Dear friends, we will continue our sixteenth lesson with 224th verse in Al-Baqarah.
224-) Ve la tec’alullahe urdaten lieymanikum en teberru ve tetteku ve tuslihu beynen Nas* vAllahu Semiy’un ‘Aliym;
Do not let the oaths you make in the name of Allah prevent you from doing good, seeking protection and making peace between people. Allah is the Sami, the Aleem. (A.Hulusi)
And make not Allah’s (name) an excuse in your oaths against doing good, or acting rightly, or making peace between persons; for Allah is One Who heareth and knoweth all things. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve la tec’alullahe urdaten lieymanikum Don’t make Allah as prevention via your oaths. en teberru ve tetteku ve tuslihu beynen Nas In situations like virtuous behaviours, the attitudes that helps you find responsibility for Allah, making peace between people; don’t make Allah’s name as an excure via your oaths against doing them.
A new topic in the same chapter in Qur’an. But as you can see, every new topic has a beautiful connection with the previous one here. If the situation is handled within the frame of this connection, we can see interesting relations between this verse and the ones we studied in our previous lesson. This connection is about several incidents that can happen in our daily lives.
On top of these incidents, there are oaths. Why does Qur’an so interested with our oaths?
1-Qur’an is interested in everthing within life. Because Qur’an is life.
2-You make your oaths in the name of Allah. So if you use Allah’s name with your oaths, surely there must be a judgement. Qur’an has to say something about it.
So Qur’an says this. In cases like virtue and responsibility and reform; don’t count your oaths you make in the name of Allah as prevention, as obstacle against doing all those. Don’t let your oaths doing all those virtuous, responsible and correctional behaviours.
We have two meanings here.
1-Don’t put your oaths against doing good things. Like “I swear to Allah, I will never help this person again. I will never make good things to him again.” Don’t swear like this. A reason of arrival for this verse is based on an incident such as like this.
Hz. Abu Bekir was always helping his relative Mistah Bin Usase. Because Mistah was really a poor man. But when the incident of slander of Hz. Aisha happened; this person who’s living with the helps of Hz. Abu Bekir was the one who believed this slander and spreading it. After that painful treason Abu Bakir said;
“I swear I will never help Mistah ever again.” So some of scholars and translators especially in the first generation, connect this incident with this verse.
Of course, even with all those scholars, translators and sahabes connecting that incident with this verse doesn’t necessarily mean the incident and the verse has a following timeline. As in the incident occured and the verse arrived after that as a reason of arrival; we cannot make that assumptions. But we do have this meaning with all these. Sahabe (first believer generation) sees Qur’an not as a whole, completed text, but as a subject of involment every step of life. Not as an object with pages and inks, but a living subject which can involve in every part of life. This is the proof of that.
So by that aspect, an incident happens today might be counted as a reason of arrival for this verse. Because Qur’an is a living being. It tells things related to life. And Qur’an has no time or space bounds. It’s always in life anytime anywhere. That’s why every verse takes you as a target. You can see yourselves in every verse. That’s why you can say this. “I’m the reason of arrival for this verse.” Yes, you can easily say this.
That’s the first one, don’t put your oaths against doing good things.
Secondly; if you have an oath like that, then you are not obligated to follow it. An oath which prevents you from doing good things; you are not bound with your words.
Rasulallah has a hadith about this subject. We can see different variation of the same hadith in Buhari, Muslim and other hadith collections. “If you took an oath of not doing a good but you see the opposite behaviour is better for you; then don’t fear to break your oath, do that good deeds. Pay your atonements.”
That’s why we shouldn’t swear on not doing good deeds. And if there’s an oath around, the person shouldn’t feel bounded by that oath. I mean think about the opposite then. What’s the verdict on an oath of doing a bad thing? “I swear for Allah’s name that I will drink that alcohol.” That oath not only bound the person with sin, it also make the relations between him and Allah intense. Might sever them even. Because taking an action which Allah banned you to do, by taking an oath with the name of Allah; this is literally making fun of Allah. Using Allah’s name against Allah’s rule. And the consequences shall be dire.
vAllahu Semiy’un ‘Aliym; Last sentences of verses are always related with the content of verse. Especially the last sentence contains Allah’s names, then it is definitely about the verse. Nothing is random. The names and adjectives of Allah as the closing sentence of verses, you cannot say, that’s a random thing or the ryyme is more good with them. No it’s far from it actually. Semiy’un ‘Aliym Allah’s hearing and knowing adjectives. These two comes after a topic of oath, the meaning is clear. Because a persons intentions while taking an oath is in his heart. That’s why the message is “Allah knows what you have in your hearts.” And if your heart don’t intentionally bend the reason you say with your tongue, then Alah hears them too. When knowing and hearing comes together, the opposition or cooperation of these two become clear.
That means this. You cannot know this. You can hear the oath but since you are not Alim, you cannot know the true intentions within heart. But Allah knows. That’s why Allah always reminds people that He hears and knows everything. Everything is not an exaggeration. Semiy and Alim, because of these two names form, and the position of these two words place in language, this meaning becomes mandatory. Because it comes from over prosody. Semiy and Alim, as in not a normal hearing or knowing. Hearing everything with full depths and knowing everything with full details. And as you know that’s a relief for us. Why? Because we are humans and by our nature we make mistakes. Like what for example; let’s continue.
225-) La yuahizukumullahu Bil lagvi fiy eymanikum ve lakin yuahizukum Bi ma kesebet kulubukum* vAllahu Gafur’un Haliym;
Allah will not hold you responsible for any oaths you make unknowingly, but He will hold you responsible for what is intended in your hearts (consciousness). Allah is the Ghafur, the Halim. (A.Hulusi)
Allah will not call you to account for thoughtlessness in your oaths, but for the intention in your hearts; and He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Forbearing. (A.Yusuf Ali)
La yuahizukumullahu Bil lagvi fiy eymanikum Allah will not hold you responsible for any oaths you make unknowingly. That’s a relief. Because maybe not all of us, but some of us make a habit of giving oaths for every little thing. Taking oaths for everything unnecessarily. And doing them in the name of Allah is a great responsibility.
If you make an oath in the name of Allah, it becomes real. I say this first. If you want your oath to be bonding you have to take it in the name of Allah. So, is it possible to take an oath in the name of something else other than Allah? It’s possible. For example over bread. Over book. Those things are usual for taking oaths but none of them have the responsibility of an oath which is taken in the name of Allah.
Also oath over abstract concepts like honor and virtue, they are not like the oath in the name of Allah also not bonding or responible like it is.
There are also things which are not allowed to swear upon. Idols, every symbols, ideologies, systems, every material things not related with Islam. Everything unrelated to Islam whether the are material or not, those are not allowed to take an oath upon as Islamic law.
