Dear friends, we will continue our lessons with 234th verse of Al-Baqarah.
234-) Velleziyne yuteveffevne minkum ve yezerune ezvacen yeterebbasne Bi enfusihinne erbeate eshhurin ve ashra* feiza belagne ecelehunne fela cunaha aleykum fiyma fealne fiy enfusihinne Bil ma’ruf* vAllahu Bi ma ta’melune Habiyr;
If any of you die and leave widows, the widows should wait for four months and ten days (before they remarry). After this period, there is no blame upon them for what they do according to custom (getting married to someone else). Allah, as the former of your actions, is the Habir. (A.Hulusi)
If any of you die and leave widows behind, they shall wait concerning themselves four months and ten days: When they have fulfilled their term, there is no blame on you if they dispose of themselves in a just and reasonable manner. And Allah is well acquainted with what ye do. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Velleziyne yuteveffevne minkum ve yezerune ezvacen yeterebbasne Bi enfusihinne erbeate eshhurin ve ashra If any of you die and leave your wives behind widows; yeterebbasne Bi enfusihinne They shall wait concerning themselves. How long? erbeate eshhurin ve ashra 4 months and 1 days, they shall wait.
Of course to understand a verse such as this, knowing is not enough. We need to fully comprehend what the speech is. A speech is not all words. There must be a truth in the background of that speech. The words gain meaning if the listeners know and think about that background while the verse is read. Only then the meaning becomes full and the context shall be explained. So, in order to understand the real meaning of this verse, the background shall be learnt.
I should express now that our last lesson was mostly about the divorce process, especially some orders were given to ladies of divorced families. Why ladies? There are men too in those divorced families? The women, especially in that era, the divorced women or the widows had no right of their own. It was almost like the divorced women and widows buried alive, sentenced to death (figuritively). They were outcasts, all alone, not just they couldn’t get a share from his late husbands fortune and wealth; sometimes they were kicked out to streets with her children.
Also you remember, I explained the bad traditions of Arabs back then when we were talking about the “Ila” subject. We should understand that concept to in order to understand this verse clearly. A man holds his wife at distance with an oath. More accurately turns his own wife into a slave. Neither divorces her nor be with her. He keeps his wife in a limbo. That was the bad tradition.
So in this verse another bad tradition was pointed, it’s this. According to arabic traditions a wife of a deceased husband must mourn for his death for an entire year. Again, another slavery. She could no longer get out of her house, she couldn’t get dressed pretty, not even considered getting married again. Because the traditions were preventing her to do that. The traditions were putting the woman in a position of a convict.
So Qur’an has brought a new verdict to stop this carceration of women. The wife of a deceased husband should never be a slave of anything. She can think and act on her own. No one can prevent her from doing so. There’s a waiting period of 4 months and 10 days.
Why this waiting period? What is the wisdom behind this time? That’s because to prevent the generation confusion. Because with the conditions of that era, you couldn’t learn whether the woman is pregnant or not. So this time period is for everyone to see what’s what. If the woman is pregnant from his late husband, by four months and 10 days, it would become visible for everyone and the father would be known by the entire community. This waiting period has been set for preventing the confusion of bloodline.
feiza belagne ecelehunne fela cunaha aleykum fiyma fealne fiy enfusihinne Bil ma’ruf After the waiting period is over, there’s no sin for those women, the women whose husbands are passed, the women who are now officially widow; for what they do according to custom. There’s no sin or responsibility upon you.
Like I expressed before, we again see the respect of Qur’an for a persons own decision. Qur’an gives the right to decide to woman; a woman whose husband was passed and and now she needs to make life decisions on her own; Qur’an gives those decision rights, entirely to her. But let me remind you again, in that era and society, widows were treated as living deads, they were like nobodies, turned into outcasts by society. So you may now understand the depths of the revolutions made by Qur’an in civil rights. With the terms set by the conditions of 1400 years before, these verses are like the words of revolution.
Why should we see this as revolution? Because the society in that era was entirely man-controlled, patriarchal. So these rules are like dynamites which are put right on the foundations of that community. The society at that time was using women as tools because of their man-centered behaviours. Women were used as instruments for simple pleasures, so they were treated as the slaves of passion and joy. The men were not treating women as equals.
So this is the real revolution of Qur’an. It’s trying to give the feeling of equality, saying men that woman are equal to them and which rights you possess, the women have those rights as well. The sentence here expresses that nobody have the right to prevent woman with her decisions by custom.
Bil ma’ruf the word. This Bil ma’ruf means reasonable and legal. If a woman makes a decision for her within reason and the decision is legal; then nobody, not even her guardians have the right to stop her from doing those.
vAllahu Bi ma ta’melune Habiyr; and of course the verse ends with this sentence. Know well that (or because) Allah is well acquainted with what you do.
Naturally the addressed group by this last sentence are women. Plus the guardians and husbands which put obstacles for women. As in; the husbands who make their wives take an oath like; “If my husband dies before me, I swear I won’t marry another man.” Something like that, which is highly possible at that time. But according to this verse this type of behaviour are not considered as true. But if a situation like; “Let’s continue this bond of love from now on to eternity. Let’s not accept anyone to this sacred love bond.” surfaces; then the decision lays upon the widow. The widow might choose the way of solitary but then this decision is all by her free will. It shouldn’t be based on an oath put by her late husband on her whether with physical or emotional pressure. So the verse says; if such a thing is present, Allah is well aware of its existence.
235-) Ve la cunaha aleykum fiyma ‘arradtum Bihi min hitbetin nisai ev eknentum fiy enfusikum* alimAllahu ennekum setezkurunehunne ve lakin la tuva’iduhunne sirran illa en tekulu kavlen ma’rufa* ve la ta’zimu ukdeten nikahi hatta yeblugal Kitabu eceleh* va’lemu ennAllahe ya’lemu ma fiy enfusikum fahzeruh* va’lemu ennAllahe Gafur’un Haliym;
There is no blame upon you if you hint a proposal of marriage to (divorced or widowed) women (during their waiting period), or conceal it in your heart. Allah knows that you will be inclined towards them. But do not enter into any hidden arrangements with them outside of what is customary nor bond in marriage with them until the end of the waiting period. Know that Allah knows what is in your consciousness, so heed Him. Know that Allah is the Ghafur, the Halim. (A.Hulusi)
There is no blame on you if ye make an indirect offer of betrothal or hold it in your hearts. Allah knows that ye cherish them in your hearts: But do not make a secret contract with them except in terms honorable, nor resolve on the tie of marriage till the term prescribed is fulfilled. And know that Allah Knoweth what is in your hearts, and take heed of Him; and know that Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Forbearing. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve la cunaha aleykum fiyma ‘arradtum Bihi min hitbetin nisai Women like that, which I should remind you that this is a social concept, this divorce; Rasulallah says; “Divorce is Allah’s least favorite good deed.” But sure enough it is a fact. Islam never bans the natural truths of life but it directs them to a managable direction. Puts the fact under rules. We studied several of these rules and the word comes to the woman who lost her husband. What’s gonna happen to widows? Is she stay like that forever? Several ancient civilization buries the wife with her late husband, remind you. Very interesting.
And you know what; even in this century this practice is still alive. In fact there was an incident happened in India several years ago. Many human rights organizations riotted after that. Think about it. A wife was buried alive with her dead husband according to the traditions. So if you put this tradition this brutal practice to one side, you may understand better what all these verses mean in a world 1400 years ago.
