yo..! Hey, look! You listen us, we listen you. First you see us, then we see you.” The reason behind the forbidding might be linked to this rude slang usage of the people in Madina.
Second possibility; Jews of Madina had a habit of distorting words and corrupting their meanings. They were using those words as insults to others. One of those words was raina. Raina, which have a meaning of “Look us, see us.”, was being distorted with a slight bending over the letter ayn. By twisting their tongues, they were turning the word to “Raiyna”, which has a meaning of mere sheppard. They were using this insult against the prophet.
There’s one more possibility we see from some translators works. There is a similar word in Hebrew of sons of Israel which is used for direct insult and as a curse. So by using raina like the others, the Jews were in fact trying to address with that meaning underneath. In our opinion this must be the truth. Because the verse starts with, “O, you who believe.” Surely the true believers of Madina wouldn’t curse or insult their own prophets with a word might be used by Jews. Our choice on this matter (also the choice of Taberi), is the slang usage. We should put an emphasis on this; because some were using the word with a meaning of, “Listen us, then we listen you.”. I think this possibility is more likely.
So, saying that became forbidden and it’s been said; “Say unzurna.” As in “Would you see us? Could you look at us?” Or with an accurate meaning; “Protect us, O Rasulallah. Tolerate us. Watch over us.” This unzurna word was encouraged in addressing.
I believe what wants from the Muslims is, protecting themselves to become Jewminded, banning themself from distorting the words. Preventing their souls by not playing with words like the sons of Israel do. Because one of the keypoints in history of sons of Israel, becoming Jewminded; is playing with words.
As you may recall, we translated a similar verse before. They were ordered by Allah, to enter a city gate by saying “Hitta.”, and yet they changed the word. Hitta means “O Rab, forgive us, have mercy on us.” They changed a letter in this hitta and say “Hinta” instead. This means wheat, grain. Like they were asking for wheat and grain instead of asking for mercy and protection. As you can see, sons of Israel who became Jewminded were using this kind of wordplays since then. So this is the lesson we should learn from this.
- O..! The Community of Muhammad. Don’t sever the bonds in words. Don’t dislocate the context. Don’t play with the true meanings of words and don’t be so reckless against Allah. That’s what wants to be told.
Of course there’s another purpose given behind this. Act with respect to prophets.
-O Community, respect to your prophets. Don’t use words and behaviours that might hurt them. Remember, your prophet acts with respect to you. Show the same respect for him. And don’t forget this, you found the truth thanks to him. Thanks to him, you were blessed with the eternal message. So don’t withhold your respects and regards to him.
What meant to be said was this. Also this purpose still holds the same importance today, as it was on those days. So the message of this verse for modern true believers is this.
“-O true believers. Don’t have false regards, to your prophet, to his memory and to his legacy. Don’t be disrespectful.”, is said.
Last sentence of the verse is ve lil kafirine azabun elim to those who deny the truth, there’s a painful, terrible suffering. It might also be understood, the expression of “there’s a terrible suffering waiting for those who deny the truth.”, is connected with the concepts we talked above. Including this connection, “If you mock your prophet if you begin to disrespect your prophet, you also begin to be reckless to the truths he had brought to you. If you begin to humiliate the sunnet (exampler life) of the prophet, you also begin to humiliate the message he brought. Because the value of an envelope is its content. A chest is only valuable for what’s inside it. And what makes a humans body valuable is the soul, carried by that body.
What makes the papers of Qur’an valuable is the celestial messages that those papers hold. For that, the respect we should show for the prophet is based on his mission. If anyone begins to disregard and humiliate the value of him, eventually it comes to a point that the mission becomes humiliated and disregarded. And as an ending, the message brought via the prophet becomes scorned.
Don’t do that. If you do that, you become one of the deniers of truth. This leads to blasphemy. Disregarding and acts with petty behaviours to your prophet eventually slams you to the doors of denial. Because of that possibility, we were been told that, “Shut that door way too early, before it’s too late for you.”
105 – Ma yeveddullezine keferu min ehlil kitabi ve lel mushrikine ey yunezzele aleykum min hayrim mir rabbikum* vallahu yehtessu bi rahmetihi mey yesha’* vallahu zul fadlil aziym
Neither the disbelievers of the People of the Book nor the dualists (those who assert existence to their egos or external objects; dualistic view) wish that any good should be revealed to you from your Rabb (the qualities of the Names within your essence). But Allah selects for His grace whom He wills, by way of his essence. Allah is the D’hul Fadhlul Azeem (possessor of great bounty). (A.Hulusi)
It is never the wish of those without Faith among the People of the Book, nor of the polytheists, that anything good should come down to you from your Lord. But Allah will choose for His special Mercy whom He will – for Allah is Lord of grace abounding. (Abdullah Yusuf Ali)
Ma yeveddullezine keferu min ehlil kitabi ve lel mushrikine ey yunezzele aleykum min hayrim mir rabbikum The groups mentioned in previous verse; disbeliever among the people of the books and people who give the position of deity other than Allah, neither one of them wish any good should come to you from Allah. The people of the book which were blessed with revelations before you and the heretic group which had no contact of revelations whatsoever. Neither of those groups want anything good, any message should come to you from Allah.
What meant to be explained is this. The people of the book; Jews and Christians… You want them to behave closely to you since they’ve already had contacts with revelations. And because you confirm their books and prophets, you have expectations for them to confirm the message you are blessed with and the prophet of your community. You wish there would be a difference between the behaviours of them and the behaviours of dualists, those who believe a god other than Allah. Yet the situation is nothing like what you assume. In reality there’s not much difference between them; between blasphemers and those who were given revelations before. Because their actions have a certain similarity. Neither one of these groups wants the celestial message should come to you. They also have a connection on this situation too. What they bond them together will be mentioned later.
vallahu yehtessu bi rahmetihi mey yesha’ But Allah selects for His grace whom He wills. Allah may sent mercy and blessings to any person, any society Allah wills. vallahu zul fadlil aziym Allah is the owner of great merit. Great mercy and blessing.
First of all, there are two concepts here; the concepts of Hayr and Rahmet (Beneficence and Mercy) These two notions point out the revelations. If you ask Qur’an, “What is revelations?”; you get the answer like this. “It’a a sign of compassion and mercy for humanity.” It’s a blessing for humanity. A mercy. Why? If Allah haven’t shown compassion and mercy to humanity, surely Allah didn’t send the revelations. If the revelations didn’t come to us; even with all that blessings before revelations, the mind, the consciousness, the very nature of our essence; we wouldn’t be able to find anything about Allah.
All these are enough to differentiate the right from wrong. Allah might say; “After giving you all those blessings, I did what I can. Find the right and don’t go wrong.” But the revelations became an extra blessing on top of these three natural signs. It’s a donation. A blessing. A beneficence and mercy. Allah sent the love, compassion and mercy with a from of revelations as a fourth blessing. This is good for humanity. A major blessing. Because if a person may just be able to follow the message Allah sent down, he can easily reach the eternal happiness. For that it’s a blessing indeed.
106 – Ma nensah min ayetin ev nunsiha ne’ti bi hayrim minha ev misliha* e lem ta’lem ennellahe ala kulli shey’in kadir.