A person binds himself with his oath. Oath also means savm. Making things stronger, powerful. Some of the root words of oath are blessing, thick and strong. That’s why a person who takes an oath binds himself with a powerful concept.
The name swear or oath has the same name of right hand. That’s why people shake hands to make an arrangement. You can say there’s a meaningful wordplay here too. Yes.
La yuahizukumullahu Bil lagvi fiy eymanikum Allah will not hold you responsible for any oaths you make unknowingly. ve lakin yuahizukum Bi ma kesebet kulubukum but holds you responsible for what is intended in your hearts.
I want you to pay attention to verse pattern. Bi ma kesebet kulubukum The exact literal meaning is; what your hearts gain. So hearts have their own actions, just like bodies.
The action of heart is intention. The motive. That’s why wanting to do something is your hearts action. Also your intentions while doing your worshippings are your hearts actions as well. Good intentions, good actions. But just like good deeds, a heart have bad deeds too. God forbid. This is the reason why this verse talks about your hearts actions. Again, I want you to pay attention to that concept.
Allah will hold you responsible for your hearts intentions, the attitude you take. If you take an oath with intentions of lying to your collocutor, then you will be responsible. If your mouth say; “I swear to Allah, that’s what it is.” and you already know that the situation is not; that action is named as “yemin-i gamus” (perjury) in Islamic law. It has no way of redemption and is considered one of the worst sins. Heavy penalty. And since it may have no court based punishment, the account passes to afterlife. So the businessmen should especially be very careful with their business contracts. If the product don’t match the qualifications he is supposed to achieve, his entire earnings become illicit. All his earnings definitely turn into sin. They should get rid of it, someway fast.
But even with not perjury, Rasulallah hadn’t liked small swears (even if they are true) of salesmen in order to convince the customers to buy. There are several hadith we see about this situation. One of these hadith, for example we read in Muslims hadith; he says; “A salesman who swears a lot, might sell more but Allah takes away his blessings from that product.” A nice warning, a nice warning indeed. At this point, even there are many things to say about swearing a lot for trivial reasons, we don’t need to add that swearing for no reason tarnishes the persons honor and virtue too.
Imam Shafi says; “I never take an oath. Neither for lying or for the truth.” An interesting example. An attitude which should be an example for all of us. Neither for lying or truth.
Of course this is a warning for those who swears a lot. We can take an oath when it’s necessary and needed. It’s possible. But for no reason, just because we have a habit of saying it; if we take oaths for every word we say, then we have a serious trust issues. A person like that means he doesn’t trust himself, he doesn’t trust the words coming from his mouth and he doesn’t trust the people in front of him. That’s why the people who are not sure of their own words, who have trust issues both to himself and others, who always search for an opening, an evil intention from the words they say or hear; they always have this need of taking an oath while conversating. Actually this is a regular type of catching the person red handed.
vAllahu Gafur’un Haliym; So this verse ends like this. Yes, you can make mistakes, you do. But Allah’s actions of not holding you responsible in some situations; doesn’t mean what you do is a mistake, because it is. Why? Because Allah is Of-Forgiving. Because Allah is a forgiving Rab. Not just that Allah is also Halim. Most Forbearing. Not rushing the punishment. This is the reason of all these tolerances. Since your doings are still sins. The message is this, I believe.
226-) Lilleziyne yu’lune min nisaihim terabbusu erbeati eshhur* fein fau feinnAllahe Gafur’un Rahiym;
For those who swear not to approach their wives, there is a waiting period of four months. If they revert from their word, indeed Allah is the Ghafur, the Rahim. (A.Hulusi)
For those who take an oath for abstention from their wives, a waiting for four months is ordained; if then they return, Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Lilleziyne yu’lune min nisaihim After the oath concept by two different verses, Qur’an carries the subject to another level. Actually the way of our Rabb is surprisingly and admirabily stunning when we look at Qur’an.
If our Rabb will talk about a subject, the speech starts with something else entirely, almost like it has nothing related to the subject. Imagine a film. A detail will about to come to screen but before that, a background is given. A general frame is drawn first. And within this frame, the subject is zoomed. A magnifying glass is hold over the real subject while the entire picture stays the same. And now we will learn why the subject of oath is opened, what is the real reason behind it in this verse.
The real reason was families which was torn apart by oaths. A place where oaths are turned into social scars. Especially in that society. Especially in seventh century arabic society; oaths are like a social murder. Let’s read together.
Lilleziyne yu’lune min nisaihim For those who swear not to approach their wives terabbusu erbeati eshhur there is a waiting period of four months. For the wives of people who swear not to approach them, there’s a 4 months waiting period.
fein fau feinnAllahe Gafur’un Rahiym; if then they return, Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.
This verse talks about the “ila” situation in Islamic law.
What is “Ila”?. Ila is the oath of a person who swears not to approach his wife. Because of an argument, a false move, a tiff between spouses, or just dissension; men of that era had a practice. This practice which was only done by men to women is the swearing action of a man, not to have contact with his own wife.
Why, a social scar, I said? To understand my phrase, you should know the concept and the practice of this oath in that era.
Ila was a torment. A great torment done to women. A man takes an oath on not to approach a woman, his wife or one of them and by that he leaves his duty as a man to that woman. But even with under that agony, woman cannot have the permission to marry someone else either. She can neither be treated as a widow nor a married woman. She was almost like a slave in her house. This was the way of restraining her, by giving her that pain.
A big torment. A great one indeed, and some women was undertaking the process for many years. For years they were never treated as a respected wife nor they were let go. They were figuratively in a limbo. So this practice was a cruelty which cannot be binded with human honor.
And at that point Qur’an said “stop” to this torture and took the first step of removing this practice. What was the first process? Limiting. Taking this practice down to minimum. That’s why Qur’an put a limit to this practice. It was unlimited. Then Qur’an put a four month limit.
I understand the underlaying spirit behind this verse from this. In reality, this behavious cannot be approved by any society. But it had been a social scar there and everyone practiced it. Just like slavery. And that’s why it cannot be cut out in an instant. If done; that scar can grow deeper. So Qur’an has this method. Tedric, “step by step.” So for that case, Qur’an takes this method of tedric and as a first step limits it with time.
With that limiting, it’s not true to understand that this behaviour is likable by Allah. No, from this limiting, this is what we should understand. No; big or small no way of torment is good. But if a person undertakes this responsibility and takes an oath, then there must be a time limit to set the oath free. And that time limit is four months.
fein fau feinnAllahe Gafur’un Rahiym; If he turns back. Look, an oath is took. “In the name of Allah, I won’t approach to my wife.” That’s ila. But even with that 4 months period of waiting, man might turn back and breaks the oath. At that point Allah has encouraged the man. Gafur and Rahim names arrival at that point of this verse is an encouragement. You can turn back from short route so that you may find Allah’s mercy and forgiveness.