Ve la cunaha aleykum fiyma ‘arradtum Bihi min hitbetin nisai In a situation like this, there’s no obstacle for you to mention proposal to women like this, let’s translate this section as propose. Because fiyma ‘arradtum Bihi min hitbetin nisai. Proposal has been mentioned here. Qur’an doesn’t find it appropriate that you go to woman and say “Will you marry me?” out of blue in a situation like this. Her husband had died, her waiting period is still on. A man can say; “I’m thinking about marrying her.” He can intimate, give a hint. But he shouldn’t propose. That’s why there’s no sin for you to hint a proposal of marriage to divorced or widowed women.
ev eknentum fiy enfusikum or in a situation like that, there’s no sin for you to cherish your wishes in your hearts. As in there’s no sin for you to conceal your desires. No harm to you about this if you conceal your feelings. alimAllahu ennekum setezkurunehunne Allah know well, Allah knows well that you plan to propose her in the future with good intentions. That’s why there’s no harm for you to cherish your feelings in your hearts or give hints about proposal.
ve lakin la tuva’iduhunne sirran illa en tekulu kavlen ma’rufa But instead of opening your feelings for her secretly, talk to her with legal and right ways.
Look at these great principles Qur’an brought for social interactions. Look at the level of civilization in them. What should be the most modern way of communication? Now weigh this principle Qur’an has brought with this knowledge. You will see that Qur’an offers us the most pure, most clean and most unmized way of communication indeed. Don’t fall into internal bargaining, don’t deviate to some wordplays, don’t try other false ways of communication. You may not meet bad words to you from people but think about the virtue and honor of the person you propose. So do this deed like modern people, not with secret plays. If you are sincere and honest about this.
ve lakin la tuva’iduhunne sirran illa en tekulu kavlen ma’rufa instead of opening your feelings for her secretly, talk to her with legal and right ways. ve la ta’zimu ukdeten nikahi hatta yeblugal Kitabu eceleh But don’t enter into any hidden arrangements with them until the term prescribed is fulfilled. Don’t tie the knot. As in don’t say the final word until the waiting period is over.
va’lemu ennAllahe ya’lemu ma fiy enfusikum fahzeruh and never forget that whatever you hold in your hearts, Allah knows them very well. Allah knows what’s inside of you. Fahzeruh so take heed of Allah.
va’lemu ennAllahe Gafur’un Haliym; And again know well that Allah also know what you will think on your own. As in; your innerselves will not be honest. But at that point remember that Allah is Oftenly Forgiving and Most Forebearing. va’lemu ennAllahe Gafur’un Haliym; Remember, Allah always gives you time, never rushes on punishment, treat people as soft as possible and with honesty and forgivingly.
Look at this. Look at the balance Qur’an invites you. That’s the real definition of balance. At one side it says, “Take heed of Allah.” Fahzeruh. And right after that the speech continues with “Don’t forget that Allah is Oftenly Forgiving And Most Forebearing.” beynel havfi vel reca Between fear and hope. Swinging people like a pendulum. Never always in fear, never always in hope. One piece from both of them. This is the balance of feelings.
236-) La cunaha aleykum in tallaktumun nisae ma lem temessuhunne ev tefridu lehunne feriydaten, ve metti’uhunn* alel musi’i kaderuhu ve alel muktiri kaderuh* meta’an Bil ma’ruf* Hakkan alel muhsiniyn;
There is no blame upon you if you divorce women when you have not yet slept with them or specified a dowry for them. But provide them (your ex-wives) with benefits according to your ability – those with greater financial means should provide according to their capacity; those with lesser financial means should provide according to custom to the best of his ability. This is an obligation upon the doers of good.(A.Hulusi)
There is no blame on you if ye divorce women before consummation or the fixation of their dower; but bestow on them (A suitable gift), the wealthy according to his means, and the poor according to his means;- a gift of a reasonable amount is due from those who wish to do the right thing. (A.Yusuf Ali)
La cunaha aleykum in tallaktumun nisae ma lem temessuhunne ev tefridu lehunne feriydaten There is no blame upon you if you divorce women when you have not yet slept with them or specified a mihr for them. No sin for you in that situation.
A new topic. A variation of the previous one. Qur’an talks about the verdicts on several different conditions of divorced women. But here there’s another verdict, the answer of a question about women who haven’t been slept yet by their husbands and haven’t been specified on their mihrs, their dowries. There are four choices.
1-The verdict on women who haven’t been slept with and haven’t been specified on their mihrs
2-The verdict on women who haven’t been slept with but their dowries were specified.
3-The verdict on women who went throught intercourse with their new husbands but their dowries haven’t yet been specified.
4-And finally the verdict on women who haven’t been slept with, haven’t been specified on their mihrs and been divorced in that state.
Qur’an has answers for both of these four conditions. Here comes the first one. What’s gonna be needed if the woman hasn’t been slept with and her mihr hasn’t been specified? Let’s continue.
ve metti’uhunn A completion knowledge arrived here. Support them even in that state. Like, support their vital needs even in these conditions.
alel musi’i kaderuhu ve alel muktiri kaderuh Another great balance. But provide them with benefits according to your ability. The wealthy according to his means, and the poor according to his means. Support them reasonably, your ex-wives. meta’an Bil ma’ruf Support and provide them within reason. Here comes;
Hakkan alel muhsiniyn; Doing this is a task, a necessity upon those who show faith Allah as they see Allah.
Why I choose to translate muhsiniyn’i like this? Because that’s the meaning of muhsiniyn by Rasulallah’s words. When people had asked Rasulallah “Mel Ihsan”, he replied; “Worshipping like you see Allah all the time.” Yes; “En Ta’bu dallahe ke enneke terahu. Feinlemte kun terahu feinnehu yerake. Being a follower, a person of faith like you see Allah.
The explanation continues with saying, “Even if you don’t see Allah, know that Allah always sees you.” So living with that knowledge, behaving with that consciousness. I explained the muhsiniyn word, with the tafsir of Rasulallah. So these are the tasks and rights upon those who do their deeds as like they see Allah all the time.
237-) Ve in tallaktumuhunne min kabli en temessuhunne ve kad feradtum lehunne feriydaten fenisfu ma feradtum illa en ya’fune ev ya’fuvelleziy Bi yedihi ukdetun nikah* ve en ta’fu akrabu littakva* ve la tensevul fadle beynekum* innAllahe Bi ma ta’melune Basiyr;
If you divorce them after specifying a dowry but before you sleep with them, give them half the specified dowry. Unless they or those in whose hand lies the marriage contract forgoes it. To give them the full amount (of the dowry) is closer to taqwa (Protecting yourself in the way of Allah from the inadequacies of your identity). Do not forget to treat each other with grace. Certainly Allah is the Basir (evaluates all that you do). (A.Hulusi)
And if ye divorce them before consummation, but after the fixation of a dower for them, then the half of the dower (is due to them), unless they remit it or (the man’s half) is remitted by him in whose hands is the marriage tie; and the remission (of the man’s half) is the nearest to righteousness. And do not forget liberality between yourselves. For Allah sees well all that ye do. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve in tallaktumuhunne min kabli en temessuhunne ve kad feradtum lehunne feriydaten Another option this time. Another way out of divorce. What’s that? The verdict on women who haven’t been slept with but their dowries were specified. Their mihrs are specified but the first night sleep hasn’t been started yet and with that state they are divorced. fenisfu ma feradtum In that case the half of dowry you specified, you should give it to the woman you divorced.
illa en ya’fune ev ya’fuvelleziy Bi yedihi ukdetun nikah But in case they both give up or the ones who make this marriage happens give up; there’s exception. As in; both parts of divorced family says; “I gave up my right.” or the parties who has a saying on the marriage at the first time like the guardians of underaged husband or wife say “We back down and give up our rights.” The terms which specified in that case is this; you to may give your rights.