If We annul a verse or cause it to be forgotten We bring forth a better one or one that is similar to it. Do you not know that Allah is the Qadir (the possessor of continual and infinite power) over all things? (A.Hulusi)
None of Our revelations do We abrogate or cause to be forgotten, but We substitute something better or similar: Knowest thou not that Allah Hath power over all things? (Abdullah Yusuf Ali)
Ma nensah min ayetin ev nunsiha ne’ti bi hayrim minha ev misliha We don’t annul a verse unless we bring forth a similar or a better one. This verse, the 106th verse of Baqarah is famous as “the verse of abrogation (annulment)” The word nunsiha we see in this verse is emphasises annulment.
What is abrogation? We may answer this question with a literal answer. Destroy. Revoke. Repeal. Let go. Transfer. Write down. Transfer a writing from one place to another. The islamic meaning of abrogation is replacing a religious ruling, a sentence with another religious sentence. Revoking a previous command with a newer rule is called abrogation. The new command to revoke the previous one is called nasih (revoker), the previous sentence is called mensuh (revoked) and the process is nesh (abrogation).
Several scholars including Hasan Basri, Katade and Rebi from second generation; abrogation means some verses in Qur’an were been forgotten or revoked . Also for some others, abrogation comes with a literal meaning of transfer, as in a transfer from levh-i mahfuz (tablets of protected) in another words from the main computer to earth with a form of Qur’an to prophets heart. Other scholars who followed them later, elaborated the concept of abrogation even more. They put several verses in Qur’an in this category. According to them, there are 3 types of revoke.
1 – Eternal text, revoked sentence.
2 – Revoked text, eternal sentence.
3 – Both text and sentence are revoked. As in abrogated and deleted completely.
We said this third type is the opinion of Hasan Basri and his friends. The revoking process that a verse was being forgotten completely from existence. According to Enes bin Malik’s story we read in Buhari, while the great disaster of Bi’ri Muane incident; the ambush that costed the lives of 70 people; Allah sent down several verses. But after that those verses were revoked, erased from memories. This is what’s told in hadith.
There are other proofs as well. So, we understand that abrogation is possible according to the stories which can reach us from that timeline. But we cannot see a true hadith about the abrogation on revoked text, eternal sentence type. Like the verdict has been still going but the verse was removed or revoked from Qur’an’s text. The incident of Recm (Stone to death) was been showed to us as a proof. According to this claim; a verse, more likely a sentence saying “esheyhu veshehatu iza zenaya saricuhuma elbette ve kalem min Allah” was initially in Qur’an but removed afterwards.
Of course there’s no base for this claim. Because there’s no point or explanation on how a verdict may still exists even when Qur’an revoked the sentence about it. There’s no possible explanation on that. People who defending that idea, also claim that 300 verses (some even go far to 400 verses), verses which inform us about law and action in Qur’an; are in fact invalid. They named almost all action based, law oriented verses in the book of Qur’an, invalid. Interesting though; those scholars who believe the theory of nesih, have no conclusion among themselves. Some say 215, some say 250, some say 280, some say 160, some say 20, some say 2 verses are abrogated and revoked. Funny thing is, according to Prophet Muhammad, no explanation was made about a verses sentence might be revoked. And for that, a nesih ideology like this, an abrogation theory including these claims are definitely undefendable.
At this point Muslim Judge Ibn. Arabi explain the abrogation with an example. According to this claim, the 216th verse of Baqarah, revoked the previous 100 verse in the same chapter which commands forgiveness, piece and tolerance. The 216th verse which orders war, revoked the sentences of over 100 verse and canceled their verdicts.
Also the same person claimed that a tiny little sentence in the verse of Tevbe/5 regarding the time of sacred months may canceled out exactly 114 verses which came before and after this single verse. Of course accepting claims like these, are absolutely impossible. Neither backing them up. If a verdict, a command, a sentence exists in Qur’an, there’s always a time and space occurs that we may carry that sentence.
So why then, some people among scholars, forced themselves to defend the abrogation theory? The answer to this question is this. They chose this method because they had hard time explaining the verses which they saw conflicted.
They might say, “We had hard time explaining these verses, we saw confliction, but those who will follow us may be able to explain.” Or they might choose to say, “Our predecessors didn’t say anything on this matter for these verse or verses. We cannot say anything either.” Or instead of going that road and accepting abrogation and revoking hundreds of verses, they might simply put the principle of tedric (grading).
What is the principle of grading? Believing that every verses sentence has a time and ground that can be executed properly. Stages and phases. If a society accepts the principle of grading for islamic laws, they wouldn’t think about verses abrogations like that. Nonetheless, where a persons point of view sees a conflict between two verses, some other may see a perfect harmony, which is true since Qur’an says that there’s no conflict within Qur’an.
Today, if we look and observe carefully, we may see clearly that neither of verses carry a conflict with another; on the contrary, it’s Allah’s style to raise a society from ground zero to higher levels by teaching their manners and ethics. This stage by stage nurturing method is called tedric (grading). We think, after seeing such a wonderful way of teaching; to continue the ideology of abrogation –which is impossible to defend- is in fact a form of cursing directed to Qur’an.
There are maximum 500 verses which give us a law or a sentence, so if you choose to revoke 300 of them; what do you have left in you hands regarding a law, a verdict? In that sense, if we evaluate this verse; we can never take these words as proofs of abrogations of sentences while the verses remain in text within Qur’an. Because the passage in this verse, tells us about Jews. The abrogation here is in fact a revoking process between entire laws. Qur’an says us this, loud and clear;
“-O Those who have books in their hands before. Within the revelations Allah sent down last, Allah collected the content of revelations which was sent down to you before and by doing that all previous words and laws should be counted as invalid by now. So if you want to follow the revelations , you should follow this. Because these words contain the essence of the words which was given to you before. They came from the same source, containing the pieces and virtues which stay strong, uncorrupted. Because of that, it has the power to name the previous ones invalid.” This is the meaning here.
e lem ta’lem ennellahe ala kulli shey’in kadir This is the part, by meaning has a harmonious link to what we explain, the tafsir we have done. Don’t you know, Allah has power over all things? Don’t you know, Allah’s power is beyond anything? With a wider sense; don’t you know Allah has the power to revoke the previous laws altogether and bring down a perfect law, sent down a perfect message?
107 – E lem ta’lem ennellahe lehu mulkus semavati vel ard* ve ma lekum min dunillahi miv veliyyiv ve la nasiyr
Do you not know that to Allah belongs the dominion (as He controls all of it as He wills at all times) of the heavens and the earth (consciousness and matter – the realm of the body) and that you can have no friend or helper besides Allah? (A.Hulusi)
Knowest thou not that to Allah belongeth the dominion of the heavens and the earth? And besides Him ye have neither patron nor helper. (Abdullah Yusuf Ali)
E lem ta’lem ennellahe lehu mulkus semavati vel ard, and again don’t you know; Allah is the owner of both heavens and earth? They all belong to Allah. The supreme authority of heavens and earth belongs to Allah. The belonging here means dominion specifically. Melik,malik words come from the same root of origin. Means authority. Malik Allah is the sole ruler over his dominion. Mulk expression means both the thing that is established a dominion over and the act of establishing an authority. We may see that in some verses in Qur’an using this word with its secondary meaning. For example, a scene from the judgement day is given. li menil mulkul yevm, “today who has the property, the dominion? Who has the sole authority?” And the answer comes from Allah again. Lillahil vahid il kahhar (Abraham/48) the dominion (ruling) belongs to one and only overwhelmer dominant Allah.
