Dear Qur’an fellows, in our previous lesson we had studied feraiz a.k.a inheritance laws and today we will continue our lesson on womens rights and their impacts on the era which Qur’an had arrived at.
Qur’an takes fornication matter at hand now since the previous lessons topics on inheritance and possessions law were all about the unjustice distribution of wealth. From that origion Qur’an wants us to pay attention to this problem that are caused by moral corruption, tyranny, oppression and such.
The problem of fornication is connected to one of the five constant values of humanity that are brought down via prophets. These five principle or five basic human rights are these.
1-Living right. Safety of life.
2-Believing right. Safety of religion.
3-Possession right. Safety of wealth.
4-Generation right. Safety of bloodline.
5-Thinking right. Safety and freedom of thinking and speech.
This particular problem is considered under the banner of generation safety. The fornication problem is an obstacle to that right. So basically, fornication is the violation of one of the basic safeties in humanity. The social corruption and dissolution starts with the dissolution in family. Dissolved families create dissolved societies.
That’s why fornication is the enemy of family institute. Such a crime, such a sin, such a shameful act that creates this hole in families should naturally be mentioned and punished by revelations. Because defending this act is considered as praising and no sane man praises a sin. Praising a sin is considered a foul behaviour. We start our lessons within this frame now.
15-) Vellatiy ye’tiynel fahishete min nisaikum festeshhidu aleyhinne erbeaten minkum* fein shehidu fe emsikuhunne fiyl buyuti hatta yeteveffa hunnel mevtu ev yec’alellahu lehunne sebiyla;
Bring forth four witnesses against women who engage in harlotry. If they (all four of them) testify, confine them to their houses until death takes them, or until Allah opens another path for them (until they repent). (A.Hulusi)
If any of your women are guilty of lewdness, take the evidence of four (reliable) witnesses from amongst you against them; and if they testify, confine them to houses until death do claim them, or Allah ordain for them some (other) way. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Vellatiy ye’tiynel fahishete min nisaikum For your women are guilty of indecency.
The word el fahishe has several meanings. Prostitute, naturally. But we cannot limit the word with just that. All kinds of sex offenses can be included here. Then again we cannot limit the term el fahishe with just sex offenses either. All forms of indecency, overstepping, shameful behaviours are in this terms ground. So with that it cannot be true to limit this verse with only sex offenses.
Yes, for your women are guilty of indecency.
festeshhidu aleyhinne erbeaten minkum bring forth four witness testifying her indecency. Qur’an asks for four peoples witness statements in order to accept the accusation of a persons fornication. For all other crimes, Qur’an asks for 2 witnesses but in the fornication business, it is asked 4 witnesses. This is because to prevent any kind of slandering. Because a victim of a slander on fornication becomes a cast out and they are usually from weak women. Allah’s intention is to save those women by preventing them from becoming a victim of a slander.
That’s why it is asked for 4 witnesses. A hadith from Rasulallah backs this verse, I wouldn’t mentioned this but it has the same principle.
- Each one of the witnesses should testify as they see the thing like putting a ring to a finger.
All people can accept the hardness of such a thing. So if you ask why this over the top requirements, this is from Allah’s compassion, a reflection of Allah’s mercy so that many people can be protected from and form of slandering on this subject.
Of course if a person commits the act of fornication and no one has the idea of the thing that happened, then it’s that persons problem with Allah. So shall she/he solve it with Allah.
For a community who left a fornicator unpunished, there’s no crime for that community. But to the opposite if people slanders a person with fornication even he/she hadn’t done anything, it is considered oppression and murder. There are many examples like this in history. That’s why Qur’an foresees it and asks for 4 witnesses in order to prevent such things.
Of course the details of this 4 witnesses business, Islamic scholars of law have been considering the lifestyle, home behaviours and even arcitecture under consideration. Whether the door is open or closed, the patio wall is high or low. Anything blocking the view in garden or roof. Because in a community where people can sleep anywhere, anything sleep related can be misunderstood. So just like the details may change, the requirements of witnesses also changes. In this modern era, the DNA test is one of these requirements and may be the only conclusive way to end the dispute over such problems.
fein shehidu fe emsikuhunne fiyl buyuti If they (all four of them) testify, confine them to their houses hatta yeteveffa hunnel mevtu ev yec’alellahu lehunne sebiyla; Until when? Until death takes them, or until Allah opens another path for them.
Here the expression of ev yec’alellahu lehunne sebiyla; until Allah opens another path for them. The word lehunne; according to famous translator Ebu Muslim El Isfahani; it may be considered as until a way out for their advantage. This approach is true and healthy. The meaning can also be defended by another verse in Baqarah chapter.
leha ma kesebet ve aleyhamektesebet (Baqarah/286) Every good deeds are for your advantage and every evil deed are for your disadvantage. This leha word has the same usage and meaning as we said here. That’s why it may be considered an accurate and true approach.
Again the same scholar Ebu Muslim El Isfahani; indicated that this type of fornication are not limited to man and woman intercourse but it contains the punishment to homosexual intercourses as well.
16-) Vellezani ye’tiyaniha minkum feazuhuma* fein taba ve asleha fea’ridu anhuma* innAllahe kane Tevvaben Rahiyma;
And if two men among you commit it, punish them. If they repent and correct themselves, then leave them to their own accord. For Allah is the Tawwab, the Rahim. (A.Hulusi)
If two men among you are guilty of lewdness, punish them both. If they repent and amend, leave them alone; for Allah is Oft-returning, Most Merciful. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Vellezani ye’tiyaniha minkum feazuhuma And if two men among you commit it, punish them.
fein taba ve asleha fea’ridu anhuma If they repent and make amends, leave them alone, give up your punishments. I believe this is the way out we mentioned above. The way to turn the situation to your advantage. Blessing you with repetance. Because the biggest blessing of a person who commit a sin is to repent and accept your sin. There is no better way out. There can be different translations for this though.
innAllahe kane Tevvaben Rahiyma; Because Allah is Often-returning, Most Merciful.