But right after that sentence there’s another advice. ve en ta’fu akrabu littakva To the divorced parties. “O, you who make the divorce happens. It’s better for you to give up your rights. Because it is you, who wants to break the bond. Your giving up your rights and making that sacrifice is more suitable for the responsibility of your consciousness.
ve la tensevul fadle beynekum In case you are about to make a sacrifice for the person for the other, don’t forget. Even if you are divorced, you are still brothers and sisters in faith. Remember, the true believers are siblings and at that point behaving with virtue and acting with selflessness is up to you. innAllahe Bi ma ta’melune Basiyr; Allah always sees what you do.
One of the main problems in modern law, the divorce problem has been explained all this time and all of a sudden, Qur’an enters another topic which looks like it has no connection to this whatsoever. Actually this is the style of Qur’an. And even we don’t see, there’s always a reason behind this style.
The new subject is salat, prays. You will say; why does a verse about prays come right after a verse about the divorce process? The reason is this. In life, in daily life, every act you do must have a consciousness in its foundations, you must be aware of your actions. There must be reason for your doings. And you should never forget the responsibilities for Allah. If the real purpose leave your mind, you put the instrument as a replacement purpose. That’s why Qur’an brings the word to salat, the first and foremost act of responsibility which keeps the consciousness of a worshipper, alive. And by that reminds you the purpose, the real purpose of life. Reminds your the goal of your acts.
The verse we studied just now. The speech ends with sacrifice, right? Giving up what you have and behave with compassion to the person in front of you. And the last sentence said; Allah sees all what you do. And now the speech is about to come to the responsibility of a person for Allah who sees all of his actions. Because the worshipping act is a confession of helplessness to Allah.
At this point, if you ask how does moral terms settle in humans, what makes it work; what needs to be done to become a human who is willing to maket his sacrifice, what should we hold onto? O true believers, here’s the way for that.
238-) Hafizu ales Salevati ves Salatil Vusta ve kumu Lillahi kanitiyn;
Maintain salat (prayer; turning to Allah) with care, (in particular) the middle salat (asr prayer – the constant experience of this in one’s consciousness). Live in full submission in the way of Allah. (A.Hulusi)
Guard strictly your (habit of) prayers, especially the Middle Prayer; and stand before Allah in a devout (frame of mind). (A.Yusuf Ali)
Hafizu ales Salevati ves Salatil Vusta maintain your salats (prayers) with care, especially the middle one. Make effort to do them right, it says. Actually this is an answer for a question, I asked that a while ago. O Rabb, how can I gain a virtue, ethics and morals so beautiful? How can I have that virtue which makes me do sacrifices, a virtue which allows me to give up my possessions, a virtue which makes me say, “let it have my brothers instead of me”? How can I reach a level of ethics like that? This is the answer of that.
Hafizu ales Salevati ves Salatil Vusta maintain your prayers especially, take effort to execute the ideal prayer.
Hafizu verb is used for mutual wish verb which is called mushareket. And it has a nature of mutalla (with stars, mentions) It’s used between two parties. The verbs derived from this section requires both parties. You may ask why we need the sides for a verb. Yes, for instance salat has two sides. The one who makes the salat and the one who is made the salat for. As in the worshipper and the worshipped. The person and Allah. But there’s a wordplay here beyond that for this mushareket verb. You preserve your salats, so that your prayers may preserve you. You watch over your prayers, so that your prayers may protect you as well.
Hafizu verb, like I said is for dual sides. Verbs derived from this reasoning always have mushareket in their meanings like katl (war), a verb which requires two sides. Yes, sharekum (make partners, shake hands). These are just two of that sectioned verbs. That’s why in this business of salat, the actions have mutual. You preserve salat, salat preserves you. You show respect to your prayers, do them with all your efforts; salat gives you the respect and effort back.
We studied different matters before. Revelations; the connections between Allah and the man. And the worshipping acts, the return of revelations from man to Allah. It almost like revelations and worships are the embodiment of the constant road of communication between men and Allah. The message which reaches us in the form of revelations; return Allah in the form of worships. Revelations are the messages of Allah to people, and worshipping acts are the replies of people to Allah. The sentence represents this fact too.
You preserve salat, so that the salat preserves you. Remember right now the phrase of Qur’an;
“..innes Salate tenha anil fahshai vel munker..” Ankebut/45
Indeed, salat keeps immorality and bad deeds away.
You see now. You show your intentions purely to salat, then salat will protect you. You have mutual gain with salat. That’s why, Hafizu ales Salevati Show care with your salats, so that salats show care for you. ves Salatil Vusta especially the ideal salat, you care for.
You may ask where’s this expression come from all of a sudden? The translations we read doesn’t say that. They say Middle Prayers. Some even say Afternoon prayers. I can say they have their own reasons and rights of their own. But I believe with my humble opinion that the message here represents this, the ideal prayer.
Many translators, translate this section of Salatil Vusta as the afternoon pray. Why? Because there are some hadiths from Rasulallah about this subject. Especially when he had cursed the heathens during Hendek Wars; Rasulallah had said; “Allah curse them, they made me skip my middle prayer.”
So scholar who uses this hadith as a back up, show the section of Salatil Vusta as the afternoon prayer. But concerning this matter, Es-Shevkani brought forward 18 different opinions in his great book, “Neylu’l Evtar.”
Also in those translation we see morning prays as well and some hadiths backing that matter.
Again some says noon prayers because one of the several meanings of Vusta is the middle, most middle. It borns from the word evsat. So the most middle one is the meaning here? What’s the conclusion from the most middle one here?
Those who think about 5 daily prayers, took the afternoon prays as the most middle one.
But those who think about the day and night circle, took the noon pray into consideration because noon is the middle of day.
Some considered the matter by the number of rekats in prayers. They suggests Salatil Vusta as evening prayers. Because it has neither 4 nor 2 sections like the other prayers. The evening pray has 3 rekats. So evening prays.
Some also says, the night prays, which have equal amount of proofs in their hands.
Morning prays, noon prays, afternoon, evening and night prays, Friday prays, Sacrifice Bayram prays, Ramadan Bayram prays, late night prays, vitir prays… There are 18 different opinions about this matter.
Of course, I believe none of them are true. I believe the message here is “Take good care with your salats, but especially all prayers are for one ultimate prayer.” All prayers are for the ideal one. So show effort to execute the ideal prayer. Because the very basic meaning of Vusta is “ideal.” The most ideal, most beautiful, perfect; these are the meanings we see in vocabulary. The most beautiful prayer, most ideal salat, perfect action. Show effort to do that.
Though you may extract this meaning if you study thie verse firmly. Also some of sahabe and scholars like Said bin Museyyib backed this opinion by saying; “This is not for any of daily prayers, in fact all 5 prayers are included here.”
Actually this opinion is what I’m trying to say here in a way. As in, it’s not one of the daily prayers. Razi said at this point when he was summarizing his opinions; “All of them are alike, none of them are superior than the other for these opinions.”
Actually what we should understand is this. With this many truths around, we should assume that the real truth must be something beyond them. I believe my words reflect that image. So this Salatil Vusta must be the ideal prayer. Whether it may be morning, noon or evening. There are also some other stories backing this fact. I read one in Taberi, for example, in one of my early translations.