And in this verse the word mulk is used as the act of possessing, yet the connection with the verse above is very interesting. The connection is this. O those who were sent down the books to; you have shown a reason while in your resistance for not believing to the last message and you say; “We only believe what was sent down to us. A message was given to us and if we are in need of belief, we would believe to our book. Why should we believe what’s given to you?” You have been resisting in your disbelief and this is your reasoning.
“And you say; why does Allah revoke what was sent down to us? Abrogation is possible? Is it appropriate to revoke and demolish what was sent down to us?” But don’t you see there are revokes in the universe book all the time. One generation goes and another generation comes. The newcomer generation revokes and deletes the old generation.
Don’t you see o the people of book; don’t you look to sky? Don’t you see how the night revokes the day and day revokes the night. Stars fall, new stars arise. Stars revoke stars. Don’t you look to earth o the people of book; revoking of fall by winter, spring by summer and summer by winter. Can’t you see o people of book, how hot deletes the cold and cold deletes the hot. And again don’t you see o sons of Israel who becomes Jewminded, Allah took the task from you. Revoked the sons of Israel and brought forth a new community. The community of Muhammad.
The real reasoning behind the metaphors of heavens and and earth by constantly saying “Don’t you see.”, is this.
ve ma lekum min dunillahi miv veliyyiv ve la nasiyr For you, there can be no friend or a helper besides Allah. If you are in search for a friend or a helper besides Allah, you won’t find any. None of them will be your companions. And if you won’t hold on to, latch on to the last message Allah sent down to you, then you won’t find Allah as a friend and a helper either.
There’s another verse that make a case for this particular verse. That verse says us about a claim of Jews. nahnu ebnaullahi ve ehibbauh (Al-Maida/18) “We are the sons and friends of Allah.”, they say. This is their claims which is an ugly one indeed. This verse is a referance to those claims. “So you will show resistance to Allah’s message sent down to you and still going with that “Allah is our friend.” speech. Know that Allah won’t be your friend and your helper.” This is the real message here.
108 – Em turidune en tes’elu rasulekum kema suile musa min kabl* ve mey yetebeddelil kufra bil imani fe kad dalle sevaes sebil.
Or do you intend to question your Rasul as Moses was questioned before? And whoever exchanges the faith in his essence with the denial of the absolute reality has certainly lost the right way. (A.Hulusi)
Would ye question your Messenger as Moses was questioned of old? but whoever changeth from Faith to Unbelief, Hath strayed without doubt from the even way. (Abdullah Yusuf Ali)
Em turidune en tes’elu rasulekum kema suile musa min kabl. Now the speech turned to believers. It turned to the community of Muhammad. For the first addressed true believers and us, the modern age believers; for all of us, this speech is given;
Or do you want things from your messenger, your prophet, things like they wanted from their prophet Moses before you?
That’s an interesting expression. It’s clearly described here: “O, the community of Muhammad. The community of Moses was tainted and became Jews because of some attitudes. Will you act the same and become Jewminded like them as well?” Let’s remember what did they want. We translated that section before. Let’s check the verse 55 in Al-Baqarah we processed earlier.
Ve iz kultum ya musa len nu’mine leke hatta nerallahe cehraten O Moses, unless you show us Allah openly, unless we see Allah clearly; we won’t believe you.” they were saying. This was their demand from Moses, their own prophet.
Again in Baqarah/61, we translated another one; they wanted onions and garlics, you remember. ya musa len nasbira ala taamiv vahidin We cannot endure with one type of food. It’s almost like; “We know Allah gave us “men and selva”, foods we can get effortlessly. But we are sick and tired of this blessing. We are looking for trouble. We want our pharaoh, o Moses. We tired of this freedom, give us onions and garlics.” And Moses answered this attitude-filled demand; ihbitu misran fe inne lekum ma seeltum it’s been said Mirsan (Egypt); “Go there, what you seek is there. If you are in content living as slaves under pharaohs grasp, then give your freedoms and get your onions and garlics.”
This is what reminded to us. A question may come to mind, why were these incident needed to be remembered? As it turned out, Muslims were making demands like those to Rasulallah too, and this verse is there to make these connections. So that the attitude might be remembered when sons of Israel who became Jewminded against their own prophet Moses and the answer of him as well.
Even it wasn’t at first, but according to some stories that could reach us, there were some attitude-filled demands like this within the first generation of community. For example, while Hayber Attack was made, some believers saw a tree named “Zatu envat” in Hayber. The blasphemers of that area were hanging their swords to that tree and asking for good luck. They were treating that tree as a charm and when they were going to a battle, they were taking their (supposedly filled with good luck) hanged swords from tree. So that they would prevail, win without dying.
Some uneducated individuals amongst Islamic Army said to prophet; “They have this Zatu envat. Make us a Zatu envat like that, manifest one, create a tree.” This is a story we read in Tirmizi’s book. After seeing such attitudes like these, our prophet replied. We see that hadith in Muslim’s letted be anneshu ellezine min gablikum hazven bin naas. (Looks like) you will follow the path ignorance of those communities which were given book before, were blessed with revelations before. Velev dehalu hucura rabbin, and if they want to crawl into a hole in the ground like a reptile, you will also follow them. Because you want to follow them and enter that lizard hole just for the sake of imitation.
The concern of prophet is for getting the attention on the danger of communities behaviours which were becoming Jews. O, the community of Muhammad; don’t become Jewminded like the sons of Israel who were tasked to deliver the happiness named revelations through humanity before you. If you act like them, Allah will simulate your demise to them. You may become like them. This is the message here, this is the warning here. What following in this verse is more interesting.
ve mey yetebeddelil kufra bil imani fe kad dalle sevaes sebil But whoever change from Faith to Unbelief, fe kad dalle sevaes sebil he strayed without doubt from the even way. He traded iman with denial. He gave the truth just to get lies.
Actually you can feel it, can’t you? There’s an emphasis here on the abrogation process. Allah brings down a similar or a better one, then and only then abrogation might be possible. Allah revokes like this, what about you? Those who strayed from true path, you make you own abrogations but your revoke happens exactly like the opposite. You delete the faith and replace it with denial. You erase the truth and bring forth lies. You make abrogation on your own. But your process is a sin-filled, a bad type of revoking. Your process includes throwing out what’s good for you and taking in what’s bad for you. By deleting the reality and accepting the superstitious. By destroying the light and opening a door into the darkness. Your abrogations put the entire world into the darkness. This is what meant to be told here.
109 – Vedde kesirum min ehlil kitabi lev yeruddunekum mim ba’di imanikum kuffara* hasedem min indi enfusihim mim ba’di ma tebeyyene lehumul hakk* fa’fu vasfehu hatta ye’tiyellahu bi emrih* innellahe ala kulli shey’in kadir
Many of the People of the Book (those to whom the knowledge of the reality has been given) wish they could turn you away from faith to disbelief, purely out of their envy, even though they openly perceive the reality. So pardon them and overlook their offences until the command of Allah is disclosed to you. Indeed, Allah is Qadir over all things. (A.Hulusi)
Quite a number of the People of the Book wish they could turn you (people) back to infidelity after ye have believed, from selfish envy, after the truth hath become manifest unto them: But forgive and overlook, till Allah brings about his command; for Allah Hath power over all things. (Abdullah Yusuf Ali)
Vedde kesirum min ehlil kitabi lev yeruddunekum mim ba’di imanikum kuffara Many of the people of the book, the people who were blessed with celestial message before, wish they could turn you to infidelity. As in they wish you could deny what’s given to you and stuck in blasphemy. That’s their wish.