According to Mucahit, the number one student of Ibn Abbas R.A. also one of the greatest scholars and translators, this verse have verdicts on homosexuals. Also Abu Muslim El Isfahani have the same opinion as Mucahit on this matter. But I believe this verse includes both Mucahits and El Isfahanis opinions also other incidents with fornication related.
When I entered this subject, this was my entrance. Poverty, I said. Unbalances wealth possessions, moral corruption, there are all open the way to social dissolution. One of the reasons was war. Because remember, after the battle of Uhud several problems had surfaced. One of these problems was the orphans. Previous verses handled these problems as a social scar and offered the solutions.
Again one of the problems was the inheritance. Because the deads were leaving their possessions behind and these things should be distributed fairly.
Also another problem was the widows. Many men had given their lives hence leaving many widows behind. Naturally this problem was carrying the possibility of moral corruption because when these women couldn’t manage to have their needs official ways, they would turn into illegal ways. That’s why Qur’an handles this situation with care. Because if there’s a question related to this serious social problem, Qur’an surely answers it, never leave those people on their own.
These verses have references to Nur chapters 15 and 16 verses. The second verse of Nur chapter gives us the final retribution for fornication act. 100 sticks, 100 hits. Some translators see a contradiction with these verses and this second verse of Nur. They translated it like this and think that all these verses are canceled by this specific verse.
Once a verse finds its place in Qur’an, its verdicts cannot be canceled by any means. This is not the problem however. Because I believe it won’t be true to talk about any cancellation here. Because I don’t think we can channel all things fornication related to this part alone. Just like I mentioned the expression fahishe before.
This expression includes all types of behaviours which can ruin a families relations, every acts that destroy the loyalty and integrity of man and womans home, every sorty of immoral actions and sins. That’s why for such an expression that have so many aspects, we cannot think linear and channel all things into one verse. And by doing it cancelling other verses wouldn’t be a correct move. Best creating a better perspective and reevaluate the whole situation.
17-) Innemettevbetu alAllahi lilleziyne ya’melunessue Bi cehaletin summe yetubune min kariybin feulaike yetubullahu aleyhim* ve kanAllahu Aliymen Hakiyma;
The type of repentance that is accepted by Allah is one made in regards to a mistake committed in ignorance. Those are the ones whose repentance Allah accepts. Allah is the Aleem, the Hakim. (A.Hulusi)
Allah accept the repentance of those who do evil in ignorance and repent soon afterwards; to them will Allah turn in mercy: For Allah is full of knowledge and wisdom. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Innemettevbetu alAllahi lilleziyne ya’melunessue Bi cehaletin summe yetubune min kariybin The type of repentance that is accepted by Allah- remember the verses above mentioned a way out. The verse 16 was telling things about repetance and confinement until repetance. And now Allah explains us the features of repetance. It is said that The type of repentance that is accepted by Allah is one made in regards to a mistake committed in ignorance and also turning to Allah without delay.
Yes, summe yetubune min kariyb without delay. Because the sin you committed now only concerns you personally or society. So absolving yourselves knowing and accepting your flaws, your sins, asking forgiveness from Allah and clear yourselves from all dire consequences. This is repetance.
In this sense the repetance that would be accepted is the one you make without making any delay, while the agony and pain of the sin has still been weighting you.
feulaike yetubullahu aleyhim* ve kanAllahu Aliymen Hakiyma; Those are the ones whose repentance Allah accepts. yetubune min kariyb if one turns to Allah for repetance right after the sin (the literal meaning of repetance is to turn back) If one doesn’t turn his back to Allah, if he chooses to turn to Allah after committing the sin, feulaike yetubullahu aleyhim surely Allah turns to him too. With what? With forgiveness and mercy. ve kanAllahu Aliymen Hakiyma; because Allah is full of knowledge and wisdom
Allah knows all, including the weaknesses of humans. The instincts that humans carrying. The ego that seduces the person. Allah created the man, surely Allah knows what a weak creatures we are, how easily we can be seduced by our instincts. But Allah is also Hakiym. The owner of wisdom. Allah does with wisdom. The wisdom here is giving humans their fitrat and fitrat has the mind in it, the mind which has the power to notice the weaknesses and acts accordingly. This is wisdom altogether.
So humans can both notice their weaknesses and littleness in front of Allah, how they are not perfect. But also they notice their value. Of course this also means all Allah’s features can be seen in humans too. As in humans are the target of Allah’s features.
If people were created perfect then how can Allah’s features of Mercy, Forgiveness, Compassion be seen? These featureas are Allah’s openly seen actions. That’s why in order to be activated, these features need sins from the other side. Because according to Tevvap Allah, Allah has the potential to accept the repetances.
But we cannot fall into the wrong assuptions here. We cannot say, “O so the sins are our destiny. Nothing can prevent us from committing a sin. We are bound to sin.” No, this logic would be wrong. We are just trying to open the laws over creations and humans. So if you are humans, if you are flawed and weak, if you have these weaknesses, surely you have the potential to commit sins. That’s what we are trying to say.
18-) Ve leysetittevbetu lilleziyne ya’melunes seyyiat* hatta iza hadara ehadehumul mevtu kale inniy tubtul ANe ve lelleziyne yemutune ve hum kuffar* ulaike a’tedna lehum azaben eliyma;
There is no repentance for those who spend a lifetime in wrongdoing and at the time of death say “Now I repent!” And none for those who live in denial of the truth and repent in their last breath! We have prepared severe suffering for them. (A.Hulusi)
Of no effect is the repentance of those who continue to do evil, until death faces one of them, and he says, “Now have I repented indeed;” nor of those who die rejecting Faith: for them have We prepared a punishment most grievous. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve leysetittevbetu lilleziyne ya’melunes seyyiat* hatta iza hadara ehadehumul mevtu Of no effect is the repentance of those who continue to do evil,
By the verse above, we are told which types of repetances can be accepted. Which ones? The ones who commit the sin but not defend their actions afterwards. That’s why we should draw a line here. Sins can be forgiven. The thing unforgivable is defending the sin. Defending the crime. Crimes can be forgiven but not admitting you do something wrong is unacceptable. False can be absolved. Defending the false like it’s something beautiful; unacceptable.
The features of repetance are counted. Not the features of unacceptable repetance and the first feature is this, keep going by the sin.