“Just like Allah concealed the Kadir Night in Ramadan, just like Allah concealed true friends among people, just like Allah concealed the connection moment in Friday, (the moment of answering the prays), Allah also concealed the ideal prayer within all prayers. So that you should search for it. Think about it, ask that if you can find and make that ideal prayer. With that state of mind, every step you take, brings you closer to Allah.”
Actually Salatil Vusta is the mirac prayer. Whichever prayer becomes your mirac, that prayer is Salatil Vusta. Whichever prayer manage to connect you with Allah, that prayer is Salatil Vusta.
ve kumu Lillahi kanitiyn; Yes, with a commitment in your hearts, stand before Allah. This is the closing lne of the verse, which is fitting for this translation as well. With a commitment in your hearts stand before Allah with all your honesty. Because salat is an action of heart at first. The actions of salat, the physical side is just for backup to your real heartly action. The real importance is the heart. That’s why if you exclude your heart, your commitments from your salats, those cannot be complete.
So what really wants to be said here is this. ve kumu Lillahi kanitiyn; With real commitment from your hearts, you should stand for your prayers in front of Allah. The real commitment within your hearts. Not like; leaving your flesh and bones in front of Allah and let go your minds and hearts to some earthy matters. Don’t dwell on some other businesses. Don’t go shopping in your minds. Don’t fight with your spouses or children within the prayer. Be on the prayer when you are on the prayer.
So wherever your body is, your hearts should be there, wherever your heart and mind is, your body should also be there. First let your heart and mind execute your prayers perfectly. Only then that prayer might be the mirac prayer. That’s the definition of ves Salatil Vusta. That’s the real ideal prayer. The prayer which a person manages to make with all his body, mind, thoughts, opinions heart and emotions.
239-) Fein hiftum fericalen ev rukbana* feiza emintum fezkurullahe kema allemekum ma lem tekunu ta’lemun;
If you fear danger then you can (perform salat) while on foot or riding… When you are in safety remember (dhikr) Allah according to the teachings of the one who has taught you that which you did not know (contemplate upon the manifestations of the qualities of His Names on worldly forms).(A.Hulusi)
If ye fear (an enemy), pray on foot, or riding, (as may be most convenient), but when ye are in security, celebrate Allah’s praises in the manner He has taught you, which ye knew not (before). (A.Yusuf Ali)
Fein hiftum fericalen ev rukbana Prayers are such necessity in life, such a fundamental part of life; even the circumstances have changed, you cannot leave prayers. If you are in danger, says Qur’an, Fein hiftum if you are in a state of fear, if you are in danger, if you are in critical condition, fericalen ev rukbanen whether on foot or in a vehicle, traveling in or on something; you cannot neglect your responsibility against Allah. You shouldn’t.
So you can skip some parts of Qur’an’s physical necessities. But you should pay your debts to Allah from your heart without skipping. You have to show your responsibilities to Allah, you have to accept and participate to your meeting with Allah. You may not do your prayers on foot, you can stay, sit and do it. You may be on a journey and the circumstances really put you in a pinch. You can sacrifice several physical parts of a prayer. Or you are in a state that you cannot stand up, you can make your prayers without it. But even in the worst case, you have to be there on your meeting with Allah. Because this is the essential foundation of your responsibilities as a worshipper. You cannot pass it, you cannot skip it, you cannot delay it.
So as the most critical condition of like, the example is set on war. Fein hiftum fericalen ev rukbanen If there’s a real threat to you existence, to your life like war; even the enemy is right in front of you; even with just hints, just with your eyes and eyebrows, but with all your hearts, you should say to your Rabb;
“-O Rabb, I’m not severing my connections with you.” This is what really is a prayer.
feiza emintum fezkurullahe kema allemekum ma lem tekunu ta’lemun When you reach the safety, when the danger is passed, when the critical conditions are no longer exist, you must continue to remember Allah who taught you of things you didn’t know; like Allah taught us. The fezkurullah here means you should go back to the original state of prayers; like you should continue to do your prayers with all their physical ways, i think the meaning is clear here.
240-) Velleziyne yuteveffevne minkum ve yezerune ezvacen, vasiyyeten liezvacihim meta’an ilel havli gayra ihrac* fein haracne fela cunaha aleykum fiy ma fealne fiy enfusihinne min ma’ruf* vAllahu Aziyz’un Hakiym;
Those who die and leave widows should make a bequest for them of one year’s maintenance without them having to leave their homes. But if they choose to leave their homes, then you will not be held responsible for them as they have used their rights. Allah is the Aziz, the Hakim.(A.Hulusi)
Those of you who die and leave widows should bequeath for their widows a year’s maintenance and residence; but if they leave (the residence), there is no blame on you for what they do with themselves, provided it is reasonable. And Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Velleziyne yuteveffevne minkum ve yezerune ezvacen, Those of you who die and leave widows, here, there’s another form of divorcing, another form of women. Be careful. Velleziyne yuteveffevne minkum ve yezerune ezvacen, Those of you who die and leave widows vasiyyeten liezvacihim meta’an ilel havli gayra ihrac yes, an entirely different situation. They should make a bequest for them of one year’s maintenance without them having to leave their homes. As in, they should make a bequest that those women should be able to stay in their late husbands home without getting evicted and they should have a years maintenance, says this verse.
Today, even in this society, this has a great importance. Think about the conditions of that community. Think about a woman without a child, loses her husband; and by brothers of that person, they kick the woman out of her house. The next day of her very loss. Should she mourn the loss of her beloved, or her pain or her getting betrayed and kicked out to streets. So this verse is a solution to a problem even exists in these days.
That’s why almost every translator and scholars studying this verse, have taken this 240th verse with the verse 234. And since the situation presents similar scenarios, they have been compelled to revoke the other. The topic might be same but situations differs. But if we put them both in the same scale, there’s a contradiction surfaces. Because other verse was saying, the widows, the women whose husbands are dead and they are left behing should wait for 4 months and 10 days.
That was in 234th verse. But now the verse says, they should be able to maintain themselves without having the fear of getting evicted. Getting kicked out of her late husbands home. If you look at the situation closely, you may see that the topics of these two verses are quite different. The concept of the first verse was the waiting period, but here the topic comes to maintenance. So the time period of previous verse is all about the iddet. But here it’s a totally different time. This is a form of alimony. If a woman says; “I will stay in my husbands home, I have to stay for a while, I have nowhere else to go.” Then nobody has the power to force her out of the house. No such thing can be done. And if the late husband puts this particular wish in his will before; the wish of the husband closes the matter.
This will is a form of “el vasiyyetun vecibe.” A vacip will. A mandatory will. That’s why the administrator should act like the husband gives this will, this request and by that nobody has the power to evict the widow out of her house and cuts her out of the left behind belongings, the inheritance. If she’s still a widow, as in not married again. The real distinction is this. If she’s still single, her 1 year of maintenance and home must be a part of the will and must be given from the late husbands inheritance.
vasiyyeten liezvacihim meta’an ilel havli gayra ihrac Yes, without getting them out of their homes. fein haracne fela cunaha aleykum fiy ma fealne fiy enfusihinne min ma’ruf but if they choose to leave the home, there is no blame on you for what they do with themselves, no sin or blame on them for their legit and reasonable doings. As in; the widow might take a decision of getting married again, she leaves the house and marries another man; there’s no blame for them in that situation. But if the situation is different, nobody can force her out. vAllahu Aziyz’un Hakiym; Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise.
The reason of the end sentence here, the last words Aziyz and Hakiym, are not there by coincidence of course. Because there’s a bad tradition here crushed down. Can you imagine how hard to cut out a rule so deep from a society? So here Allah says that society, this.