Why would they want that? Because they couldn’t be worthy, so; you shouldn’t be as well. Because Allah’s revelations which they couldn’t hold in their hearts, naturally they don’t want that in one chance, you may. Because they couldn’t stay straight by Hakk, they don’t want you to be straight on road true believers. Because if you do that, then you surpass them and their selfish envy cannot accept that. Neither they turn their faces to the truth nor they want you to be straight in your faiths to Allah. On the contrary, with the reason they don’t want you to surpass them, they try to slip you to superstitions at every turn. Instead they should just walk straight to Hakk.
Why do they do that? It’s here; hasedem min indi enfusihim mim ba’di ma tebeyyene lehumul hakk Because after the truth, clear and open truth was revealed to them, they chose not to follow it and for that they have a destructive envy inside their egos. They do those actions because of their envies. Their egos were boiling inside this envy. They are filled with it.
I’d like to stay on this envy topic. The envy of the grudger is actually a pray for the person whom he has grudge and a curse to himself. Because he who holds grudge, in fact directs insults to Allah. Why? Because by doing that, the grudger also says; “O Rabb, you don’t know who to direct your blessings.” Every single grudger says this sentence by directing their envies. If someone falls into envy for things that Allah choose to give to someone else; the person who holds envy says these words in mind. “O Allah, you don’t know who to give.” Forbid!
The person who holds grudge, swears Allah. Blames Allah for ignorance and naivete, for being unable to choose the person which the blessings may give to. For that reason, the envy of the grudger is actually a pray for his target and a curse to himself.
fa’fu vasfehu hatta ye’tiyellahu bi emrih Forgive them, overlook their offenses. Until Allah’s command disclosed to you. innellahe ala kulli shey’in kadir Know well that Allah is “Kadir” all-powerful to do everything. Here, there’s an emphasis made to the end conclusion of Jews. Until Allah’s command disclosed.
A warning for true believers. Allah says believers; “Overlook their offenses. Don’t follow your egos and do what they have done. They have been prisoners and slaves of their own egos now. Their behaviours are from their egos and demons. Don’t do anything by following your own egos yourselves. Let Allah do the defense for you. Don’t try to retaliate. Because by doing that, by making such actions, they were not offending you but gaining the hostility of Allah. Step aside, leave them with Allah alone. Don’t give verdicts about them; let Allah do the verdicts and Allah has been.
There were 3 Jewish clans in Madina. Those were sons of Kaynuka, sons of Nadir and sons of Kureyze. Sons of Kaynuka, in first years of Hejira –third year to be exact-, insulted and attacked a Muslim woman for her headwrapping. Another muslim who was in the area that time, interfere the situation and punished, killed the man who attacked the woman. After that Jews lynched that Muslim man. After this crime Rasulallah opened war against them because there was a pact.
The contract of Madina was a pact of truce. All three Jew clans had signed this pact and the truce was set between them and muslims. But by making the first offense, they violated the agreement. Because of that Rasulallah opened a war. After 15 days of siege, they let them to migrate. He didn’t punish them anymore than that.
Second clan, the sons of Nadir, tried to organize an assassination attempt against Rasulallah. One day, they wanted to kill him by dropping a millstone on his head while he was sitting on their tribe house. And when this attempt was informed to Rasulallah, he surrounds them. After the siege, the clan was also given permission to migrate, clan which was openly shows its betrayal.
Last betrayers were sons of Kureyze. When the battle of Trench was heated, when the worst possible moment of survival of true believer when the Mecca infidels surrounded them, they betrayed muslims by stabbing them from their backs. But Allah didn’t give them the opportunity. After the battle Rasulallah chose Saad ibn. Ubade, their own allies to give the punishment. Their own laws, their own verdicts, written in Tora was executed for them. As in their crimes were punished with the verdicts of their own religions according to Tora. Those who broke the pact and betray their allies were killed by sword. That was the verdict Allah gave to them.
How did Allah do that? By opening the path of betrayal for them. But Rasulallah didn’t do anything before those betrayals. No punishment was given, they didn’t even be touched. But Allah misled them and opened the path of betrayal. So that we learned the verdict of Allah about them.
110 – Ve ekiymus salate ve atuz zekah* ve ma tukaddimu li fusikum min hayrin teciduhu indellah* innellahe bi ma ta’melune besiyr
Establish your salat (duly turn towards Allah both internally and externally) and give zakah (unrequitedly share from what Allah has provided to you with those in need). Whatever good you do, you will find it with Allah (within the realm of the Names comprising the inner depths of your brain). Indeed, Allah (whose Names form your being) is the Basir. (A.Hulusi)
And be steadfast in prayer and regular in charity: And whatever good ye send forth for your souls before you, ye shall find it with Allah. for Allah sees Well all that ye do. (Abdullah Yusuf Ali)
Ve ekiymus salate ve atuz zekah Establish your salats (daily prays) straight. Give zekah (charity without waiting a return) to be purified. Salat and zekah come together in most parts of Qur’an. I translated a similar verse before. Prays show the connections of human with Allah; and zekah shows the relations between a man and society. Because of this fact, salat and zekah are usually mentioned together. It’s a message for every true believer individual; correct your relation with Allah via daily prays and your connection with society via charity.
Also another message that may be understood here is this. To strengthen the bond with Allah, be straight in your salats, hang on to your daily prays. And to be able to bond with society hang on to charity, give things without waiting any kind of return. This is the wisdom behind this message, why these two good deeds are mentioned together.
ve ma tukaddimu li fusikum min hayrin teciduhu indellah Whatever good you do, whatever you present to Allah for yourselves; you will find it with Allah’s domain. innellahe bi ma ta’melune besiyr Without a doubt, Allah is aware and see everything your have done entirely with all their depths.
What wants to be told is pretty clear; ve ma tukaddimu li fusikum min hayr Whatever good deeds you do for yourselves; if we translate it for todays timeline; “Do good deeds to yourselves. Don’t you want to act with goodness to yourselves?” Every good deeds done for gaining Allah’s blessing and mercy is in fact good deeds done for yourselves. You should see the situation like this. Because Allah will give your rewards more and more. No one should have doubts on that. If a person have doubts on this, then he hasn’t shown a proper faith so far. Because Allah guarantees it. If Allah says that every good deed done for Allah’s name and every prays and worships will be rewarded; then believing this fact with absolute certainty is a must of faith.
111 – Ve kalu ley yedhulel cennete illa men kane huden ev nesar* tilke emaniyyuhum* kul hatu burhanekum in kuntum sadikiyn
And they say, “None will enter Paradise except one who is a Jew or a Christian.” This is merely their imagination. Say, “Produce your proof, if you speak the truth!” (A.Hulusi)
And they say: “None shall enter Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian.” Those are their (vain) desires. Say: “Produce your proof if ye are truthful.” (Abdullah Yusuf Ali)
Ve kalu ley yedhulel cennete illa men kane huden ev nesara The speech has been pulled to another spot now. But in fact there’s a connection between this one and the one above. The metaphoric speech pattern of Qur’an has shown itself here. Qur’an has magnificent delivers. It can turn a persons view, his eyes and his heart to depths, horizontally and vertically; to this life, afterlife, past, present and the future all at the same time. It can almost blow your mind. We may also see that magnificent pattern here.