Why does a man keeps his false actions going with insistance?
1-He cannot accept that he has been making a mistake.
2-Defending the sins nature.
3-Spreads the mistake. Because a person who commits a crime and keeps on doing it; he takes this false action out of sin territory and begins to see it as a natural action.
So what is that means? It’s this. Blending the nature of good and evil together. It’s the collapsing of moral judgements. Good and evil, beautiful and ugly, hak and superstitions, higher and lower; all mixed together. This is the corrupion of truth, with the worst possible way. This crime has the equivelant of destroying a holy book or a verse. And after that, defending the crime, insisting over the mistake, exalting the sin, is thousand times worse that commiting the sin.
kale inniy tubtul Ane and when he reaches the end of his life, he says “I repent now.” ve lelleziyne yemutune ve hum kuffar nor of those who die rejecting Faith. Neither those who insist on pushing Allah back all his life but trying to take it the last minute while on their dying breath nor those who die rejecting faith; their repetances won’t be accepted.
This verse reminds us something, dear friends. The faith of pharaoh. We might say the repetance of pharaoh. What kind of faith was the pharaoh had. It was on the 90th verse of the Jonah chapter.
..ve ene minel muslimiyn; (Jonah/90) was pharaoh saying. Yes, the infamous pharaoh had said this. I’m among those who surrender to Allah. But when was he telling that? When he was in a pinch. This is important dear friends. Forcing someone to believe something is the same thing to turn into faith when he is in a tight situation. One of them is an oppression from outside, forcing someone to believe a religion. Think about it. You are threating him with death, you are forcing him to say, “I believe.” One is forcing from outside, the other is forcing be the events.
At the end neither one is considered as faith. This is not belief. Because;
Faith is a voluntary action.
A conscious movement.
A movement to a conscious purpose.
Faith is the covenant one make with Allah voluntarily.
Whatever the value of a gun pointed covenant, the same principle applies to the ones which people try to make with Allah when they are on a pinch. Faith by hardship doesn’t count as faith. Forced faith is the same with unoptional faith.
Forced faith and the faith on hardship. One has an oppression from outside and the other from inside. But there’s no difference between them. This is the repetance of pharaoh.
ulaike a’tedna lehum azaben eliyma; We have prepared severe suffering for them. Who are they? The ones who try to repent when they are out of option. People who try to show their faith when they stuck in a hard position. But Allah doesn’t sign this kind of one sided contract. This kind of contract is invalid. Because it has no personal will in it. Only the events forced them to make this contract, not their own will.
This also shows us the kindness and respect of Allah for humans will. Yes, this is the sign of respect and value of Allah for humans choices. Allah doesn’t accept a choice without will. Because when you are in normal situation, you wouldn’t make that kind of promise. Then don’t lie to yourself. Like I said, respect to humans free will and choices.
19-) Ya eyyuhelleziyne amenu la yahillu lekum en terisün nisae kerhen, ve la ta’duluhunne litezhebu Bi ba’di ma ateytumuhunne illa en ye’tiyne Bi fahishetin mubeyyinetin, ve ashiruhunne Bil ma’ruf* fein kerihtumuhunne fe ‘asa en tekrahu shey’en ve yec’alellahu fiyhi hayren kesiyra;
O believers, it is forbidden for you to forcefully become heirs to women… Do not pressure them in order to take a portion of what you have given them (dowry)… Unless they openly (testified by witnesses) commit harlotry… Get on with them justly… Even if there is something you dislike about them, it may be that Allah has ordained much good in it. (A.Hulusi)
O ye who believe! Ye are forbidden to inherit women against their will. Nor should ye treat them with harshness, that ye may take away part of the dower ye have given them,-except where they have been guilty of open lewdness; on the contrary live with them on a footing of kindness and equity. If ye take a dislike to them it may be that ye dislike a thing, and Allah brings about through it a great deal of good. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ya eyyuhelleziyne amenu O you who believe! la yahillu lekum en terisün nisae kerhen, You are forbidden to inherit women against their will.
This has a historical background. As you can see, we come to a verse regarding women rights. A practice that belittling and degrading women in an ugly way. What is this practice? It’s like acting as women are mere tools. In fact what verse telling that it is forbidden is seeing women, people as properties. That’s why it starts the verse like this. O, You who believe. la yahillu lekum en terisun nisae kerhen, You are forbidden to inherit women against their will.
The historical background is this. At the times of ignorance, when the fathers had passed away, the widows of the deceased were degraded to property, even slave level and got inherited to sons like they were part of the fathers inheritance. Just like there were heirs for that persons possessions, the widows, wives of late persons are part of that inheritance as well, Sons have the right to own their step mothers and used them as their hearts content. They were living in a thought that they can own women like that can own anything.
Aside being an ugly and immoral behaviour altogether in this practice there was another twisted logic about this immoral actions. We should really talk about that logic. What’s that? Treating a human being as mere tools. Looking women as properties. Allah forbids us this action. While doing this Allah also forbids us to look at them like that, not only the action but the intentions are also forbidden.
In fact my friends, we should stay here for a while. Ancient folks of ignorance era were seeing women as inheritance. What about modern ignorance era, what about now? Do you think it changed that much? What can you see when you look at women on television. A tool of advertisement and showing. All western civilizations considered women as materials for advertisement and consumption. So in reality what value have the women, what reward have those women, what rights do they have in this regard? Is is really the respect for womens rights? Sexism, seeing women as show materials?
And you know what’s worse than that? Because this is nothing. Women becoming materialized is not a big deal. This can be overlooked. What cannot be overlooked is women presenting themselves as materials. This is the unnoticed difference between antic slavery and modern slavery. Being unable to realize that you are a slave. One of the biggest dilemma of modern women.
In past, old times, women were oppressed sure, but they knew they were oppressed. They knew and they hadn’t glorify their situations. They weren’t glorifying their so called rights and law. They knew they were being treated as materials and seeking out the first chance to break free from their shackles. When they found a chance, they were taking it. One of those doors was the message of Rasulallah. But you know what makes modern women more worse then the old ones. Modern women are unable to notice modern slavery. They don’t know that they are being materialized and on top of that, they defend it.