227-) Ve in azemuttalaka feinnAllahe Semiy’un ‘Aliym;
If they decide to divorce, undoubtedly Allah is the Sami, the Aleem (He knows their intentions). (A.Hulusi)
But if their intention is firm for divorce, Allah heareth and knoweth all things. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve in azemu, but if they don’t turn, Ve in azemuttalaka feinnAllahe Semiy’un ‘Aliym; If they insist on divorsing, if they have the insistance on divorcing their wifes, or the conclusion reaches to divorce; feinnAllahe Semiy’un ‘Aliym; in that case, Allah is Semiy; hears all and Alim; knows what are the intentions of hearts.
There are no Gafur and Rahim here. Look, Allah detects them. It almost like a warning of “The account will be back later.” Allah has heard and knows all. Why is here divorcing his wife, is there a problem which should lead to a divorce? Couldn’t she do the responsibilities of a wife? Or there isn’t really a situation leads to a divorce but just out of joy, just because he wants it or just to make the woman suffer, putting her in a tight spot and turning her in an agonizing state; surely Allah knows all of them. All intention from the heart.
228-) Vel mutallekatu yeterabbasne Bi enfusihinne selasete kuru’* ve la yehillu lehunne en yektumne ma halekAllahu fiy erhamihinne in kunne yu’minne Billahi vel yevmil ahir* ve bu’uletuhunne ehakku Bi raddihinne fiy zalike in eradu islaha* ve lehunne mislulleziy aleyhinne Bil ma’ruf* ve lirRicali aleyhinne deracetun, vAllahu Aziyz’un Hakiym;
Divorced women should wait for three menstrual cycles without getting married, to discern whether they are pregnant or not. If they believe that Allah comprises their innermost essential reality and have faith in the life to come, they have no right to hide what Allah creates in their wombs. If their husbands want to reconcile in this period, they are of higher priority than others. Just as wives have rights over their husbands, husbands also have rights over their wives, but the rights of men are one degree more (as the flow is from man to woman). Allah is the Aziz, the Hakim. (A.Hulusi)
Divorced women shall wait concerning themselves for three monthly periods. Nor is it lawful for them to hide what Allah Hath created in their wombs, if they have faith in Allah and the Last Day. And their husbands have the better right to take them back in that period, if they wish for reconciliation. And women shall have rights similar to the rights against them, according to what is equitable; but men have a degree (of advantage) over them. And Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Vel mutallekatu yeterabbasne Bi enfusihinne selasete kuru Divorced women should wait and observe themselves for three monthly periods.
Kuru word has a dual meaning in arabic language. Not just dual, also these two meanings have opposition between them. It has the meaning of cleaning from menstruation and getting into menstruation. Because of these different uses of the same word, the Islamic law authorities had reached different conclustions. Abu Haniph took the meaning as getting into menstration cycle, Shafi and others decided to take the meaning as cleaning from it. Actually this difference is not about the core of this verse, just the application of it. But this kuru word is a magnificent example of many wordplays, usage of dual meaning words even opposite-dual meaning words we ee in Qur’an.
So the divorced wives should wait and observe themselves for three months period. Why? The answer comes right after this sentence. ve la yehillu lehuune en yektumne ma halekAllahu fiy erhamihinne in kunne yu’minne Billahi vel yevmil ahir If they believe in Allah and the judgement day sincerely, concealing what Allah has created in their wombs is not right for them. As in; the real reason is here. What’s the underlaying connection of iddet, the waiting period of divorced wives. Securing the safety of generation. Like; if there’s a baby on the way, making sure there’s really one.
Of course this iddet issues connections to illet whether it is the reason or not was always a subject of debate. But almost all of the scholars agreed upon the fact that waiting period is not for a punishment but for a reasoning, as in the order is not just for personal reasons but public ones too. So they reaced a conclusion of a womans waiting period on divorcing is a necessity even if that woman is in menapose and doesn’t have a physical possibility of having a child.
I believe this waiting period mentioned on this verse is a reason based order. But I also believe that this reason is not a single one. I mean the only reason is not for woman’s possible pregnancy or not. There’s also another aspect. Preventing that woman from public slander, protecting her from a difficult condition. This about it. A woman whose husband is dead. She should wait that iddet too. Think about the woman who doesn’t wait 4 months after his husbands demise, but marry someone else in that time period. Almost like waiting death.
Not just that, what if that woman is slandered. Did she poisoned her husband? Did she already have a lover that she’s such a hurry to get married again? She didn’t wait even for a 4 months. So putting those side by side, I believe the iddet order is also for protecting the woman from slanders, difficulties, false intentions and bad influences. So that’s why the reason is not a single one, but a number of reasons are in the subtext of this iddet order.
ve bu’uletuhunne ehakku Bi raddihinne fiy zalike in eradu islahan Evet, if their husbands want to reconcile in this period, they are of higher priority than others. As in, if the husband wants to be together again in this three months time window, if they come to peace again, then it would be appropriate for woman to come back to her own husband. In that case, husband has the priority.
ve lehunne mislulleziy aleyhinne Bil ma’ruf*Actually we reached a verse of Qur’an that put a magnificent term between men and women relationships. This verse opens that term like this.
Women have rights over their husbands. Just like husbands have legit rights over their wives, wives have legit rights over their husbands as well. Rights and responsibilities are mutual. This is a term. One of fundamental terms of Qur’an. Not just woman’s side or the man’s. Qur’an puts them together and tells that both of them have rights and responsibilities.
The areas of these rights and responsibilities may differ. Though we should perceive the equality like this. The areas of rights and responsibilities may differ from area to area, subject to subject. So if person wants to use his/her rights on certain subjects, then he/she should takes the responsibility on equal terms. This is valid for both spouses. So can you imagine what a great humanic revolution was this, in an era of women treated as slaves.
Think about the unprecedented revolution, a law system saying, “Just like men have rights over women, women have rights over men. Forget that era, even for today this is a revolution in certain grounds. Because even today, not just in eastern civilizations, western civilizations suffer a similar fate. But you should look pass that show-off women-rights activities and cat-walk feminist acts, used as showcase manequins.
If we look pass that curtain, if we look at statistics, numbers indicate that women are in tough situations both in West and East, we can see this clearly. That’s why we are in need of this term in Qur’an today. Rest assured we will still need it in the future.
Whenever this principle becomes a part of life, there won’t be any need for seperating women’s rights from man’s rights. There will be only family rights or more specifically, human rights. And that human rights will suffice. Only then it will be understood that women have no more rights than human rights, also men have no more rights than human rights. And a man have no more privilage over woman just because of his gender, just like a woman have no more rights over man just because she’s a woman. People will have righst just because they are families, spouses; just because they are humans.
And continues. There’s a sentence leads to some misundertandings, this one. ve lirRicali aleyhinne deracetun men have a degree over women. As in men have privilage on this subject.