Ve kalu ley yedhulel cennete illa men kane huden ev nesara They made a claim, they said; “No one shall enter Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian.” Of course Jews told this for Jews only and Christians’s claims were only for themselves. Jews said, “No one except Jews shall taste the eternal joy and enter paradise.” And Christians said, “Those who aren’t Christian shall be apart from eternal happiness forever.” Those were their claims.
tilke emaniyyuhum Qur’an answers; “This is merely their imagination.” Unniye means empty wishes, imagination. Unniye also means utopia. Neverland, a country in dreams as you know. This is unniye. Their utopia, their superstitious imagination.
kul hatu burhanekum in kuntum sadikiyn If you are sincere with your claims, if you are honestly believe that, then prove it. Bring forth and show your proofs.” says Qur’an.
This rule applies for everyone, dear fellows. The content of this verse is not limited with Jews and Christians only. If a person has claims that just because he had born in a particular clan or society, he has the rights, the only rights to be a folk of paradise; and says “No other person outside the clan shall enter paradise with us.”… If he volunterally condemned humanity to eternal hell in his mind; that logic is the same logic mentioned here. Qur’an bans every logic within this type. Because sole belonging to a clan is not a proof nor a guarantee of eternal salvation. This rule also applies for those who believe himself to be a muslim as well. Just because he has thoughts and claims that he is a member of islamic community, doesn’t mean he’s saved. He may very well be in the same position. Because the measurement of salvation, doesn’t being under a banner or being a member of a society. The real measurement of salvation is a persons life, choices, good deeds that can reach his afterlife, all in all his faith and the life he lives with the light of this faith, which we also see it in the verse above. ve ma tukaddimu li fusikum whatever you sent will be your belongings, things that will define us. The position of you in eternal life is measured with what you did, how you believed and how you lived. Not by which clan you belonged to.
112 – Bela men esleme vechehu lillahi ve huve muhsinun fe lehu ecruhu inde rabbihi ve la havvfun aleyhim ve la hum yahzenun
No (things are not as they fantasize them to be)! Whoever feels that his essence (face) is for (the manifestations of the Names of) Allah, his reward is with his Rabb (his essential reality). They will have no fear, nor anything to give them grief. (A.Hulusi)
Nay,-whoever submits His whole self to Allah and is a doer of good,- He will get his reward with his Lord; on such shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. (Abdullah Yusuf Ali)
Bela Here’s the answer comes in this verse. “No, the opposite. It’s not the case, men esleme vechehu lillahi ve huve muhsinun Whoever submits himself to Allah, believe like he sees Allah ve huve muhsinun the “vav” here is the position. The position of being beneficent. I choose to translate the Muhsin” word with prophets translation.”When he was asked “What is beneficence?”, Muhammad replied “Believing like you see Allah all the time.” This is the hadith. Yes, believing like you always see Allah. So with that inclusion, whoever surrenders his entire existence, ego and believe like he see Allah;
fe lehu ecruhu inde rabbihi His reward is with his Rabb. He’ll get it. ve la havvfun aleyhim So how is this reward shows itself. Here’s the answer. ve la havvfun aleyhim He won’t have any fear for his future, he who believe Allah (become muhsin), and submit his existence to Allah will have no anxiety for future. ve la havvfun aleyhim Havf is only used for future. ve la hum yahzenun And he won’t have any sadness and regret from his past.
Yes, it’s clear. There’s a guarantee of happiness. Never having fear and anxiety from future and never feeling sadness and regret from past, from what happened before.
How’s that gonna work? The person who follows Allah’s speech, Allah’s message, submit himself to Allah; more specifically he who lives his life by Allah’s orders, follows Allah’s speech and message; sure have nothing to feel regret about. Because Allah will forbid him from action that may make him feel regret later. All action that may cause sadness and regret will be off-limit and every action that may give him happiness and make him live a regret free life will be ordered. For that, ve la havvfun aleyhim ve la hum yahzenun that person won’t have anxieties about future and won’t have sadness and regrets for what he had done in past.
113 – Ve kaletil yehudu leysetin nesar ala shey’iv ve kaletin nesara leysetil yehudu ala shey’iv ve hum yetlunel kitab* kezalike kalellezine la ya’lemune misle kavlihim* fallahu yahkumu beynehum yevmel kiyameti fima kanu fihi yahtelifun
The Jews say “The Christians have no valid grounds” and the Christians say, “The Jews have no valid grounds,” although they both supposedly recite the Book (the revealed knowledge)! Yet this is what those who are ignorant of this knowledge say! Allah will judge between them over which they differ, in the period of doomsday. (A.Hulusi)
The Jews say: “The Christians have naught (to stand) upon; and the Christians say: “The Jews have naught (to stand) upon.” Yet they (profess to) study the (same) Book. Like unto their word is what those say who know not; but Allah will judge between them in their quarrel on the Day of Judgment. (Abdullah Yusuf Ali)
Ve kaletil yehudu leysetin nesar ala shey’iv Jews say: “The Christians have no valid grounds on faith.” ve kaletin nesara leysetil yehudu ala shey’iv Christians say: “The Jews have no valid grounds on faith.” ve hum yetlunel kitab And do you know who are the ones saying these? Not some ignorant folks. People who read the book. People who know the message that was sent down to them, people who realize the truths that they blessed with. Those are the ones who say these words.
Here, the last sentence of this verse builds the helm of meaning. Reading the book. We might say, Tora and Bible. But in Qur’an; the word “book” is always used for the truths that Allah sent down to us. We should give this meaning a priority. If we take this word in literal meaning; every Christians hold Bible in their hands but they hold Tora as well. Because every Bible has a section named “Old Testament.” If you ask a Christian to give his Bible, you may see that the first chapter in Bible is in fact the Tora. The 39 books that were given to the prophets of sons of Israel are all there. Bibles, 4 canonical Bibles follow them. So all Christians accept that Tora is a book that was also given to them. Every Christian believes that.
We may ask this question now. So, Jews and Christians weren’t telling the truth about each others? They weren’t all have a certain lack of faith? No, they weren’t telling the truth. In fact, both of them have faith to rely on. By its foundation, both have the revelations that were sent down to them. But they twisted them, corrupted them.
We might think that message is this. We can translate this verse like this: Jews see the Christians like a twisted, perverted Jewish sect. This is the point of view of Jews for Christians. On front of Jews eyes, Jeses was a false prophet that came amongst them. Forbid! This is purely the aspect of Jews. Their visions are not true, of course, totally false. Because of their claims are false, Quran denies those accusations.Jesus is in fact a real prophet of Allah and the message give to Jesus is really the message from Allah.