Allah has the power to cut out the falsehoods you have been using all these centuries. Allah has the power because Allah is Aziyz. So, if you ask; if you pull yourselves together enough to blame yourselves rather than blaming Allah, know well that there’s a wisdom and it’s all for your benefits. That’s why you better know that Allah’s orders have always a wisdom in them and they are for your own well-beings. Accept them as they are and act on them.
241-) Ve lil mutallekati metaun Bil ma’ruf* Hakkan alel muttekiyn;
Divorced women have the right to receive provision according to custom; this is an obligation upon those with taqwa. (A.Hulusi)
For divorced women maintenance (should be provided) on a reasonable (scale). This is a duty on the righteous. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve lil mutallekati metaun Bil ma’ruf Now a verse arrives to sum up the entire topic. This verse doesn’t explain an option or a specific situation. Of course according to us. That’s why, it’s more true to translate it like this. Ve lil mutallekati metaun Bil ma’ruf their maintenance should be provided on a legit scale, within reason. As in; if you ask why these orders came from heavens because that’s how divorced woman can be provided with maintenance. Hakkan alel muttekiyn; This is a task for those who realize their responsibilities. Qur’an says this and closes the topic.
242-) Kezalike yubeyyinullahu lekum ayatihi leallekum ta’kilun;
Thus Allah explains the laws of existence for you, so that you may use your reason. (A.Hulusi)
Thus doth Allah make clear His Signs to you in order that ye may understand. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Kezalike yubeyyinullahu lekum ayatihi The closing verse of the entire topic is this. That’a how Allah explains the verses for you. leallekum ta’kilun; So that, hopefully you use your heads, use your minds, follow these rules Allah put for your benefit, and with that you reach the eternal happiness.
243-) Elem tera ilelleziyne harecu min diyarihim ve hum ulufun hazerel mevt* fekale lehumullahu mutu summe ahyahum* innAllahe lezufadlin alenNasi ve lakinne ekseranNasi la yeshkurun;
Did you not see the thousands who abandoned their homes out of fear of death? Allah said to them ‘Die’ and then brought them back to life. Undoubtedly, Allah is bountiful to mankind, but most of them do not appreciate (the bounty that is provided). (A.Hulusi)
Didst thou not turn by vision to those who abandoned their homes, though they were thousands (in number), for fear of death? Allah said to them: “Die”: Then He restored them to life. For Allah is full of bounty to mankind, but Most of them are ungrateful. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Elem tera ilelleziyne harecu min diyarihim ve hum ulufun hazerel mevt Another topic,different situations. But irrelevant? No..! No, it’s not. Different yet there’s a connection. Think about the previous verse, the last verse we studied. Kezalike yubeyyinullahu lekum ayatihi leallekum ta’kilun; That’a how Allah explains the verses for you.So hopefully you use your heads and find the truth.
This verse sees both the above and below. How? Firstly it sees the below. Let’s check out the history. See what situation the societies have got themselves into, societies which hadn’t listened the verses and kept their promises. A window is opened to history. But we cannot be sure this window shows us the history or the future. That’s why there’s an example here. Qur’an pulls in human to entire timeline and shows us an example. That representation is this.
Elem tera as the starting line. Look at it, I think the accurate translation should be like this. Look at it, didn’t you see. The literal translation gives us those meanins. But this phrase is mostly for tenebbuh (getting your wits) and for intibah (awareness). All in all this phrase is for warning. Giving the other parties a lesson. That’s why the meanings match with expressions like look at it, don’t you know, no one tells you about this… Some pieces like these start with Elem tera, which gives us a meaning of “aren’t you aware yet like you witnessed this?” You know, just like the elephant incident we have been told. Elem tera keyfe feale Rabbuke Bi ashabil fiyl; Fiyl/1
The situation described here is different than that; Elem tera ilelleziyne harecu min diyarihim ve hum ulufun hazerel mevt Did you not see the thousands even with thousands of counts min diyarihim who abandoned their homes out of fear their homes out of fear. This is a scolding.
fekale lehumullahu mutu summe ahyahum Allah said to them: “Die”, or with a more bad language if we put here bluntly; drop dead.” Because they didn’t know that fear doesn’t help to death. Because they lost their moral and ethics virtues to death. Actually what really wants to be surfaced here is the fear of death situation.
Dear friends, those who are ready for death, only dies once. Those who are afraid from death, dies every time he sees a death. It’s like the fear of hunger. Hungry person might be sated. But the person whose afraid of hunger cannot be. It’s like this. People who are afraid of death are usuaaly the people who are low on their faiths to afterlife or non-believers altogether. Because for them, death is the end, the finish. But for the people who think death is not an end, not a finish; those who know that death is just the beginning of a new afterlife and get their preperations, if those people go far enough to earn Allah’s companionship, then the day of death becomes sheb-i aruz. The wedding day. The day of Reunion, the day of getting back together. Rasulallah’s last words reflect this notion. Ila Rafikil ala..! “I’m going to my friend.”
Can you scare a person like that with death. Is it possible to scare a person with death, a person who says, I’m going to my friend? You go against him and say “I’m going to kill you.” what does that words represent for him.” Doesn’t he say “Fine… Do it.” Who can scare him with death?
One of the greatest names is Islamic history Ibn. Temiyye was threathened with death. And he replied to the same person who made the threat with these words. “My death is martyrhood, my carceration is meditation, my exile is hejira. What can my enemies do to me. I’m carrying heavens in my heart.”
What can they do to you, if you carry your paradise in your hearts? They fear people who cannot scare with death. Because they freeze even with the idea of it. Those who fear death also fear people who don’t share the same fears. That’s why they always fear from true believers and open war against them. Out of fear. Because you cannot buy a person with anything if he has no fear of death. You cannot overprize the heaven for people who discard the fear of death in their lives. You cannot get to them if you cannot give heaven. That’s why the level of a martyr is extremely high. That’s why the martyr figure in Islam has a huge respect and rank.
fekale lehumullahu mutu Allah said to them, “Die”. Or like I said before, if the phrase was used for a curse; “Drop dead.” summe ahyahum then he brought them back to life. innAllahe lezufadlin alenNasi ve lakinne ekseranNasi la yeshkurun; No doubt Allah is bountiful to mankind, ve lakinne ekseran Nasi la yeshkurun; but most of them do not appreciate.
You may ask, what’s the story here. There are many speculations about the incident mentioned here. Many many long and different stories that contradicts each others in translations. When I collected them together I witnessed an Israelian similarity to the stories in Talmut. And yet there’s no verse in Qur’an or a hadith in sunnet that backs this claim. That’s why I won’t go that road. Also Rashid Riza and El Benna said that too in their translations.
These verses which starts with the form of Elem tera may not necessarily be happened before. As in, there’s no necessity that an incident like this occured in the past. It might be a representation. Alegory or dramatic approach. Like, it might be a dramatization. The Rabb of All Worlds might show us a representation to make us understand the truth.
This opinion is not something to ignore. Although considering verses in Qur’an as representation is a dangerous approach, we should accept the depths of representation in some stories in Qur’an. So it’s not a necessity, considering every verse happened in the past. On top of that, what’s really meant to be told as truth here, what’s the verses real message to us; I say it openly; Allah warns us about societies which their ethics and moral virtues are crushed by the fear of death. A society neglects even quits their moral obligations because of the fear of death.Can you imagine? They refuse to defend the truth in case their lives might be in danger. They stop defending the justice. Obey the tyranny. Whether it’s a person or an entire society.