And when you open some translations, funny thing, this small sentence in this verse is severed like a seperate verse and put aside to another verse; ErRicalu kavvamune alen nisai.. (Nisa/34) Men are protectors and administrators over women.
It almost like a sentence ripped from a different verse is put together with this one and the matter of degree becomes a hierarchy for men over women. That one is different, this one is different. But there’s a truth here; ve lirRicali aleyhinne deracetun I should tell you that this privilage sentence in this verse is all about divorced women. Surely it’s meaningful and appropriate for a man who gets upset to his wife, speaks badly and divorces her, should have the upperhand over woman against other men for marriage; because of the good tidings of family, future and peace of society. That’s why the return privilage, the right of marrying that woman belongs to the old husband in that situation.
We might look at the situatioj like this. The waiting period is finished. The divorce is completed. And iddet period is also done. This divorce is called Talak-i baiyn. Baiyn talak.
What is the meaning of Baiyn talak? You can only understand the meaning of it after I tell you the difference between Ric’i Talak and Baiyn Talak. Ric’i Talak is the name of divorcing which ends by spouses coming back together within the time period if iddet. There’s no definite divorcing in Ric’i Talak. But there’s a matter of suspension. Ric’i Talak is in that time period. That’s why Ric’at mens turning back. A divorce process which allows woman to come back to her husband. A divorce within that iddet period is still a Ric’i Talak. So giving up divorce and coming back together from Ric’i Talak doesn’t require a new marriage, no mihr either. And for the sake of family, in Ric’i talak spouses blessing is not necessary.
But in Baiyn Talak, the divorce is done, the iddet is finished. The waiting is completed in that case Baiyn Talak happens. What does that require?
1-If man wants to return to his ex-wife, the womans consent is required. If she rejects, there’s no coming back. That’s why if the situation reaches Baiyn Talak (Empty Divorce), mutual consent is required.
2-If both sides agrees again, a new marriage and new mihr is necessary, as in woman might want a new assurance, she has that right now.
Those are the differences between Baiyn talak and Ric’i talak. So in that case it’s possible to understans the verse in both ways. Though when we look at other translators and great scholars, they always understand this verse with its two sides.
vAllahu Aziyz’un Hakiym; The verse ends with Allah is Aziz and Hakim. That’s no coincidence. To understand there’s no coincidence here, you might only need to understand the meaning is the name “Aziz.” As in; “I put this verdict here, my believers. But know that I cannot use this verdict. Because Allah is beyond marriage and divorce. Allah is above all these.”
“So why then I put these? Hakim, there’s a wisdom. And that wisdom and your happiness are bound to these verdicts. The redemption of you society depends on these orders. The survival of a family, a house depends on this orders. You cannot live without rules. You cannot be happy without rules. Your freedom cannot be taken independently from your security. Anarchy is not the name of freedom. That’s why I’m laying these rules just like I created you, because of your happiness.” These are the meanings. Moving on.
229-) EtTalaku merretan* fe imsakun Bi ma’rufin ev tesriyhun Bi ihsan* ve la yahillu lekum en te’huzu mimma ateytumuhunne shey’en illa en yehafa ella yukiyma hududAllah* fein hiftum ella yukiyma hududAllahi fela cunaha aleyhima fiymeftedet Bihi, tilke hududullahi fela ta’teduha* ve men yeteadde hududAllahi feulaike humuz zalimun;
Divorce is twice. After this it can either be resumed or permanently released free. It is not lawful for you to take back anything you have given your wives (due to divorce). But if the wife and husband both find it difficult to observe the boundaries set by Allah, the wife has the right to request divorce by returning the things he has given her, and there is no blame upon her for doing this. These are the boundaries set by Allah so do not transgress them. Whoever transgresses the limits will only do wrong to themself. (A.Hulusi)
A divorce is only permissible twice: after that, the parties should either hold together on equitable terms, or separate with kindness. It is not lawful for you, (men), to take back any of your gifts (from your wives), except when both parties fear that they would be unable to keep the limits ordained by Allah. If ye (judges) do indeed fear that they would be unable to keep the limits ordained by Allah, there is no blame on either of them if she give something for her freedom. These are the limits ordained by Allah. so do not transgress them if any do transgress the limits ordained by Allah, such persons wrong (themselves as well as others). (A.Yusuf Ali)
EtTalaku merretan Divorce is twice. fe imsakun Bi ma’rufin ev tesriyhun Bi ihsan After that, the couple should be back together or seperate with kindness. Let’s open this sentence. It says divorce is twice. What should we understand from this? Today there’s a saying related to a practice in middle east. “The rule is from three to nine.” The truth is there’s no nine. Let’s skip that. Even with all those practices, there’s no base for nine. No place in the book. Ironically no place in lies either. But there’s three. Divorce is twice says here, so how should we understand this three? Actually law-based divorce is like this.
A person may divorce his spouse, it’s possible. After the process, it’s like we described above. That’s divorce explained in Qur’an. Divorced once, then iddet is finished and the break up happens. After that the wife may turn back if she wants or marry another. If she marries another then it’s over, Allah knows the rest. Divorce is described like that. But if parties wishes to break up indefinitely as in, no way to return; then it’s not allowed for husband to divorce his wife during the cleansing, during her monthly period.
After she cleansed, he doesn’t approach her and divorce once. One month passes, second period happens, after that he divorces her again. There’s no need for that but if he wants to express himself that he will never be together with her again, then he does that. So after the third divorce, the process becomes absolute. After that the return can only be possible if the woman marries and divorces with another man.
So the reason of the “two” is this two months period. If you ask why this process becomes such a nuisance? Rasulallah says; “This is a business Allah doesn’t like.” Yes, it’s a fact of life. Islam and the Qur’an, the book of Islam never shut out the truth of life. Because Islam doesn’t stand against life. It stays side to side with life. Islam is not a religion which alienates life from itself. They walk toghether. That’s why Islam never corners a muslim. Everything in a person life has a place in Islam, but Islam has a way of educating them.
War is in the nature of life. Islam doesn’t deny it. Doesn’t ignore it. What does it do? Regulates. Puts rules. Prevents the war to become a torment. Sex instinct. Sex is in the human nature. But Islam doesn’t deny this fact as the Paul Christianism has done. What then? Puts the act to a legit course. Even turns it into worshipping in some cases.
So just like other things, divorce too is a social problem of humans and always will be a concept of societies. Baning people from divorcing which you know some easten religions and christianic sect have that rule; preventing people from divorcing is against human nature and a torture. Torture for both sides.