So what were Christians saying about Jews that Qur’an also rejects their opinions? It’s this. Christians see Jews as the killer of Jesus which is also wrong. Not true. They think that Jesus is dead because of the jews but they didn’t. They couldn’t, to be exact. But in the end Jesus didn’t die in the hands of Jews. So their assumptions are also false. So Qur’an shows both of them their wrongs. Moving on.
kezalike kalellezine la ya’lemune misle kavlihim Again uneducated folks who knew nothing about things said the same things as they say. Think about it. When scholars, educated and elite class accuse themselves like this, what would uneducated ignorant folks have done? That’s what meant to be said here. They also start to accuse each others with unrelated and meaningless things. If scholars do such things, think how uneducated groups handle a similar situation.
fallahu yahkumu beynehum yevmel kiyameti fima kanu fihi yahtelifun Without a doubt Allah will judge between them over which they quarrel in the day of judgement. Allah will say the closing line.
There’s a word of Judgement here. We all know what the Judgement Day is. But in my opinions we might think that the Judgement Day here is also an earthly conlusion moment. There are some places that the word judgement is used for eartly moments. For example in a hadith, the expression kiyama (judgement) was used as an eartly collapse, a social degeneration, corruption of a society and rotten minds. This is a Buhari hadith. A famous one, in fact. The collapse of Sasani Empire and the corruption of Byzantine Empire in seventh century were all described with the word judgement according to the hadiths in Buhari. I, myself thing that the judgement mentioned in this verse is not the afterlife Judgement day, but the end of the sons of Israel and the collapse of Jewish community, end of Jewish ideology. We might evaluate the situation like that. Why?
This verse is without a doubt have strong connections with the verse 76/Neml. This Qur’an explains most things that sons of Israel quarrel on.
Inne hazel kur’ane yekussu ala beni israile ekserallezi hum fihi yahtelifun (Neml/76) “Verily this Qur’an doth explain to the Children of Israel most of the matters in which they disagree.” Meaning of the verse 76/Neml. We may understand that Allah gave the verdict about most of the matters that Jews have disagreement on. The conclusion, the verdict about them is in Qur’an. These verses of Qur’an are the sentences for them. In this sense, I see the Qur’an as a book; is the sum of all sentences and rulings they have quarreled on. So this verse is an invitation. Invitations to Jews and Christians. Qur’an invites them to itself by saying; “If you want to learn about the point of view of Allah, the conclusion Allah reached and what Allah wants to say about the disagreements you have until this point; then reach for Qur’an.” If we cannot get the meaning like this from this verse, then what would be the meaning of inviting to Qur’an?
Qur’an talks to two religious sects that have bad blood among them and eternally enemies; “Come, I will explain to you that your hostility is not valid. Your bloodlust, your anger and hatred will only be wiped if you submit yourselves to Qur’an. This is the message here.
114 – Ve men azlemu mimmem menea mesacidellahi ey yuzkera fihesmuhu ve sea fi harabiha* ulaike ma kane lehum ey yedhuluha illa haifin* lehum fid dunya hizyuv ve lehum fil ahirati azabun aziym
And who are more unjust than those who prevent the dhikr of Allah (the acknowledgment that we do not exist, only Allah exists) from being mentioned in places of prostration (the experience of one’s nothingness in the sight of the reality of the Names) and strive toward their destruction (by deifying the ego of the pure hearts). Such people should enter there in fear. For they will be disgraced in this world (in sight of those who know the truth), and in the eternal life to come, great suffering awaits them… (A.Hulusi)
And who is more unjust than he who forbids that in places for the worship of Allah, His name should be celebrated?-whose zeal is (in fact) to ruin them? It was not fitting that such should themselves enter them except in fear. For them there is nothing but disgrace in this world, and in the world to come, an exceeding torment. (Abdullah Yusuf Ali)
Ve men azlemu mimmem menea mesacidellahi ey yuzkera fihesmuhu ve sea fi harabiha Now Qur’an pulled the speech to another area. It may seem irrelevant but this verse has an interesting connection with the verse above. Who is more unjust than he who forbids from Allah’s places of worshipping, bans from entering Allah’s praying grounds and forbids from celebrating Allah’s name. Who’s more unjust then demolishing there?
ulaike ma kane lehum ey yedhuluha illa haifin These types are not qualified to enter there but to enter with fear. Those people should not enter the grounds of Allah except with intense fear.
Meaning is obvious. There’s a mesacidellah here. The praying grounds of Allah. Mosques. Mesacidellah aren’t just praying grounds form Muslims, they aren’t specifically for a clan or a group. They’re general. Open to everyone. Churches of Christians and Synagogues of Jews are all in the content of the expression Allah’s praying grounds. The reason of arrival of this verse wasn’t for an incident happened before. That’s not a necessity. Every incident that show the potential of similar acts are in the reason of arrival of this verse.
One specific reason of arrival for this verse, according to translators was the destruction of Jerusalem. Especially the unending grudge between Christians and Jews had led Jerusalem to be demolished by Christians. In 326 A.C, Roman Empire who accepted Christianism as a national religion by Constantine and his mother Helena; because of their grudges against Jews, praying grounds constructed by Solomon, who is accepted and respected as a prophet by Muslims; were all turned to middens and dumping grounds. When the Caliph Omar had conquered Jerusalem he ordered the cleansing of that dump and turned it into a praying ground like it was supposed to. Today Omar Mosque stands on those grounds.
Muslims have always acted under the order of this verse. Most cities like Kufa, Cairo and Bagdat were first developed as army camps by Muslims. Islamic army had made an army camp first than turned the grounds into cities. But there were also churches and synagogues there. Those churches and synagogues weren’t there before because Muslims were the one who rised the cities. They were the ones who built all those worshipping grounds. We cannot find a better proof than this about Muslims tolerance for praying grounds.
lehum fid dunya hizyuv So for those who forbids that in places for the worship of Allah, His name should be celebrated?-whose zeal is (in fact) to ruin them? What they have to face will be lehum fid dunya hizyuv disgrace in this world, and in the world to come. Whoever turns a praying ground which was used as worshipping to Allah before, to something else, Allah’s curse is this. He will feel disgrace in this world and the afterlife.
ve lehum fil ahirati azabun aziym There will be an exceeding torment in afterlife for him. While I was studing the translation of this verse, I came across a translation for the word hizyuv. A translator named Suddi who lived at the end of first century according to the Hejiran calendar. He described the disgrace of them will be the conquer of Istanbul. This Notion is also in Taberi too. It took my interest. A translator said because of their ugly behaviours against the holy grounds of Solomon, Roman Empire’s disgrace will be the fall of their capital city; the conquer of Istanbul. He commented like this all the way back then and translated this. Interesting.
115 – Ve lillahil meshriku vel magribu fe eynema tuvellu fe semme vechullah* innallahe vasiun alim
And to Allah belongs the east (the place of birth and origin) and the west (setting – disappearance – death). So wherever you turn, there is the Face of Allah (you are face to face with the manifestation of Allah’s Names). Indeed, Allah is all-Encompassing and Knowing. (A.Hulusi)
To Allah belong the East and the West: whithersoever ye turn, there is Allah’s face. For Allah is All-Embracing, All-Knowing. (Abdullah Yusuf Ali)
Ve lillahil meshriku vel magribu fe eynema tuvellu fe semme vechullah East belongs to Allah, so does the West. Wherever you turn, there’s the face (direction) of Allah. innallahe vasiun alim Allah is All-Encompassing and All-Knowing.