We said above, what’s thousand times worse that committing a crime is defending the crime. Being a slave is abig insult for humanity sure, but accepting slavery and glorifying the slavery is far worse that being slave. The attitude of modern women and their internalized feelings about this system and their voluntary contribution reminds us this notion. These are the ideas that come to our minds.
ve la ta’duluhunne litezhebu Bi ba’di ma ateytumuhunne illa en ye’tiyne Bi fahishetin mubeyyinetin, Do not pressure them in order to take a portion of what you have given them dowry… Unless they openly commit harlotry…
ve ashiruhunne Bil ma’ruf Yes, this is Qur’ans intention. Be nice to them. Treat them with kindness.
This text, I remind you dear friends had been sent to a society which treats their women as tools in seventh century a.c. Can you understand the magnitude of the revolution of this text on women rights? This is the message of this text. For those who say they are from Allah, for people who say they show faith. Be nice to your women.
You may think this as a regular statement. But I remind you that we are talking about a society who treated their women as a part of inheritance that may be passed on from father tos ons. This is a great turning point, great revolution, a great social act for such a community.
fein kerihtumuhunne fe ‘asa en tekrahu shey’en ve yec’alellahu fiyhi hayren kesiyra; Even if there is something you dislike about them, it may be that Allah has ordained much good in it. The message here is this. Don’t break your home out of emotional reasons. Emotional reasons are not admissable for kicking women out of house. Don’t do that.
At this point, don’t forget that there are far more important and permanent values that physics, esthetics and mere beauty. That’s why don’t throw women out of home out of these superficial reasons.
This attitude here is astounding. You cannot find a better attitude in an era men are in control of everything and you are addressing the faithful ones. Qur’an invites them men who show faith to itself to be more honorable, more respectful to rights and laws, more softhearted, fair and patient.
20-) Ve in eredtumustibdale zevcin mekane zevcin ve ateytum ihdahunne kintaren fela te’huzu minhu shey’a* ete’huzunehu buhtanen ve ismen mubiyna;
If you want to leave one of your wives and take another in her stead, even if you have given them loads (of dowry) do not take it back (when separating). You cannot do this by blaming or slandering her! (A.Hulusi)
But if ye decide to take one wife in place of another, even if ye had given the latter a whole treasure for dower, take not the least bit of it back: Would ye take it by slander and manifest wrong? (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve in eredtumustibdale zevcin mekane zevcin If you want to leave one of your wives and take another in her stead, istibdale zevcin mekane zevcin This is like a support for monogamy at the beginning of this chapter. Taking another wife by leaving one.
ve ateytum ihdahunne kintaren fela te’huzu minhu shey’a even if you have given them loads gold, do not take it back. Qur’ans advise. Even if you have given them loads gold, do not take it back.
ete’huzunehu buhtanen ve ismen mubiyna; You cannot do this by blaming or slandering her!
This verse shows us an incident in historical background. As we can understand here, men of that era were taking illegal roads to take back the dowry they had given when they were marrying. One of these roads is slandering women and taking back the dowry over this slander. Qur’an takes the matter in its own hands to make this immoral behaviour stop and block this ugly method.
21-) Ve keyfe te’huzunehu ve kad efda badukum ila ba’din ve ehazne minkum miysakan galiyza;
How can you take it back after you have united with one another and you have given them your word (during marriage)? (A.Hulusi)
And how could ye take it when ye have gone in unto each other, and they have Taken from you a solemn covenant? (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve keyfe te’huzunehu How can you take it back ve kad efda badukum ila ba’din after you have united with one another.
ve ehazne minkum miysakan galiyza; and she has taken from you a solemn covenant.
This is what we called the covenant of marriage. The promise. Marriage is basically two people giving their words as spouses to be together. Marriage is based on this contract. The contract between to individuals. And whoever betrays this contract is the side breaking it. That’s why Qur’an addresses the betrayor side and saying; “You had given your promise, you had sworn an oath, made a contract, how now can you betray?”
Remember that’s why the marriage starts with; “By the order of Allah and blessing of Rasulallah.” Because you show Allah and Rasulallah as witnesses of such a contract. So think about this, you bring Allah and Rasulallah as witnesses for you and then betray this contract and these witnesses. This verse reminds us about this treason. And your wives had taken a solid promise from you.
22-) Ve la tenkihu ma nekeha abaukum minen nisai illa ma kad selef* innehu kane fahisheten ve makta* ve sae sebiyla;
Do not marry women who your fathers married. Except the past (except what has already occurred in the past). Undoubtedly this is immoral and hateful. Indeed, an awful custom! (A.Hulusi)
And marry not women whom your fathers married,- except what is past: It was shameful and odious,- an abominable custom indeed. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve la tenkihu ma nekeha abaukum minen nisai Do not marry women who your fathers married.
I just explained the practice of ignorance age. Because the women of that era was seen as material, this was a tradition of ugly nature. Just like a son declaring himself as the heir of his fathers possessions, he also declared himself as the heir of his wives. Step mothers were like trading materials that can be translated from fathers to sons.
This logic that sees women as material cannot see the immoral side of this ugly tradition. Our translations have several of these practices as examples. After the demise of Abu Kays, some of the relatives were claiming possessions over his wife like she was part of the inheritance. That woman turned to Rasulallah with this complain.
-O, Rasulallah. As you know my husband Abu Kays had passed. His son from another mother wants to claim me as property. I have always seen him as my son, my own kid.
Yes, for this incident, this immoral practice was banned completely, but from a wider perspective it’s the twisted logic that lies beneath was banned altogether. It was convicted. I wanted to pay attention to that.
All crimes are committed in mind first, that they enter our lives, dear friends. To commit this crime in mind, one should have this origin point ant it starts everything. “Women are materials.” Like I said, after admitting this to yourselves, now you established to layout for any crime related. If you see what Allah makes as equal to you, as something lower, if you look at them with despise, than the final destination of your journey becomes this. The modern ignorance age of today.
illa ma kad selef But what past is in past. This expression is important. It will come several times in these pages. This expression is the best proof that revelations have a sight in life, revelations wouldn’t ignore the facts of life. The contact between life and revelations is a direct one. It sees the truths in lives. That’s why this illa ma kad selef proves this fact to us. Because neither the previous users of this practice, sons who claim their stepmothers as their own properties are declared illegal, nor they were being forced out from their claims. This evil and immoral tradition is wicked as wide and naturally there are some consequences in society.