Now is it a treat to tell a woman that she has to live with a walking torment of a husband forever? No, that’s not a treat at all. And the same goes for the man as well. If the cogwheels won’t fit together, if the family won’t stay strong; if love, compassion, mercy and respect are long gone; then that home is no longer a heaven it becomes hell. And if the home turns into a hellish dungeon like that, then it will be a torment for both sides to continue that family. So that’s the reason why ignoring divorce is the meaning of a belief to antagonize life. Islam never denies the lives reality, it educates and regulates them. We can easily see it here. For all the principles over divorce matter, the one Islam brought up is the most ideal and fair one.
There’s an infinitive here. Imsakun holding tesriyh letting go. Infinitives. Interesting though, since there’s no random used word in Qur’an. The speech pattern of infitive usafe is because the words are for multiple parties. The talking here is not for a single group.
1.The parents who causes them to marry. The words are for those parents.
2.Husbands are addressed.
3.Wives also are addressed.
4.And the court which manages this thing. The judgment seat is also one of the target of this speech.
That’s why whoever is the responsible authority in that society whether it’s traditional or judgemental. It can be the husband, it can be the parents, the court, even in early times, the clan leaders were the ones responsible for making marriages happen. Other places like farms; elders are the ones giving decisions. Some other places families give the ultimate decision. Whichever have the responsibility and has a saying in that matter, this warning is for all of them.
For this matter, know that it’s either getting along with goodness or breaking up with kindness. You cannot force anyone. The court says the same. The court is the responsible group in that situation now. But if the families have the last word in this; then the warning is for them as well. You cannot force them to be together anymore.
ve la yahillu lekum en te’huzu mimma ateytumuhunne shey’en Taking back what you gave her before is not lawful in that case. What’s that. The Mihr values which you gave her as assurance. Qur’an says; “You gave it to woman as assurance, the mihr now is womans personal belonging, it’s hers as lawful as it gets, so it’s not true for you to take it back in case of a divorce.”
illa en yehafa ella yukiyma hududAllah Unless both sides find it difficult to observe the boundaries set by Allah. If they have worries that they won’t be able to follow the rules set by Allah, then it’s different.
So what’s the message here? If there will be a greater torment. If because of that mihrs not taking back; the families will start to pull swords and pistols and the whole situation might turn into a bloodfeud which we know in same cases it goes there; if something like that might happen, the message is for parents, judgement, court or husband; you should give your decision accordingly. It’s like this. You gave it as mihr, it’s not yours, you cannot take it anymore, it surely will be a sin if you do. But if something bigger is gonna happen, then the situation turns upside down. If you step the boundries set by Allah, if you won’t follow the rules put there by Allah, then surely it’s a different thing altogether. In that case, not only you take something that doesn’t belong to you and because of stepping other boundries of Allah, you become a sin-centered individual.
fein hiftum ella yukiyma hududAllah If you fear that you would be unable to keep the limits ordained by Allah; fela cunaha aleyhima fiymeftedet Bih Then there’s no sin for woman to give up her right. It’s like; the wife looked at the situation and saw that the boundries of Allah will be crossed; her companion will cross that line. In that case she might feel pity for him, wants him to stay away from fire; she says “Here, take my right as well.Take it.” Almost like saying; “Allah will give all rights eventually.”
Studying this subject, mostly used concept of Qur’an is Ma’ruf here. As you can see the Ma’ruf concept constantly arrives within these verses.
Why, my friends? It’s this; the relations of family, the relations between husband and wife; those are not set with hard law orders. Family relations have a unique dimension. A deep concept. This deep concept of family relations reach all the way to heart. A very intricate relation, that is. That’s why whenever Qur’an wants to put a buffer zone, giving traditions a spot in life also giving another area for special relation between husband and wife; it always uses the word, Ma’ruf. You might consider this word as appropriate or convenient. Also has the meanings like legit, suitable for traditions or this is how it is. All of them are possible, all of them are true.
tilke hududullahi fela ta’teduha So those are the boundries set by Allah. Don’t ever cross them. ve men yeteadde hududAllahi feulaike humuz zalimun; Whoever transgresses the limits will only do wrong to themself. They are the ones who will torment themselves.
Yes, the reason of arrival for this verse is interesting. It’s about Cemile; the daughter of Abdullah Bin Ubey. Remember this is one of the few verses explaning this order. Abdullah Bin Ubey is the leader of heathens and his daughter is a beautiful muslim. Cemile, also has a beautiful name. Lady Cemile was married with Sabit bin Kays from Sahabe, but she wasn’t fond of her husband. Somehow her parents of someone else had made that marriage possible and now she wasn’t happy.
According to the story; she came to Rasulallah. A woman, a married woman came to Rasulallah. The leader of community. She came to consult him as a judge. Saying;
-O Rasulallah. One day in a group of men, I opened the veil between them and me to look. My husband is the ugly of them all, the dark of them all, etc. I cannot say a single word for his ethics, though.”
“I cannot say a word for his religion.” Look at the attitude here, look at the respect. A muslim lady, a lady from sahabe, check her respectable and fair behaviour. In the name of Allah, I cannot say a single bad thing for his ethics, Rasulallah.” I cannot find a single false in his religion, Rasulallah. But I cannot find him pleasing to the eye, I saw him like that and now I want to break up.”
This verse, with the mutual acception of all authorities is the verse proving that woman has the right of divorce. This verse proves that woman can divorce a man. The name of this act in Islamic law is hulu. That’s why this is a concept within the law, this hulu. And that’s why this hadith is said as the reason of arrival for this verse.
And she explained to Rasulallah that she wants to break up. But Sabit Bin Kays had given Cemile a beautiful garden as mihr price when he married her. And since the womans side was the one who wants to break the bond, she gave that price back. She voluntarily gave back the garden. Even said; “I can give more if necessary, Rasulallah.”
She really didn’t have any love in her heart, but I want you to pay attention another detail which caught my eye as well, the honesty among sahabe. A lady from sahabe community could have a sense of civilization, a social ethich that she could go to the Islam communities leader, to Aziyz prophet and explained herself with such a plain and simple attitude; interesting. More interesting that Rasulallah didn’t decry her either. At the end they divorced, obviously and Cemile gave back the garden which she was given as mihr at marriage.
Like I said; this verse indicates that woman has the right to start and finish the divorcing process, all Islamic authorities agreed upon this fact. If woman divorces her husband but there’s no reason whatsoever, like husband does all of his responsibilities but woman wants a divorce anyway. According to Islamic law authorities, they should apply to a court and court does the process. Of course violating the obligations is a different story. If husband doesn’t carry his responsibilities, the situation differs.
Because there are only several reasons which puts the court in this process. Islamic law rarely put the court in family disagreements. Sometimes the situation is handled localy, sometimes the court interferes. In cases like womans divorce, most authorities puts the court into this equation.