Earths grounds are given to true believers as worshipping grounds. This is what this verse wants to say. Directions are all relative. Don’t use directions as logos. Don’t use a direction against Allah since all ways belongs to Allah. “There’s no holy direction.”, says Qur’an. And for that, don’t take possession of directions for the purpose of using against others and against Allah. fe eynema tuvellu fe semme vechullah..
Some scholars claims that the 150th verse of Baqarah revoked this verse. But there’s no abrogation here. fevelli vecheke shatral mescidil haram then turn your face to “Masjid al-Haram”. Some says this verse revoked the verse we are studying now. But that’s not the case since this verse doesn’t order us to turn our faces to Jarusalem. No indications here. In fact quite the opposite. Wherever you turn, that’s the direction of Allah. What this verse forbid is, making a direction an idol, a conduit of deity. Blessing a direction. This verse uses abrogation to this ideology. What really revoked is, limiting the worshipping to Allah for some specific locations.
O True Believers, earth is given to you as masjits (praying grounds). Don’t make reductions by limiting the religion to a specific group. Don’t limit your prays and worshippings in your lives with years or some days in a week. Don’t give some places, unique features and forbid yourselves from worshipping Allah in any other places. Don’t make these kind of reductions. Learning the religion is not a job for a group, it’s a job for all believers for that religion. And worshipping is not allowed only in specific locations, everywhere on earth is fine to make your prays. Praying is not allowed for some specific moments in a day, you can pray and worship anytime. So this verse brings a ground breaking, spectacular point of view for this situation.
116 – Ve kaluttehazellahu veleden subhaneh* bel lehu ma fis semavati vel ard* kullul lehu kanitun
They said, “Allah has taken a son.” Subhan (exalted) is He! Rather, to Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth. All things are obedient to Him. (A.Hulusi)
They say: “(Allah) hath begotten a son” :Glory be to Him.-Nay, to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth: everything renders worship to Him. (Abdullah Yusuf Ali)
Ve kaluttehazellahu veleden subhaneh They said; “Allah has taken a son.” Subhan is Allah! What kind of speech is that? Allah is beyond all truths. Allah is above all else. bel lehu ma fis semavati vel ard The opposite… To Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth. How can the creator of heavens and earth has taken a child? How can Allah be a father or a mother or a son? Subhan! Allah created heavens and earth. The creator of all things, heavens, earth; from nothing… How can you assume Allah is a father or a mother or a son for something else?
Allah is beyond all reasons. Human, by his nature is chained to a reason. It’s the feature of being a solution, a creation. But Allah has no creator. Allah exists on his own. Allah exists personally, eternally and infinitely. This is written above. vasiun alim. Without limitation.
Why does this verse open a subject like this right after the verses subject above? Here’s the answer to that. Limiting Allah with a specific location or direction is basically the same thing with limiting Allah with a son. Don’t materialize Allah. Don’t try to give Allah a face and body. Whatever comes to your minds, be assured Allah isn’t that. You cannot comprehend Allah. Your limited minds capacity are not fit for that. Allah is beyond. So with your created minds, don’t try to picture your creator as a limited created being.
bel lehu ma fis semavati vel ard kullul lehu kanitun All things bow down to Allah.
117 – Bedius semavati vel ard* ve iza kada emran fe innema yekulu lehu kun fe yekun
He is the Badee (the Originator of the heavens and the earth who makes things without any sample or like). When He wills a thing, He only says to it “Be” and it is. (A.Hulusi)
The Originator of the heavens and the earth: When He decreeth a matter, He saith to it: “Be,” and it is. (Abdullah Yusuf Ali)
Bedius semavati vel ard Allah is the Badee (Unique Creator) of heavens and earth. Badee means creating something without anything. Originate things from nothing. “Halk” has an opposite meaning on this matter. Halk means, creating from something. That means changing the features of raw materials. But Badee is more unique than Halk. Badee means creating things without the need for raw material. Making things from total emptiness.
ve iza kada emran fe innema yekulu lehu kun fe yekun When Allah wills a thing, Allah only says to it “Be” and it is. The word Kun (Be); that order is not verbal. Verbal orders come with speeches. The order Kun here is the embodiment of speech within action. We humans are have consciousness, so all orders come to us in verbal forms. But the order here is not originated from words. The order here is actional. But since this action is explained us in a verbal based book, Allah translated the language of things and its actional nature to a verbal version so that we may understand the message in it. The order is translated to a speech. For that reasons the order Kun here has originally an action based language. But since this language cannot be explained in a verbal based book, it’s translated to a verbal version.
[Additional Info: The expression feyekun in the verse 117 has a unique wisdom. What’s been telling here is; something happens when Allah wishes for it. It’s not the same thing with Allah had wished something and that thing happened. In reality creation process has a dynamic nature. Creation isn’t something that ended when all things began, it’s a process that happens all the time. There are always new things happens, new things are created in universe. Allah is always in new things, creating new things.(Suleyman Ates- Modern Tafsir)]
118 – Ve kalellezine la ya’lemune lev la yukellimunellahu ev te’tina ayeh* kezalike kalellezine min kablihim misle kavlihim* teshabehet kulubuhum* kad beyyennel ayati li kavmiy yukinun
Those who do not know (what the name Allah denotes) say (assuming Allah is a god in the heavens), “Why does Allah not speak to us or send us a miracle?” Those before them spoke in the same way. Their viewpoints resemble each other (as a result of mirror neurons – they have the same mentality). We have clearly shown our verses (the signs of the reality) to those who want to duly evaluate them. (A.Hulusi)
Say those without knowledge: “Why speaketh not Allah unto us? or why cometh not unto us a Sign?” So said the people before them words of similar import. Their hearts are alike. We have indeed made clear the Signs unto any people who hold firmly to Faith (in their hearts). (Abdullah Yusuf Ali)
Ve kalellezine la ya’lemune lev la yukellimunellahu ev te’tina ayeh Those who are ignorant say: “Why doesn’t Allah speak to us or doesn’t he suppose to show us miracles?” They want some miracles openly.
We learnt from the occurance in Mecca at that time. Also read in Qur’an’s 7. Verse of the chapter En’am. Non-believers, infidels ask from the prophet that a book clearly should arrive from sky and descent to them so that they can read. We see this demand of theirs in the verse 7-En’am. Allah replies to this demand by connecting it with the similarity of Jews earlier demands;
kezalike kalellezine min kablihim misle kavlihim Those before you asked for the exact same thing and wished to see like they are doing now. Remember; sons of Israel who became Jewminded had wished to see Allah clearly and openly.
Why this analogy then? Because those who want this, don’t want it to show their faiths, they want it to find excuses. Because of that the following sentence contains this expression. teshabehet kulubuhum Their hearts are alike.
What’s that suppose to mean? Their emotions and thoughts became like them. Christians and Jews which were given to them the celestial messages before; their emotions and thoughts have no difference from the emotions and thoughts of non-believers. Same emotions and thoughts manifest same actions. They manifest same speeches and same demands.
kad beyyennel ayati li kavmiy yukinun for those who wants to believe without the need of assumptions and imitations; for those who want to believe by studying, evaluating and holding their faiths firmly, we have indeed made our verses, signs clear and detailed. The verses here indicates miracles and existential verses, then counts as Qur’ans verses.