For example, there are many people who had claimed their own step mothers from their late fathers. Many of them had their own childs. So what would happen to them? What are the crimes of those innocent children. If this order had come with harsh rules, those children were immediately labeled as illegal children and with their claims over an inheritance were cancelled, they would be a social scar. A disturbance in a large scale.
Qur’an didn’t allow that. It says what’s past is in the past. Rehabilitated. Qur’an fixes a social problem that causes disturbance, stage by stage. It takes a society and carries it to a better place. The education method of Qur’an will always be the only valid and beautiful method until the world stops.
innehu kane fahisheten ve makta* ve sae sebiyla; Undoubtedly this is immoral and hateful. Indeed, an awful custom! ve sae sebiyla an awful custom!
23-) Hurrimet aleykum ummehatukum ve benatukum ve ehavatukum ve ammatukum ve halatukum ve benatul’ehi ve benatul’uhti ve ummehatukumullatiy erda’nekum ve ahavatukum miner reda’ati ve ummehatu nisaikum ve rebaibukumullatiy fiy hucurikum min nisaikumullatiy dehaltum Bihinn* fe in lem tekunu dehaltum Bihinne fela cunaha aleykum* ve halailu ebnaikumulleziyne min aslabikum, ve en tecme’u beynel uhteyni illa ma kad selef* innAllahe kane Gafuren Rahiyma;
It has been prohibited for you (to marry): Your mothers, daughters, sisters, aunts, the daughters of your brothers, the daughters of your sisters, your milk mothers who have nursed you, your sisters through nursing, the mothers of your wives, and your stepdaughters under your guardianship (who are born) of your wives with whom you have united. But if you have not united with the mothers of your stepdaughters, then there is no harm in you (marrying them)… And also prohibited for you are the wives of your sons who are from your loins, and to marry two sisters at the same time… Except what has already occurred in the past… Indeed, Allah is the Ghafur, the Rahim. (A.Hulusi)
Prohibited to you (for marriage) are:- your mothers, daughters, sisters; father’s sisters, mother’s sisters; brother’s daughters, sister’s daughters; foster-mothers who gave you suck, foster-sisters; your wives’ mothers; your step-daughters under your guardianship, born of your wives to whom ye have gone in,- no prohibition if ye have not gone in;- (those who have been) wives of your sons proceeding from your loins; and two sisters in wedlock at one and the same time, except for what is past; for Allah is Oft- forgiving, Most Merciful;- (A.Yusuf Ali)
Hurrimet aleykum It has been prohibited for you. Who are been prohibited to us? Now it is counted the people who are restricted for marriage due to healthy family relations, longevity of a society based on family ties.
Ummehatukum Your mothers are prohibited to you. The concept includes all mothers of course. Mother, grandmother and beyond naturally. You may ask does this rule include step mothers. Yes, both. Mothers. The expression is general enough. Even illegal mothers. All kinds of mothers are in this rules ground. Ummehatukum.
Ve benatukum Your daughters. Daughters and beyond. Daughters, their daughters and their daughters all the way. Ve benatukum.
Ve ehavatukum Your sisters. Doesn’t matter genuine or step sister. But step sister of your step sister is not prohibited. As in you have a step sister from same father, she is prohibited. But she has another step sister from the same mother. She won’t be prohibited. Because in blood relation, you don’t have any.
Ve ammatukum Your aunts from fathers side. Ve halatukum Your aunts from mothers side. Ve benatul’ehi ve benatul’uhti Daughers of your brothers and sisters, your nephews.
ve ummehatukumullatiy erda’nekum your nursing mothers ve ahavatukum miner reda’ati nursing sisters. These are prohibited as well. This relation by nursery might be wierd for some people.
I should say this though. This rule is related to Qur’an ability to see the insight of a society. As in, there is a historical background here. True. In that Arabic nation, Qur’an puts this nursing parenting situations under regulation. It became legalized. But this is not just histrocial. Because widening the private area of a family and including other people not blood related to the family by just nursing, it is a great opportunity. A women breastfeeds an infany and suddenly that family gains a member even without and blood connection. Like I said, a great opportunity for establishing healthy connections.
About the order, of course here it has been summarized. There’s no detail. But since the topic is here, I should briefly say something.
The formula in this topic is this. The generation of the feeded is forbidden to the generation of feeder. Both the feeder and her generation is prohibited to the feeded. Pretty catchy.
Of course there is a problem. How much is the optimum amount to be considered nursing mother or such. This is debatable. Most scholars including Abu Caniph suggest that one time is enough. But others like Imam Shafi said 5 times. Some say three. I think at this point we might say this amount is nothing small like a drop but a full feeding at least.
Second problem is the age concept. For how long in nursing period if one is considered a nursing relative. Some first readers and Aisha R.A. suggested that it is for a lifetime, many don’t takethem under consideration though. General idea is, if child is nursed until two years old, in other words in his nursing period, we should understand this. Not to formally, if a child is nursed by someone else in his nursing days, they become nursing relatives, if not the law doesn’t apply.
ve ummehatu nisaikum your wives mothers are prohibited to you. Clear, your mother in laws are prohibited.
ve rebaibukumullatiy fiy hucurikum min nisaikumullatiy dehaltum Bihinn The step daughters you live together under the same roof from your wives you marry.
I should stay on this topic here. Step daughters are already prohibited. Because there’s a connection here, even with the are of step. Your wives daughter, as in her mother is your wife. There’s an expression here. fiy hucurikum with you. The person who lives with you under the same roof in the same house. So we should ask what is the wisdom behind this. I believe this is a reference to the concept of adoption. And this sentence is a proof of being under the same roof is somewhat a law changing situation. The concept of adoption will be explained in two verdicts soon so we move one.
fe in lem tekunu dehaltum Bihinne fela cunaha aleykum But there’s no sin if you haven’t go into the same bed together yet. As in even if the marriage contract is set, if you haven’t go into bed together with your wife, the contract can be broken and you have a saying for another marriage with that step daughter figure. This verse is the explanation for that situation.
ve halailu ebnaikumulleziyne min aslabikum this is the place I mentioned. The wives of your sons are prohibited. More directly, your daughter in laws, your own sons wives are prohibited to you.