What’s that mean? They quit moral responsibilities out of fear of death. That fear crushed and destroyed that society. What’s that societies future then? What’s its end as socially and morally? They are dead, dear friends. Death! A social demise. Dissolution. Corruption. That society can no longer be alive ans well. A society which its individuals quit and neglect their moral obligations and responsibilities out of death fear; has no future.
Nonetheless, sometimes these responsibilities might bring the person to the death. The feeling of justice may take a persons life. A man can put his life on the line in order to prevent an injustice to another person. Maybe it’s how it should be.
Moral concerns might force you to put your life on the line for small reasons. It’s possible. That’s why dear friends, what described here was an incident happened long ago or not, there’s no information about it, no solid proof we have got. But the message of the verse is eternal and will not fade until the Judgement Day. “Don’t let the fear of death cloud your moral obligations. Don’t let the fear of death force you to leave your ethic duties. You cannot live in a society where everyone is afraid of death and because of that fear, they leave their duties to their beliefs. Because sometimes you have to die in order to live.
Just like the poem of Attila Ilhan; “We should die to live.” Sometimes death comes first to live. A martyr gives his life to preserve the life. He dies for others to live. A martyr is the person who can put his life on the line in order to prevent others to fear from death, more importantly moral corruption and let them find their own moral resurrection.
That’s why dear friends, we should understand the verse like this. ekseranNasi la yeshkurun; Again, I want you to pay attention; ve lakinne ekseranNasi la yeshkurun; But unfortunately most people are ungreatful to Allah. They don’t show their appreciations by not saying their thanks.
There are three different forms in Qur’an on this particular phrase. As in the form which begins with “Most of the people.” In fact they are 18 of them. 18 of the verses in Qur’an end with a similar phrase like this. One of them;
ekseranNasi la Ya’lemun. Translation; most of the people are ignorant. They don’t know. 3 of them come with ekseranNasi la yeshkurun.Just like this verse over here. la Ya’lemun, la yeshkurun, la Yu’minun. They are ignorant, they dont know. They are ungreatful, they don’t realize the blessing Allah gave to them. They don’t know the blessing. He who don’t know the blessing; could it be possible for him to realize that he should be grateful? He who cannot realize the connection between the blessing and the blesser, cannot show his appreciation to the owner of the blessing. Because he’s unable to notice the real source.
This is the ignorance, and the person in that situation is called ignorant. It’s not about unable to notice the blessing; Abu-Cehil, the father of ignorance Abu-Cehil. He wasn’t a person who cannot comprehend the blessing, He’s even a person who knows that Allah gives us the rain fro skies. He knows that Allah is the one who makes the weeds grow from ground. He believes that Allah is the Rabb of Kaaba. But what couldn’t he managed to do? He cannot make the connections between the things he saw with his own eyes and the power between those things. Or he put the connection poorly. Putting other things between the source and the things, putting cunduits, idols over that connections.
That’s why he saw the creation but he cannot see the creator. And since he cannot see the creator, he cannot show his appreciation. And unable to appreciate, he fall into blasphemy, he denied. la Yu’minun He didn’t show Faith, he couldn’t find the truth. Because he couldn’t reach the owner of the truth. He was stucked on the things that eyes see. It’s like the Cahz said; “Don’t just look at the things that eyes see, try to reach the truth lies behind those things. But he couldn’t do that. Yes, the things he said; don’t just look with your eyes, look with your mind. But his mind couldn’t comprehend the things he saw. And since only the eyes in charge, eventually eyes fooled him. Because sometimes your eyes might fool you. A broken staff you see in water might not be broken in real, it might very well be a light play. But if you cannot use your heads you cannot understand that staff is not broken. Just like that, you might be fooled.
244-) Ve katilu fiy sebiylillahi va’lemu ennAllahe Semiy’un ‘Aliym;
Fight in the way of Allah and know well that Allah is the Sami and the Aleem.(A.Hulusi)
Then fight in the Cause of Allah, and know that Allah Heareth and Knoweth all things. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Another different yet connected topic. Because fear of death and war are always related. Actually we studied that in the verse 216.
Kutibe aleykumul kitalu ve huve kurhun lekum (Baqarah/216) War has been ordained for you, even though you despise it.
A parentheses was opened in the verse 217. War happens and when it does, men dies. When men dies wives become widows. Types of widows… Etc. Qur’an showed us the topic with all its details and closed the parantheses there. And now we are back to 216 again, the war topic re-opens.
War is a fact. What is war, I explained it before. In Islam, war is, defending the truth. Defending the Hakk. That’s why war is all about defending and protecting what is truth, god and the ultimate law. Defending human, thing, nature and Allah’s truth. Basically it means defending the truth on the way of Allah. That’s why the phrase comes; Ve katilu fiy sebiylillahi on the way of Allah.
War is legit if only it’s done on the way of Allah. You cannot fight for wealth. For example is it all right to murder someone for national causes? Because if you kill someone for personal reasons, you become a murderer, but if you kill someone for national causes, they give you medal. No, you cannot even fight for national causes. You can only make a war for defending the truth. Western civilizations had made a massacre in Middle East. Gulf War was one of the example. But same civilizations didn’t touch the massacre in Bosnia. There was no need for humanity for them in that ground. Because there was no national cause in Bosnia. If they were bringing peace and democracy, if they were defending the truth hundreds of thousands children wouldn’t have died there. A cause like defending the truth, they should have reached Bosnia the very day the death screams of children began.
That’s why in Islam, defending the truth is considered legit. And these orders are invitations to maket his defend. An order. Ve katilu fiy sebiylillahi On the way of Allah, you can also understand it, on the way of truth. Fight to defend the truth.
va’lemu ennAllahe Semiy’un ‘Aliym; And know well that Allah hears all and knows all. Allah knows why you really fight, what you think deep in your hearts. Whatever you say to outside. If you do that war just for recieving peoples reactions like “Look at him, what a fighter.” “Look, he’s a hero.” or you say something like “Let’s do this war then we start to loot.” inside your heart, or your causes really lays with your race, your clan, your nation or some other earthly concept; then all of these are not defending the Hakk. Because it’s your answer which makes the war legal or illegal. If you die in an illegal war or if you kill someone in it; you are a man for fire, according to the prophet. Yes, El katl vel maktul fail emr. Both the dead and the killer. Because the fight wasn’t for truth, hence illegal.
For a struggle to become legit, for a war which includes death to become legal, it must definitely be done to defend the truth. That’s the only possible answer. Why? Because in order to defend the truth, you should be on the side of oppressed, and the opposite side of the tyrant. Even the tyrant is your own brother. Sometimes the oppressed side is the other and the oppressors are from yours. From your race or clan. Even from your religion. Doesn’t matter. Whoever you are, whoever they are; the war must be done with oppressed against the tyrany. That’s the symbol, the attitude of a Muslim. You cannot deviate a single inch from this fact.
245-) Menzelleziy yukridullahe kardan hasenen feyudaifehu lehu ad’afen kesiyreten, vAllahu yakbidu ve yebsut* ve ileyhi turce’un;
Who will want to lend Allah a good loan and receive it back in manifold! It is Allah who constricts (contraction and restriction within the ego; the Qabid) and grants relief (opens, expands, spreads with the Names; the Basit)… To Him you will be returned!(A.Hulusi)
Who is he that will loan to Allah a beautiful loan, which Allah will double unto his credit and multiply many times? It is Allah that giveth (you) want or plenty, and to Him shall be your return.(A.Yusuf Ali)
Menzelleziy yukridullahe kardan hasenen feyudaifehu lehu ad’afen kesiyreten Now, before I give you the meaning, there’s a reminder. In the war you make for defending the truth, you cannot think about the loot. On the contrary, in the battle of defending the hakk, the warrior must prepare to “give” not “take”. You shouldn’t fight for take, for profit. You shouldn’t kill people for profit. No gain on earth can match the value of human life. But you know what? If there’s an obstacle between men and truth, you should remove the obstacle. Even that obstacle is a human. In that case your fight becomes legit and your actions will be justified.