119 – Inna erselnake bil hakki beshirav ve nezirav ve la tus’elu an ashabil cehiym
Indeed, We disclosed you as the Truth, as a bringer of good tidings and a fore warner. You will not be asked about the attendants of Hell. (A. Hulusi)
Verily, We have sent thee in truth as a bearer of glad tidings and a warner: But of thee no question shall be asked of the companions of the Blazing Fire. (Abdullah Yusuf Ali)
Inna erselnake bil hakki beshirav ve nezirav Without a doubt, we sent you as the harbinger or good tidings and a warner. The message you are tasked to bring is indeed the message of reality. You have been sent to show people this good tidings and also warn them. “If you follow this message, I’m telling you your eternal happiness; if you don’t your end will be dire.” Say this; this is your duty. If you do that, your responsibility will be fulfilled.
ve la tus’elu an ashabil cehiym Beyond that, you won’t be hold responsible. You are not responsible for those who doomed themselves to Fire. Your task is; delivering the message sent down to people and say; “If you hold onto that, you will find eternal joy, if you leave it, your fate won’t be good.” Say this and we won’t hold you responsible from the rest.
120 – Ve len terda ankel yehudu ve len nesara hatta tettebia milletehum* kul inne hudellahi huvel huda* ve leinitteba’te ehvaehum ba’dellezi caeke minel ilmi ma leke minallahi miv veliyyiv ve la nasiyr
And never will the Jews or the Christians approve of you until you follow their understanding of religion. Say, “Indeed, Allah is the guide to the realization of your essence (one cannot be guided unless Allah guides).” If you follow their imaginations or delusions after what has come to you of knowledge, you will have neither a friend nor a helper from Allah. (A.Hulusi)
Never will the Jews or the Christians be satisfied with thee unless thou follow their form of religion. Say: “The Guidance of Allah,-that is the (only) Guidance.” Wert thou to follow their desires after the knowledge which hath reached thee, then wouldst thou find neither protector nor helper against Allah. (Abdullah Yusuf Ali)
Ve len terda ankel yehudu ve len nesara hatta tettebia milletehum Jews and Christians will never accept you unless you follow their religious systems.
The word “millet” here means, co-religionists. Millet-i Abraham means, the followers of Abraham’s religious systems. In some languages the usages like Turkish Millet, Kurdish Millet, Arabic Millet are wrong in fundementals. You cannot use the word millet for “nation”. Millet is a name of a group who follow a religion. For that you can use the expression in forms like Blasphemy Millet, Jewish Millet, Islamic Millet. But you cannot say Arabic Millet or Turkish Millet. You may use the words nation or clan. But here what meant to be said is, all people who believe the same faith systems.
kul inne hudellahi huvel huda Say; true guidance, the only guidance is the guidance of Allah. So don’t follow some nameless figures or unknown people. Follow the path of guidance set by Allah. And if you accept to follow the guidance of Allah then know this; what Abraham showed, what Moses, Jesus and Muhammad showed were all from Allah. You should put your faiths in them. So why don’t you accept Allah’s guidance and why do you leave the true path and follow the guidance of your own egos desires?
ve leinitteba’te ehvaehum ba’dellezi caeke minel ilmi If you follow their imaginations or delusions even after you reach the knowledge, after you see the truth; ma leke minallahi miv veliyyiv ve la nasiyr Then you will have neither a friend nor a helper from Allah.
121 – Ellezine ateynahumul kitabe yetlunehu hakka tilavetih* ulaike yu’minune bih* ve mey yekfur bihi fe ulaike humul hasirun
Those to whom the Book (the knowledge of sunnatullah) has been given duly recite and evaluate it. They are the believers in Hu. And whoever denies Hu – it is they who are the losers (for they deny their own reality). (A.Hulusi)
Those to whom We have given the Book study it as it should be studied: They are the ones that believe therein: Those who reject faith therein,- the loss is their own. (Abdullah Yusuf Ali)
Ellezine ateynahumul kitabe yetlunehu hakka tilavetih Those to whom We have given the Book, Ellezine ateynahumul kitabe yetlunehu hakka tilavetih ulaike yu’minune bih those who study, read it as they should.
Reading as they should… Not reading empty words, without knowing the meaning. The prophet explains it like this. Yettebiune hakka ittibai Those who follow it completely, those who are succesful in transfering the knowledges to their lives. It may also be said; people who met the message at some point and transfer it to their lives by understanding, thinking, studying and at the end completely living it. ulaike yu’minune bih They are the ones who really believe. If someone doesn’t act like this, then they don’t truly believe.
ve mey yekfur bihi fe ulaike humul hasirun Whoever don’t do this; as in not reading as they should, not evaluating, thinking over it and not transfering it to their lives, then they are the ones who reject faith. ve mey yekfur bihi and whoever choose to deny it fe ulaike humul hasirun It’s they who will be losers.
122 – Ya beni israilezkuru ni’metiyelleti en’amtu aleykum ve enni faddaltukum alel alemin
O children of Israel, remember My favor upon you (that I informed you of your innermost essential reality), and that I made you superior over various nations. (A.Hulusi)
O Children of Israel! call to mind the special favor which I bestowed upon you, and that I preferred you to all others. (Abdullah Yusuf Ali)
Ya beni israilezkuru ni’metiyelleti en’amtu aleykum ve enni faddaltukum alel alemin This verse is the exact same verse back in 47/Baqarah. O Children of Israel! Remember the special favor which I bestowed upon you, and that I preferred you to all others. I had given that blessing to you, the blessing of carrying the revelations.
123 – Vetteku yevmel la teczi nefsun an nefsin shey’ev ve la yukbelu minha adluv ve la tenfeuha shefatuv ve la hum yunsarun
And protect yourself from a time when no one can pay anything to save another. No ransom (compensation) will be accepted from him, nor will any intercession (Once the biological brain ceases to exist the spiritual brain is unable to evaluate new data and hence cannot accept intercession, that is, it rejects the knowledge of the reality) benefit him, nor can they be aided! (A.Hulusi)
Then guard yourselves against a Day when one soul shall not avail another, nor shall compensation be accepted from her nor shall intercession profit her nor shall anyone be helped (from outside). (Abdullah Yusuf Ali)
Vetteku yevmel la teczi nefsun an nefsin shey’ev Then protect yourselves from that day; when no one can pay anything to save someone else. As in no one can help to other people. ve la yukbelu minha adluv nor shall a compensation be accepted from someone. No bail will be accepted. ve la tenfeuha shefatuv That day there won’t be any benefit from intercession. ve la hum yunsarun There won’t be any kind of help for anyone.
And this verse is also the exact same verse of the 48/Baqarah. We also translated it back then. But the arrival of the same verse here is not a random repetition. Surely there are repeats in Qur’an, but none of them carries the same context with another. The arrival of 47th and 48th verse back there has a context of; “O sons of Israel, you are like all the others are the sons of Adam and Eve. So why do you patronize over others? Why should Allah show you some special treatment in afterlife?”. But the same verses here has another context. “O sons of Israel, you haven’t believed. Your excuse of your behaviour was Abraham before. But now you haven’t followed Muhammad who is the bringer of the same messages as Abraham’s. You have been denying Muhammad who took Abraham as an example to himself and follow the same path as Abraham did.” This is the context of two verses here.
“Ve ahiru davana velil hamdulillahi rabbil alemiyn” (Jonah/10) “Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the Worlds!” All products of our claims, causes and lives are for Allah and our last word to our Allah is “Hamd”. “Esselamu aleykum.”