Qur’an protects the family bonds so firmly, there’s no loophole to create a disturbance in family ties. It’s like building a wall with specific borders. A wall created for protection. That’s why it is said that your daughter in laws are prohibited. Your own sons wives. Why your own sons. Why not your step sons wives are included? We see the first example of this situation in Rasulallah’s adopted son Zeyd. After Zeyd was divorced from her wife, she became Rasulallah’s wife and another tradition of ignorance age was ended like that.
The adoption is the best way to help the orphans in a society and let them be a part of community. In this frams, this is one of the best adopting situation here. And this verse is a reference to that practice.
ve en tecme’u beynel uhteyn another prohibition. It is forbidden to marry two sisters at once. Prohibited.
illa ma kad selef And the verse says again, what’s done is done. The past is in the past, there’s no going back top ast results. Because this is a social thing. Not just a small concept on paper. If not, there would be a chaos in society and some people would be victimized. That’s why what’s past is in the past.
This sentence also carries the meaning of “You are not responsible from the things you did before this.
innAllahe kane Gafuren Rahiyma; without a doubt Allah is Oftenly – Forgiving, Most Merciful.
This holy verse was sent down to protect family connections. No person can deny that the foundation stones of a society are families and relatives. Qur’an foresees the facts that human weaknesses should be revealed, the ways to prevent for people to give in to their egos and desires should be blocked and some borders should be drawn.
The lines that Qur’an draws are the boundries regarding humans nature. Because both the creator of humans and borders are Allah. Ela ya’lemu men halak (Mulk/14) Doesn’t Allah knows His creations?
24-) Vel muhsanatu minen nisai illa ma meleket eymanukum* kitabAllahi aleykum* ve uhille lekum ma verae zalikum en tebtegu Bi emvalikum muhsiniyne gayre musafihiyn* femestemta’tum Bihi minhunne featuhunne ucurehunne feriydaten, ve la cunaha aleykum fiy ma teradaytum Bihi min ba’dil feriydah* innAllahe kane Aliymen Hakiyma;
Married women, except whom you possess (as bondmaid), have also been prohibited. This is the decree of Allah upon you… And all others have been made lawful for you (to marry) by spending from your possessions, so that you refrain from adultery and live virtuously. To the women you marry and unite with, give their dowry in full. There is no harm in giving more than this if you mutually agree on it. Most certainly, Allah is the Aleem, the Hakim. (A.Hulusi)
Also (prohibited are) women already married, except those whom your right hands possess: Thus hath Allah ordained (prohibitions) against you: Except for these, all others are lawful, provided ye seek (them in marriage) with gifts from your property,- desiring chastity, not fornication from them. Give them their dowers (at least) as prescribed; but if, after a dower is prescribed, agree Mutually (to vary it), there is no blame on you, and Allah is All-Knowing, All-wise. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Vel muhsanatu minen nisai illa ma meleket eymanukum Also prohibited are women already married, except those whom you possess: Muhsanat word comes with three meanings here. Both married, chaste and free (not slave). All these meanings have equal potential here. As in all married women except you possess fairly. This ma meleket eymanukum is considered as a reference for concubines by many authorities. But the most accurate meaning of this expression is, the ones you have by legal ways. That includes the war captures of course.
It’s a historical fact that the war captivity situation wasn’t created by Islam and yet this problem found its place in Islam. All world has had that problem and Islam had created in an era when the war slavery was at its peak. This was one of the biggest problems of that era. Islam had brought a solution to this problem with an open attitude. As in this problem wasn’t concluded in Qur’ans arrival period. No, the process had took centuries and Islam had concluded the situation in centuries without turning it into a social scar. Qur’an didn’t start the problem named war captives.
The practice of those days were like this. As well as the Islam’s approach to it. On that days, the war captive women wer given to a protector family. So by this apprach, before the borders of Islam were set, the war captive women were like a gift that might be given to anyone and they were like tools for sexual abuse. They were like sugar in household.
Islam had closed that door. It brought law and order and clearly expressed that this is fornication. At that point the war captives were submitted to the real authority, the law. As in a woman that was captured in battle, wasn’t a part of the loot for the person who capture her. She was turned in to authority after that point. That authority found her a protector family. Emphasis on the protector. Because if the woman was captured with his husband, their family bonds weren’t touched. Islam brought that condition. Because before that regulations those captures were been scathered all over, homes wrecked and family ties severed.
Also in that era, if the woman was captured alone, her sexual needs should be compansated by the leader of the protector family or she should get married. But her services weren’t interrupted. Even if she was getting married to someone else, her services to his protector family were been continued because they were on a contract.
If a war captive woman gives a birth to a child, she automatically be liberated when her husband is dead. Also any war captive woman who gave birth cannot be transferred to another person as a slave. She instantly becomes liberated.
Also by law it was forbidden to use a war captive woman as a sex object. The guardian of the captive was legally responsible for her well being. The law was taking him as a fornicator if the guardian was stepping outside tha law and using her as a sex tool or presenting her to someone else with that intentions. So there was a marriage like contract between the war captive and her guardian, a legal contract.
So by creating these borders, Islamic law finished the slavery step by step. There were such rules existed that every women who gave birth instantly gaining their freedom. Also if a person was committing a sin like murder, that man would also have obligation to give a slave his freedom too. Some sins and crimes have this particular redemption step like freeing a war captive or a slave. Qur’an foresaw that. Islam was creating laws which closes the door to slavery by reducing their numbers and by that the intentions.
kitabAllahi aleykum This is Allah’s order to you. ve uhille lekum ma verae zalikum en tebtegu Bi emvalikum muhsiniyne gayre musafihiyn* Except for these, all others are lawful, with the condition of giving some of your possessions as dowry if you ask for a marriage. This is clear. Not illegal ways, but legal ways, the way of marriage; all women excluding the ones counted above are lawful to you by the terms of a legal contract says Qur’an.
femestemta’tum Bihi minhunne featuhunne ucurehunne feriydaten To the women you marry and unite with, give their dowry in full. Give some of your possessions to them. Make them feel secure, if you do that, they will treat you with honor. No women broken can treat you with honor. That’s why some men enjoy the idea of leaving women without anything. Why? Becaue without any security, women may bow down to anything. That’s why when Qur’an saying that men should give some of their possessions to women they marry, it also secures the honor of women.