Why does the Islamic law rarely uses the high court? Because it might not be Ma’ruf, it might not be appropriate. The relations between husband and wife are private business. They shouldn’t go public and disgrace themselves. The interactions with outside must be minimum, also the situation must be handled with justice, fairly. The mutual conscience works there and Islam tries to solve the disgreements with the help of faith, not with the help of court. The problems between husband and wife are tried to be solved basing of faith. Court is the last resort.
Of course, this is ideal. Like I said before, the relations between husband and wife are sensitive and deep. And it’s not appropriate to show those relations to everyone. But if the case reaches to a point where no one can make a move anymore, if there’s a point where one side will violate the others rights; if the law will be broken; then the law must interfere, the court must be set and handle the situation.
So, this verse is about the divorcing right of woman. And if woman wants to divorce the man; (not because he neglects his duties as a husband, not making his responsibilities, because he violates his rights as a husband); but the woman wants to divorce just because she wants, without a reason; then she becomes the side which breaks the bond. In that case she should give back the mihr price, her assurance back.
230-) Fein tallekaha fela tehillu lehu min ba’du hatta tenkiha zevcen gayrehu, fein tallekaha fela cunaha aleyhima en yeterace’a in zanna en yukiyma hududAllah* ve tilke hududullahi yubeyyinuha li kavmin ya’lemun;
And after all this, if he divorces his wife again (for the third time) then she is not lawful to him until after she has married another man. And if she gets divorced from the latter husband there is no blame upon her and her former husband to remarry each other, if they believe they can keep to the boundaries of marriage within the limits of Allah. These are limits of Allah, which He makes clear to people who know (Allah). (A.Hulusi)
So if a husband divorces his wife (irrevocably), he cannot, after that, re- marry her until after she has married another husband and he has divorced her. In that case there is no blame on either of them if they re-unite, provided they feel that they can keep the limits ordained by Allah. Such are the limits ordained by Allah, which He makes plain to those who understand. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Fein tallekaha fela tehillu lehu min ba’du hatta tenkiha zevcen gayrehu If a husband divorces his wife irrevocably fela tehillu lehu min ba’du then she’s not lawful to him anymore. What? hatta tenkiha zevcen gayrehu unless she marries another man. If the divorce is absolute. This is clear.
Why is there a sharp verdict like this in Islam. Like, can you understand the weight of this for a man? Think about it. The jealousy is in a mans nature; and yet his ex-wife, his own companion, his life partner, missing piece of his life. And yet he can only be with her again, only he marries to another man and divorces with him.
You shouldn’t understand this verse backwards. This order isn’t put in Qur’an just to make an order. It’s there to make it difficult to divorce at first place. Can you get the meaning? If you ask “What is the soul of this verse?”, the meaning is not the opposition. What this verse means to say is this. “Look, don’t just get divorced out of blue. If you open the divorce matter everytime it comes to your tongue, everytime you get bored, then observe; an unpleasant situation waits for you at the end.”
fein tallekaha fela cunaha aleyhima en yeterace’a in zanna en yukiyma hududAllah If divorced fela cunaha aleyhima en yeterace’a in zanna en yukiyma hududAllah if they believe they can keep to the boundaries of marriage within the limits of Allah, then both sides in zanna if both sides believe that they can keep the limits of Allah this time; then there’s no sin for them to come back together.
Sin also comes with the consequences meaning. Actually the word sin (gunah) comes to use from Egypt dialect. That’s why it comes with the letter G. Otherwise the original is “cunha” or cunah. La cunaha, but the egyptians won’t use the letter c, cannot pronounce it even. Like, they cannot say; Euzubillahiminesheytanirracim, they finish the sentence with “Gim”. Or they use words like “Gelal, gemal.” They cannot say “Cemal.” So this concept comes to Anatolia from Egypt language, that’s why in Anatolian tongue the word “Gunah comes to fame for this concept.
ve tilke hududullahi yubeyyinuha li kavmin ya’lemun; So these, all these are the boundries set by Allah; which Allah makes clear to people who know (Allah), who values these boundries and knows what it means of Allah’s orders. Allah explains them for a community like this.
231-) Ve iza tallaktumun nisae febelagne ecelehunne feemsikuhunne Bi ma’rufin ev serrihuhunne Bi ma’ruf* ve la tumsikuhunne diraren lita’tedu* ve men yef’al zalike fekad zaleme nefsehu, ve la tettehizu ayatillahi huzuva* vezkuru ni’metAllahi aleykum ve ma enzele aleykum minel Kitabi vel Hikmeti ye’izukum Bih* vettekullahe va’lemu ennAllahe Bi kulli shey’in ‘Aliym;
And once you divorce your wives and they reach the end of the three-months waiting period, either retain them with kindness or release them by good means. Do not keep them attached to yourselves to cause them misery, and whoever does so will only do wrong to himself. Do not take the creeds of Allah lightly. And remember the favor of Allah upon you and the Book and Wisdom He revealed to you to advise you based on the letter B. Protect yourself from Allah and know well that Allah, as the essence of everything (in respect of the dimension of the Names) is aware of everything. (A.Hulusi)
When ye divorce women, and they (are about to) fulfill the term of their (Ìddah), either take them back on equitable terms or set them free on equitable terms; but do not take them back to injure them, (or) to take undue advantage; if any one does that; he wrongs his own soul. Do not treat Allah’s Signs as a jest, but solemnly rehearse Allah’s favors on you, and the fact that He sent down to you the Book and Wisdom, for your instruction. And fear Allah, and know that Allah is well acquainted with all things. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve iza tallaktumun nisae febelagne ecelehunne feemsikuhunne Bi ma’rufin Once you divorce your wives and they reach the end of their waiting period, feemsikuhunne Bi ma’rufin either retain them with kindness ev serrihuhunne Bi ma’ruf or set them free with kindness.
ve la tumsikuhunne diraren lita’tedu* ve men yef’al zalike fekad zaleme nefsehu Don’t retain them just to harm them. lita’tedu If you retain them with that intention, then you overstep your limits lita’tedû ..! If you retain them with that intention then you transgress your rights. ve men yef’al zalike fekad zaleme nefsehu And whoever do that, without a doubt will only wrong themselves.
An incident is told as the reason of arrival for this verse. The person of interest in this verse was Sabit bin Yesar or Sinan Ensari; one of this sahabe had divorced his wife. Once the waiting period was about to finish, he was saying, “I give up, I’m pulling back my divorce.” This is a method of torment in ignorance days. “I give up my divorce.” he said. As in he waited three months. Three months without a relation. Standing as a stranger. Once the time limit was about to finish, he was giving up and after a while, divorcing her again. He tortured his wife seven months like that. After that this verse arrived. It’s for preventing this torment against women. All these verses I have been explaining for a while are for the rights of women.