So at this point, a man who fights for the defense of truth, cannot fight for profit. Therefore, a person of truth is a person of sacrifice. Instead of waiting for profit or loot, he spends his money. This verse is about that.
Menzelleziy yukridullahe kardan hasenen feyudaifehu lehu ad’afen kesiyreten Who will want to lend Allah a good loan and receive it back in manifold? That’s the question of this verse. Who will give Allah a loan willingly and beautifully, a loan which Allah will pay back with multiplying. The verse talks about giving a loan to Allah. Actually back in the days; the Madina Jews were making fun of it, when a verse in that form arrived. “Look, look what he’s saying now again. Allah is poor, we are rich. And we will give loan to Allah.”
They were dragging the words backwards. Actually they were nowhere near understanding it. Or more specifically, they chose not to. Allah doesn’t need a loan. Never gets hungry or thirsty. So what’s this then. Taking a loan, giving credit. Who do you open credit to, can it be a person you trust. That’s how Allah test the trust for believers.
1-First of all, the trust problem. You only give a loan to someone you trust. Do you give money if you know it won’t come back? No, you won’t. So if you believe Allah will pay back to you, then you have no problem spending your money on the way of Allah. How much you believe in the scale of return, is the scale of spending for you. With a little bit of hesitation, you choose not to give. “Now, now… Ok, we will spend on the way of Allah, for the religion of Allah, for the blessing of Allah; but will all those come back? What if Allah choose not to give back?” If a person has this thought, cannot spend. Because he always in fear of, this is going to be a dead investment. If that person has trust issues, he cannot spend.
2-What’a the other point this verse wants us to pay attention? The Rabb of All Worlds wants the human to take action first, in order to give him something. As in, Allah wants human to give a reason. Because that’s sunnet. That’s the way, that’s the rule. That’s the rule Allah put. Human acts first, Allah gives later with multiple. Even with nature, this rule of Allah applies. First you lay a seed to ground, then you get back one to ten, one to twenty, thirty. But you should put it there first.
Also the thing you plant; remember that Allah gave it to you in the first place as well. Because nothing you own is yours. You borned naked. When you came from your mother, you had nothing. Not even your legs and arms are yours. That’s why giving things (to Allah) you were given (by Allah) and getting things (from Allah) with much more, that’s because of Sunnetullah. So as a law of universe, you have to start the action to get the reaction. Gayretullah. So that Allah will return to you with much more.
vAllahu yakbidu ve yebsut Allah sometimes constricts, sometimes expands. Sometimes restricts, sometimes opens. Sometimes tests by taking, sometimes by giving. Testing by giving is better than testing by taking? That’s where the gratitude happens.
“O Rabb, hamd is for you. Thanks for what you give, o Rabb. and also Hamd for what you take. Why, because you were the one who give me the first place. So you can give again, O Rabb. That’s why these thanks. You may take back more for the third time and yet you can give more for the next. That’s why these thanks to you, O Rabb.”
As you can see all Hamds, all thanks are for Allah. Allah thanks belong to Allah.
Femmel’Insanu iza mebtelahu Rabbuhu feekremehu ve na'(gg)amehu feyekulu Rabbiy ekremen; (Fecr/15)
But as for man, when his Rabb tries him and is generous to him and bestows His bounties upon him, he says, “My Rabb has honored me, and preferred me (and becomes spoilt).”
A man, when his Rabb gives him something, when he’s tested by getting things, he says “My Rabb preferred me.” As in secretly he’s saying; “I’m worthy, I mean, I worked hard to earn these.”
Ve emma iza mebtelahu fekadere ‘aleyhi rizkahu feyekulu Rabbiy ehanen; (Fecr/16)
But when He tries him with an affliction and restricts his provision, he (impatiently) says, “My Rabb has debased and humiliated me.”
But sometimes in some periods of like Allah starts testing, even with the expression of this verse; fekadere ‘aleyhi rizkahu as in restricts his blessing, his provision. Not saying takes them all back. A man cannot survive in that scenario. He cannot exist. Even our breaths are from Allah. But Allah can restrict, puts the provisions to a scale. Once the provisions were limitless but when the restrictions begin; do you know what that person says?
feyekulu Rabbiy ehanen; I was betrayed. My Rabb betrayed me. Kella, don’t you ever do something like that. Don’t follow that path.
246-) Elem tera ilel melei min beniy israiyle min ba’di Musa* iz kalu li Nebiyyin lehumub’as lena meliken nukatil fiy sebiylillah* kale hel aseytum in kutibe aleykumul kitalu ella tukatilu* kalu ve ma lena ella nukatile fiy sebiylillahi ve kad uhricna min diyarina ve ebnaina* felemma kutibe aleyhimul kitalu tevellev illa kaliylen minhum* vAllahu Aliym’un Biz zalimiyn;
Did you not see the group from the Children of Israel after the time of Moses, they had said to their Nabi, “Disclose for us a king (leader) and we will fight in the way of Allah.” The Nabi asked, “What if war is prescribed for you and you refrain from fighting?”… They said, “Why shouldn’t we fight in the way of Allah? Especially when we have been driven out of our homes and from our children!” But when war was prescribed upon them, except for a few of them, they turned away from fighting. Allah (as the One who created them with His Names) is Aleem (All Knowing) of the wrongdoers.(A.Hulusi)
Has thou not turned thy vision to the Chiefs of the Children of Israel after (the time of) Moses? they said to a prophet (that was) among them: “Appoint for us a king, that we may fight in the cause of Allah.” He said: “Is it not possible, if ye were commanded to fight, that ye will not fight?” They said: “How could we refuse to fight in the cause of Allah, seeing that we were turned out of our homes and our families?” but when they were commanded to fight, they turned back, except a small band among them. But Allah Has full knowledge of those who do wrong. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Elem tera ilel melei min beniy israiyle min ba’di Musa Again; a verse started with Elem tera but this time it had happened. An occurance of the past. The verse takes us all the way back to an incident happened in the sons of Israel era. Why? Because it’s going to tell us what happens when the advices of the previous verse couldn’t keep.
Look at sons of Israel, the leaders of sons of Israel after Moses, look at them. iz kalu li Nebiyyin lehum They were saying to one of their prophets; ub’as lena meliken nukatil fiy sebiylillah “Choose us a king and we fight on the way of Allah.” Look at it. Choose us a king and then we fight on the way of Allah.
There’s an old saying, he who wishes not to play, makes the excuse over the small playground. First of all, choosing a king is not a necessity for fighting on the way of Allah. Also, they already have a prophet, he might very well be the commander. They also need a king? But there’s no objection there, all right.
kale hel aseytum in kutibe aleykumul kitalu ella tukatilu The answer of the prophet. There are some indications in Tora that this prophet mentioned here is the prophet Samuel.
Again the prophet Samuel answers. He says; “Fine, but when this thing is written to you. When the order comes from Allah now, will you become rebels to Allah by backing off from fighting then?”