Ve la cunaha aleykum fiy ma teradaytum Bihi min ba’dil feriydah There is no harm in giving more than this if you mutually agree on it. As in you agreed on dowry first, you are about to make a contract and willingly giving the designated amount to her, but then she declined by herself, she chose to break the contract and willingly presented you the dowry or at least some of it. Or she didn’t even take it from you at the beginning. There’s no sin having that dowry back.
innAllahe kane Aliymen Hakiyma; Without a doubt Allah Knows All and treats with wisdom.
25-) Ve men lem yesteti’ minkum tavlen en yenkihal muhsanatil mu’minati femin ma meleket eymanukum min feteyatikumul mu’minat* vAllahu a’lemu Bi iymanikum* ba’dukum min ba’d* fenkihuhunne Bi izni ehlihinne ve atuhunne ucurehunne Bil ma’rufi muhsanatin gayre musafihatin ve la muttehizati ahdan* feiza uhsinne fein eteyne Bi fahishetin fealeyhinne nisfu ma alel muhsanati minel azab* zalike limen hashiyel ‘anete minkum* ve en tasbiru hayrun lekum* vAllahu Gafurun Rahiym;
Those among you who don’t have the means to marry believing free women, can marry believing girls in their possession… Allah (as your essential reality) is aware of your faith… You are from one another… Marry them with the permission of their owners. Give to them (their dowries) according to custom, on the condition they refrain from secret affairs and adultery, and live as chaste women… If they commit harlotry after you have united in marriage, then punish them with half of what free women (in this case) would be punished with… This (marrying bondmaids) is for him who fears doing wrong… Yet to be patient is better for you… Allah is the Ghafur, the Rahim. (A.Hulusi)
If any of you have not the means wherewith to wed free believing women, they may wed believing girls from among those whom your right hands possess: And Allah hath full knowledge about your faith. Ye are one from another: Wed them with the leave of their owners, and give them their dowers, according to what is reasonable: They should be chaste, not lustful, nor taking paramours: when they are taken in wedlock, if they fall into shame, their punishment is half that for free women. This (permission) is for those among you who fear sin; but it is better for you that ye practice self-restraint. And Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve men lem yesteti’ minkum tavlen en yenkihal muhsanatil mu’minat Those among you who don’t have the means to marry believing free women… The inadequecy here isn’t about just financial. According to Muhammad Abduh’s accurate interpretation, all obstacles financially, physically, socially and politically are included. So if a person doesn’t have the means to marry a free woman for some reasons, there are two ways. He’s either not get married or he does, but. Qur’an advices them to marry and also uses this fact as an excuse to diminish to slave women population. Look.
femin ma meleket eymanukum min feteyatikumul mu’minat they should marry believing girls in their possession… Believing girls. Hese is another celestial intervention for war captive women. Their faiths become a reason for giving them all their social rights.
Two things happening here. Both the war captive women are been advised with redemption of faith, their doors are opened and also giving them a reason, way out to save themselves and become free. By doing that, a muslim man cannot hold a believing war captive women as slave. Because he has no longer a reason to. This is an excellent way out, a perfect solution for all captive women.
vAllahu a’lemu Bi iymanikum This part is important dear friends, I should add the next part and explain it to you as whole. ba’dukum min ba’d Allah is aware of your faith… You are from one another… Yes. vAllahu a’lemu Bi iymanikum We may remember this particular part from somewhere else. The 31st verse of Hut Chapter. Allahu a’lemu Allah knows very well, saying there. (..Allahu a’lemu Bima fiy enfusihim.. Hud/31) Your interactions with yourselves. The topic there is this.
The furious bunch of Noah’s community was saying him to expel the poor people among them, dismiss them, let them go. Those people however were in faith. But naturally those excessive bunch wasn’t taking faith as measure. According to them only social status, wealth and power are the real measurements. That’s why the verse tells us that Allah knows their worth very well.
Here we have the same sickness. Just like those aristocratic bunch that came to Noah, here we have the Meccan heathen community. Also the unfaithful groups in Madina, hypocrites and Jews were in that same condition. They were looking at people with not equality but with social status. That’s why Allah informs us that a persons worth cannot be measured by his social status but his faith. That’s why Allah knows the value of their faiths very well.
ba’dukum min ba’d Most free meaning of this expression is, you are equal to one another.
fenkihuhunne Bi izni ehlihinne ve atuhunne ucurehunne Bil ma’rufi muhsanatin gayre musafihatin ve la muttehizati ahdan* Yes, a long sentence. About those women who protect their honor, who don’t involve in fornitation, who don’t dwell around close friends. Marry them with the permission of their owners and give their dowry fairly. A very open expression.
feiza uhsinne fein eteyne Bi fahishetin If she then commit a heinous act, fealeyhinne nisfu ma alel muhsanati minel azab then punish them with half of what free women (in this case) would be punished with… We will learn at the second verse of Noah, the full punishment for harlotry is 100 stick.
zalike limen hashiyel ‘anete minkum This is for those who fear from falling into sin.
ve en tasbiru hayrun lekum Yet to be patient is better for you.
vAllahu Gafurun Rahiym; For Allah is Oftenly Forgiving and Most Merciful.