Can you imagine what a revolution this was, in that era? A community which looks at these practices of torment to women was considered normal; and then Qur’an educates those people like that. So only people who understand the magnificent values of Qur’an has brought the humanity; only them who know these verses very well and admire them by looking at the background of every verse might read Qur’an with with full consciousness. Otherwise, Qur’an’s value cannot be comprehended. How can people understand that Qur’an is a great justice guide, the blessing guide, the happiness guide for humanity? That’s how they should understand.
ve la tettehizu ayatillahi huzuva if you do that, then you only make fun of Allah’s verses. Do not treat Allah’s verses as a joke. Don’t make fun of Allah’s verses. vezkuru ni’metAllahi aleykum And remember Allah’s blessings upon you.
ve ma enzele aleykum minel Kitabi vel Hikmeti ye’izukum Bih Remember the book, the revelations, the wisdom Allah brought down to give you advice.
What I just said; Qur’an says now with its own words. As; remember what a great blessing Allah gives you by sending these verses. And also don’t forget that the point humanity reaches today, Qur’an has a wonderful impact on that. How can you forget that. If those previous torments of ancient times are not present in these days, that’s only because Qur’an isolated them back then from the beginning in order to destroy them completely. Those old tortures are gone because Qur’an blocks and destroys those practices like them. Even the ignorance days of 20. century, 21. century; so many evil practices and traditions have been born, which are no less then the practices of those days, Qur’an has fought them as always.
Like I said, 21. century has its own methods of torment, has its own ignorace. And even with totally different from the torturing methods of 7. century; women have still been tortured with several ways. Showing them as materials in commercials, exploiting their sexuality, one way or another. Women are still under the spotlight of torment and misfortune. So we should take these verses not only for events of seventh century but 21. century as well. We should act with this spirit. With the message within, with the background of these verses.
[Missing sentence; vettekullahe va’lemu ennAllahe Bi kulli shey’in ‘Aliym; And fear Allah, and know that Allah is aware of everything. ]
232-) Ve iza tallaktumunnisae febelagne ecelehunne fela ta’duluhunne en yenkihne ezvacehunne iza teradav beynehum Bil ma’ruf* zalike yuazu Bihi men kane minkum yu’minu Billahi vel yevmil ahiri, zalikum ezka lekum ve ather* vAllahu ya’lemu ve entum la ta’lemun;
When you divorce your wives and they reach the end of the waiting period, do not prevent them from getting remarried, if they agree among themselves on mutual terms. This is an advice upon those who believe in Allah and the life to come. This is better (clean from humanly conditionings) and purer for you. Allah knows and you know not. (A.Hulusi)
When ye divorce women, and they fulfill the term of their (Ìddah), do not prevent them from marrying their (former) husbands, if they mutually agree on equitable terms. This instruction is for all amongst you, who believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is (the course making for) most virtue and purity amongst you. And Allah knows, and ye know not. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve iza tallaktumunnisae febelagne ecelehunne If you divorce your woman and they reach the end of their waiting period fela ta’duluhunne en yenkihne ezvacehunne iza teradav beynehum Bil ma’ruf If they reach a conclusion among themselves for woman to get remarried or to get married with some other man, yes, marrying another man; don’t prevent them. As in; you cut all bonds with the woman you were once married; you are completely divorced now.
Of course, this divorce is all Talak-i Baiyn. It doesn’t matter, they can come back and get remarried again. But this is up to the woman now. In Talak-i Baiyn, the pact is over, there’s no marriage anymore. If you want t get remarried, you should sign a new contract and make a new arrangement for marriage. So if you make a divorce in that terms and you still want to establish an authority over her; even want her to be misarable, enjoy her disappointed and misarable state;
So Qur’an puts a finger to an ancient torment like this and says; “If they reach a conclusion among themselves, for woman to get married with another man, don’t prevent them. Of course legally.
zalike yuazu Bihi men kane minkum yu’minu Billahi vel yevmil ahiri, This is an advice for people amongst you who believe in Allah and in Judgement Day. zalikum ezka lekum ve ather* vAllahu ya’lemu ve entum la ta’lemun; This is the most virtuous and clean method for you.
vAllahu ya’lemu ve entum la ta’lemun; Allah knows very well what it means, even if you may not.
The reason of arrival for this verse is one on one match. I say this. One on one match, as in this verse arrived right after and for this incident. And it’s this.
The husband of Ma’kil bin Yesar’s sister had reached her ex-wife to get remarried again. And the sister agreed to return to her ex-husband. At some point they were in a disagreement, of course the husband had divorced her with talak-i baiyn. But after a while they reached a conclusion and wanted to get back together. But Ma’kil bin Yesar, the brother of the wife insisted; “He divorced you, I will never let this marriage happen again.”
Of course the insistance continued until this verse arrived. Verse came down and Rasulallah called Ma’kil. (There’s something caught my eye though how Rasulallah observes such a thick community with such a magnificent precision. How everyones problems are solved. Very interesting situation this is.) He called Ma’kil to Masjid-i Nebevi, everyone was there. At this point I should point out that Ma’kil was a true from heart believer. Rasulallah said; “The verse arrived.” And read the verse. Ma’kil was both crying and laughing. I don’t understand how. But he was in such a mental state that he was crying and laughing.
He was saying; “Thank to my Rabb who deflates; teaches a lesson to Ma’kil.” and finished his sentence with semi’na ve eta’na “O my Allah, I’m in content and I’m at your command.”
Then he went right away to his sister. He said; “Allah gave his judgement and I’m begging for your forgiveness.” And stepped back. That’s how Qur’an educates.
233-) Vel validatu yurdi’ne evladehunne havleyni kamileyni limen erade en yutimmerreda’ate ve alel mevludi lehu rizkuhunne ve kisvetuhunne Bil ma’ruf* la tukellefu nefsun illa vus’aha* la tudarre validetun Bi velediha ve la mevludun lehu Bi veledihi ve alel varisi mislu zalik* fein erada fisalen an teradin minhuma ve teshavurin fela cunaha aleyhima* ve in eradtum en testerdi’u evladekum fela cunaha aleykum iza sellemtum ma ateytum Bil ma’ruf* vettekullahe va’lemu ennAllahe Bi ma ta’melune Basiyr;
(Divorced) mothers can breastfeed their children for two whole years, (if the fathers) wish to complete the nursing period. During this time the father is responsible for their provision and clothing, according to custom. No one will be subject to more than his capacity. And no mother or father should be subject to harm because of their child. The same applies for the heir. If they mutually agree to wean the child before the end of the two years, there is no blame upon them. If you wish to have your children nursed (by a wet nurse), there is no blame upon you so long as you pay the required according to what is customary. Protect yourselves from Allah and know well that He (as the creator of all that you do) is the Basir. (A.Hulusi)
The mothers shall give suck to their offspring for two whole years, for him (the father) who desires to complete the term. But he shall bear the cost of their food and clothing on equitable terms. No soul shall have a burden laid on it greater than it can bear. No mother shall be treated unfairly on account of her child. Nor father on account of his child, an heir shall be chargeable in the same way. If they both decide on weaning, by mutual consent, and after due consultation, there is no blame on them. If ye decide on a foster-mother for your offspring, there is no blame on you, provided ye pay (the foster mother) what ye offered, on equitable terms. But fear Allah and know that Allah sees well what ye do. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Vel validatu yurdi’ne evladehunne havleyni kamileyni limen erade en yutimmerreda’ate Mothers can breastfeed their children for two whole years. Of course; limen erade en yutimmerreda’ate this is for those who wishes to complete the breastfeeding period. Those who wishes to complete the nursing years; of course there’s a connection with the verse above. As in; for divorced women, there’s a problem of child now, what’s going to happen? The divorce is done, fine; but the problems are not over.