Kalu They answered: ve ma lena ella nukatile fiy sebiylillahi ve kad uhricna min diyarina ve ebnaina “How could we refuse to fight in the cause of Allah, seeing that we were turned out of our homes and our families?” That was their answer.
felemma kutibe aleyhimul kitalu And per their wishes Allah ordered them war. Tevellev but they turned their faces away. illa kaliylen minhum Except a few of them; every one of them turned their faces away from Allah’s order. vAllahu Aliym’un Biz zalimiyn; Allah knows of those who do wrong to themselves.
What’s this verse saying. If you remember the situation of this verses first addressed group, you also understand the meaning of this verse. First readers, the year two of the Hajira That was exactly the case happening back then. They were begging to Rasulallah. “O Rasullallah, Allah should give us the permission to fight.” From the historical records and translations we also learnt then some of these people were the first ones to object as soon as the war order was really given to them.
Yes, when the lesson couldn’t be taken from history, the mistakes are bound to be happened. And the future won’t be an exception for this fact. That’s why they blame Allah, if they want something but not honest with their wishes. This verse shows us this fact.
247-) Ve kale lehum Nebiyyuhum innAllahe kad bease lekum Talute melika* kalu enna yekunu lehul mulku aleyna ve nahnu ehakku Bil mulki minhu ve lem yu’te se’aten minel mal* kale innAllahastefahu aleykum ve zadehu bestaten fiyl ilmi vel cism* vAllahu yu’tiy mulkeHU men yesha’* vAllahu Vasi’un Aliym;
Their Nabi said to them, “Indeed Allah has disclosed Talut as a king for you.” They said, “How can he have sovereignty over us when we are worthier of sovereignty than he and he has no abundance of wealth?” Their Nabi said, “Certainly Allah has chosen him over you and increased him in (depth of) knowledge and body.” Allah gives (the administration of) His sovereignty to whom He wills. Allah is the Wasi, the Aleem. (A.Hulusi)
Their Prophet said to them: “Allah hath appointed Talut as king over you.” They said: “How can he exercise authority over us when we are better fitted than he to exercise authority, and he is not even gifted, with wealth in abundance?” He said: “Allah hath chosen him above you, and hath gifted him abundantly with knowledge and bodily prowess: Allah Granteth His authority to whom He pleaseth. Allah is All-Embracing, and He knoweth all things.” (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve kale lehum Nebiyyuhum innAllahe kad bease lekum Talute melika Their Prophet said to them: “You asked for a king so Allah has appointed Talut as king over you.” Kalu, Look now, how the sons of Israel turns immediately to Jewminded individuals. Like I said before, those who don’t want to play, now they are about to give excuses. They are always unable to pull a plane but they give their excuses as there is no plane around to pull. kalu they said enna yekunu lehul mulku aleyna “How can he have authority over us ve nahnu ehakku Bil mulki when we are better fitted minhu than him, ve lem yu’te se’aten minel mal and he is not even gifted, with wealth in abundance.” Like that two things is a must for ruling. Look at the logic here. We are more worthy than him for ruling. Who are they? ve lem Aristocracy. The rich class. The over the top individuals of a society. This logic of, “If there’s something to eat, we are the ones who should it it first.” is admissible even today. Isn’t that right? The 3 percent of the world open war against the remaining 97 percent. Why? “Because we should eat. You have nowhere near our loot. The society ask for their share from the wealth. They say no, we are worthy of having them all. We will always be here to maintain this income. You? you are only worthy enough to fight over for our leftovers. They say this to the rest of the world. So naturally those who have this kind of logic, sets their argument over that. He wasn’t gifted and rich. As in to be able to rule, he should already be rich.
This logic is present even today. It kind of resembles the American democracy. In American democracy; for a person to run for president, even to be counted as candidate, he should spend millions of dollars for his campain. A campain for a president run is almost the same as a countries entire wealth. What kind of democracy is this? Of course I’m not the person to have the answer to that question. But you see, right? Can a person without any money have a saying on that matter? Can he say; “I have the right to be elected, I’m a citizen of this country, so I will run for that position.”? If millions of dollars are a necessity for just having a position to rule some parties; the situation is like saying; “Ok, we will kill you know, but after your death all your foods, sustenances are from us.” Like a death person cares about eating. It’s this. And this logic have a go, even today. If he has no wealth, he has no right to rule.
Kale Of course the prophet answers this logic. innAllahastefahu Allah chose him over you, put him in a superiour position than you, in other words. Mustapha comes from the same root. Chosen, superior. innAllahastefahu aleykum Allah chose him over you. ve zadehu bestaten fiyl ilmi gifted him abundantly with knowledge vel cism and also in physical sense. vAllahu yu’tiy mulkeHU men yesha Allah gives His sovereignty to whom He wills. vAllahu Vasi’un Aliym; Allah is limitless. Yes, Allah is limitless and Allah knows all. Look at the scale of superiority and authority for Allah. Knowledge. A close knowledge, respected knowledge. They say wealth and Allah says knowledge for authority.
248-) Ve kale lehum Nebiyyuhum inne ayete mulkiHİ en ye’tiyekumut tabutu fiyhi sekiynetum min Rabbikum ve bekiyyetun mimma terake alu Musa ve alu Harune tahmiluhul Melaiketu, inne fiy zalike leayeten lekum in kuntum mu’miniyn;
Their Nabi told them, “Certainly, a sign of his sovereignty is that a coffin (heart; universal consciousness) will come to you in which there will be happiness (inner peace and tranquility) from your Rabb, and relics (knowledge) left behind by the family of Moses and Aaron. The angel (the forces of the Names in your essence) will bring it to you. Certainly there is a clear sign in this, if you are of the believers.(A.Hulusi)
And (further) their Prophet said to them: “A sign of his authority is that there shall come to you the Ark of the Covenant, with (an assurance) therein of security from your Lord, and the relics left by the family of Moses and the family of Aaron, carried by angels. In this is a symbol for you if ye indeed have faith.” (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve kale lehum Nebiyyuhum inne ayete mulkiHİ en ye’tiyekumut tabutu Their Prophet said to them: “Certainly, a sign of his sovereignty is that he will have a heart like this. Tabutu I find it more suitable to translate this as heart. Tabutu Almost all of translations this part comes as the Ark of Covenant. The coffin that the all of the sacred remainings of the prophets of sons of Israel. But some of the translators like Ragip el-Isfahani, Zemahsheri (in Esas-ul Belega), Havili (in Tac*ul Aruz) and Ibn Esir (in his Nihaye), they give the meaning of heart to this word and I believe it’s a great meaning. It fits perfectly.
Yes, fiyhi sekiynetum Why? A heart is given to him full of calm and peace. min Rabbikum a heart full of calmness and peace from your Rabb. ve bekiyyetun mimma terake alu Musa ve alu Harune tahmiluhul Melaiketu And the legacy of Moses and Aaron family which is carried by angels. What could this legacy be, inherited from Moses and Aaron family, a heritage carried by angels? Why, the revelations, of course. Only angels carry the revelations, just like before they had carried them for Moses and Aaron family and the other prophets from them. The heritage, the legacy is the constant values, the unchangable celestial messages. I believe the meaning here is this.
inne fiy zalike leayeten lekum in kuntum mu’miniyn; If you truly believe, this will be the sign for you on the pursue of truth. As in, this will be the sign that Talut is indeed appointed by Allah to you as a leader. Their prophets said to them.
In our next lesson, we will study the incident of David and Goliath further and hopefully from Allah, with a wide method.
“Ve ahiru davana velil hamdulillahi rabbil alemiyn” (Jonah/10) “Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the Worlds!” All products of our claims, causes and lives are for Allah and our last word to our Allah is “Hamd”.