Qur’an doesn’t cover these problems, never ignores them or misses them. Now it handles those problems. Divorced, yes; but there’s a child in the middle now. And this child is still an infant. If the child is a few years old, it may be fine. But a few months old baby, so what now? Of course Allah doesn’t leave it that way and now the problem is handled.
Vel validatu yurdi’ne evladehunne havleyni kamileyni limen erade en yutimmerreda’ate Mothers can breastfeed their children for two whole years. This is the duty of divorced mothers.
[Additional Info: The Two Years of Breastfeeding Of a Child.
Today many studies have proved with scientific datas that; mothers milk provides all physiological and physiosocial needs of a baby for first six months perfectly. The breastfeeding have an important role for bonding the baby and the mother, the first six months should be on breastfeeding and after that with additional nutritions, the breastfeeding should continue for two whole years if it wants for baby to have all those countless benefits. (Prof. Dr. Mustafa Bakir)]
ve alel mevludi Yes, ve alel mevludi lehu rizkuhunne ve kisvetuhunne Bil ma’ruf*Of course part of the message here is for father, the father who divorced his wife but still the father of that infant. That’s why the sentence started with; ve alel mevludi It means he who makes the baby possible. To father, the husband duties are done. That’s why Qur’an doesn’t use those term anymore. The are if different now. The center is baby, so the addressed parties are the mother of the child and the father of the child. What are fathers responsibilities? Providing the sustenance, clothing of them. This is a must for father now.
la tukellefu nefsun illa vus’aha Nobody shall have a burden laid on it greater than it can bear. The obvious is here. That’s not for only this situation. This is for all rules that Qur’an provides. It’s a general term. No one have a burden that he cannot bear.
Basing on this verse, the scholars have reached the conclusion for divorced couples that the care of the child must be handled by mother. Very interesting because many modern law have the same judgement. Almost all laws on earth have this verdict because it’s the natural one. The opposite wouldn’t be true or possible.
la tudarre validetun Bi velediha ve la mevludun lehu Bi veledihi No mother shall be treated unfairly on account of her child. Nor father on account of his child, an heir shall be chargeable in the same way. The justice and honesty demand this. Both sides must be unharmed. But both sides must know their tasks and responsibilities as well. The baby must reside with mother, because the love and compassion for baby can only be provided by a mother. Not just the breastfeeding. That’s why here, the expression validatu yurdi’ne shouldn’t be taken as just breastfeeding. It must be taken as handling the care, accepting the baby with love. Actually this expression have many meanings. Not just breastfeeding, but nursing with love; like I say many more meanings within.
ve alel varisi mislu zalik Of course, the sentence of mu’terize resides here. A paranthesized sentence. The same responsibilities fall onto the heir of father too. It’s possible the father might be dead. If there’s a scenario around like that, the heir of the father must handle the same tasks and responsibilities of taking care of the mother and her child. Qur’an doesn’t miss that fact too. It fills every aspects of life.
fein erada fisalen an teradin minhuma ve teshavurin fela cunaha aleyhima Yes; If both parents decide on seperating the mother and the child by mutual consent, and after due consultation, there is no blame on them. The concept comes as weaning. If both sides decide that the child and mother should be seperated, then there’s no blame on them.
This meaning is from Razi’s book of “Abu Muslum Isfehani. The word fisal has a meaning of childs seperation from mother. Interestingly among all translations we can see this meaning in only Abu Muslum Isfehani. All other translations have taken the meaning of stopping the breastfeeding. I however; despite the fact that the it’s the only one and personal; believe the comment of Abu Muslum Isfehani is more appropriate and accurate.
The problem, explained here is much bigger than stopping the breastfeeding. How deep? Well, you cannot weight a divorced mother with a child of mutual responsibility? The woman will have a life of her own. You cannot give the childs responsibilities to her for eternity? You cannot turn the child into a hunch and put him on the woman forever. Because she has the right of marriage too, she can get re-married, it’s her right. Just like a divorced man has every right to marry someone, the divorced woman has the same rights too. So why putting a child over her shoulder; a child which is the fruit of mutual effort?
So, what must be done here, they should make an agreement? To seperate the child from mother. If the both sides reach the same conclusion after talking about it, there’s no harm following this verdict.
ve in eradtum en testerdi’u evladekum fela cunaha aleykum fathers might give the child to another woman for nursing after the real mother and the child seperated. So, the child might be nursed by another woman. There’s no sin here for you. For you, the verse says! No sin for mother too, according to the verse. As in, you cannot blame the real mother for giving away the child. Just for the first two years, it’s mandatory. But after that, you cannot force her to continue. If the father is the one who takes the childs custody and if they both reaches to a conlusion of giving the child to another woman for nursing; there’s no harm, no sin for either of them.
iza sellemtum ma ateytum Bil ma’ruf Yes, if you provide what you should give (the foster mother) accordingly. Let’s translate here as, in case you should deliver. As in; there’s no harm for you; IF you deliver what you should provide with secure.
The sellemtum expression here means both, delivering and safely delivering. I choose the meaning of safely delivering, because it suits here fine. The meaning here is, when the child reaches to a safe location, his final home after all those breaks and divorces situation. But usually the translators take the meaning as, when the foster mother is paid for her nursing duties nicely.
vettekullahe va’lemu ennAllahe Bi ma ta’melune Basiyr; Know your responsibilities for Allah and know that Allah sees all things you do with every detail.
Yes dear friends, the verses we studied today are right from the belly of life. They are from deep within. The verses concern the child, the mother, father, family, the core of society and in general meaning the community itself. At this point how can someone stand up and ask; Why does Allah meddling with our family affairs, our inner worlds? If someone asks these, won’t his relations with Allah would be severed?
I pray to our Rabb that we will be among those who continue their relations with Allah.
“Ve ahiru davana velil hamdulillahi rabbil alemiyn” (Jonah/10) “Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the Worlds!” All products of our claims, causes and lives are for Allah and our last word to our Allah is “Hamd”.