26-) Yuriydullahu liyubeyyine lekum ve yehdiyekum sunenelleziyne min kablikum ve yetube aleykum* vAllahu Aliymun Hakiym;
Allah wants to make clear to you what you don’t know, guide you to the good practices of those who came before you, and forgive you your faults. Allah is the Aleem, the Hakim. (A.Hulusi)
Allah doth wish to make clear to you and to show you the ordinances of those before you; and (He doth wish to) turn to you (In Mercy): And Allah is All-Knowing, All-wise. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Yuriydullahu liyubeyyine lekum By explaining all these, Allah yehdiyekum sunenelleziyne min kablikum wishes to guide you to the good practices of those who came before you. Lifestyles before. By telling it, I assume this. Establishing sexual morality; it’s not possible via abstanance or singularity but via marriage. As in when we look at people who wishes to provide sexual morality and security via single life, we always see degeneration. Because it’s against human nature. That’s why the best tradition of the past is marriage. A contract bonded coexistence.
ve yetube aleykum and Allah does wish to turn to you in mercy vAllahu Aliymun Hakiym; Allah is All-Knowing, All-wise.
27-) VAllahu yuriydu en yetube aleykum ve yuriydulleziyne yettebi’uneshehevati en temiylu meylen aziyma;
Allah wants to accept your repentance (for your mistakes). But those who follow their desires (bodily temptations) want you to go astray (from the reality) in corruption. (A.Hulusi)
Allah doth wish to turn to you, but the wish of those who follow their lusts is that ye should turn away (from Him),- far, far away. (A.Yusuf Ali)
VAllahu yuriydu en yetube aleykum Allah does wish to turn to you with mercy ve yuriydulleziyne yettebi’uneshehevati en temiylu meylen aziyma; But those who follow their desires want you to go astray in corruption. As in Allah points you to the right direction and the others want you to go astray. The concept here is the enviroment which rejects this new approach of social revolution and renewal.
What Allah wants turn us is the right way, so the targets that are showed us here – I said targets- The principles, the verdicts, the orders, the law based rules or the numbers; they are not the things we should look first. What we should look at the souls that lies beneath. The targets behind those numbers. What is our Rabb’s intentions for women? Allah wants to elevate womens status from zero to their deserved honorable status that their rights are given as full. But the society is there and Allah doesn’t deny the societies truths. That’s why Qur’an chooses a starting point and begin its process for womens status upgrade. Naturally there are oppositions in society. Some find these renevations surprising, disturbing even. Like I said in our previous lesson quoting Taberi’s story.
“Women cannot ride a horse, she cannot go to war, she cannot gain a wealth. We lay our lives and gain our loot, so how should we give half of those to them?” They were saying.
Yes, there was a surprise. Acceptance was hard. But some chose to reject completely. They chose to rebel Allah for that. Because they wish to keep their status and by that they wish to keep tyrany over women.
The expression here is this. They are the ones who are the slaves of their inner tempting instincts. They see profit and joy in oppressing women. Who wants to give some of his wealth to women? Ego, self-being, instincts? No. Only mercy, faith, compassion and conscience want this. That’s why Allah calls to consciences, to faiths.
28-) Yuriydullahu en yuhaffife ‘ankum* ve hulikal insanu da’iyfa;
Allah wishes to lighten your burden. Man has been created weak. (A.Hulusi)
Allah doth wish to lighten your (difficulties): For man was created weak (in resolution). (A.Yusuf Ali)
Yuriydullahu en yuhaffife ‘ankum* Allah wishes to lighten your burden. ve hulikal insanu da’iyfa; Man has been created weak.
The weakness here is the unbalanced conflict of “Soul-Body, Lust-Love, Instinct-Faith.” This is the targeted concept here. As in Allah points out the balance point in this human weaknesses.
29-) Ya eyyuhelleziyne amenu la te’kulu emvalekum beynekum Bilbatili illa en tekune ticareten an teradin minkum ve la taktulu enfusekum* innAllahe kane Bikum Rahiyma;
O believers, do not wrongfully (based on impermissible premises) consume each other’s wealth even if this is through a mutually agreed trade. Do not kill yourselves (through wrongful deeds). Indeed, Allah, as the creator of your being with His Names, is the Rahim. (A.Hulusi)
O ye who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves in vanities: But let there be amongst you traffic and trade by mutual good-will: Nor kill (or destroy) yourselves: for verily Allah hath been to you Most Merciful! (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ya eyyuhelleziyne amenu O you who have the claims of you believe, if you are sincere in your claims;
la te’kulu emvalekum beynekum Bilbatili illa en tekune ticareten an teradin minkum Do not wrongfully consume each other’s wealth even if this is through a mutually agreed trade.
I have a different translation though. I have reasons about it. If I should put it, I might say, not to block the paths of other legal gaining lines beside trading. To remind us that mutual agreements isn’t just admissible in trading but all other forbidden acts like usury. Remember even usury has mutual agreement but that doesn’t necessarily make the gain fair.
There are other clean gaining ways beside trading. There might be presents, handovers, pensions. All these are considered clean ways of gaining money. Allah of them are legit. So with all that, it’s normal to make a different translation and and include the concept of mutual agreement on other ways too.
ve la taktulu enfusekum Do not kill yourselves. If you usurp other peoples possessions unfairly, that only destroy you.
innAllahe kane Bikum Rahiyma; Because Allah has been to you Most Merciful!
30-) Ve men yef’al zalike udvanen ve zulmen fesevfe nusliyhi nara* ve kane zalike alAllahi yesiyra;
Whoever does this by transgression and wrongfully, We will make him rest in Hell. This is easy for Allah. (A.Hulusi)
If any do that in rancor and injustice,- soon shall We cast them into the Fire: And easy it is for Allah. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve men yef’al zalike udvanen Whoever does this by transgression and wrongfully, ve zulmen fesevfe nusliyhi nara* We will make him rest in Hell. ve kane zalike alAllahi yesiyra; This is easy for Allah.
31-) In tectenibu kebaira ma tunhevne anhu nukeffir ankum seyyiatikum ve nudhilkum mudhalen keriyma;
If you avoid major mistakes (duality, murder, etc.), We will cover your small mistakes and admit you to a place of abundance. (A.Hulusi)
If ye (but) eschew the most heinous of the things which ye are forbidden to do, We shall remit your evil deeds, and admit you to a Gate of great honor. (A.Yusuf Ali)
In tectenibu kebaira ma tunhevne anhu If you avoid major mistakes you have been ordered to avoid… There’s a great formula. nukeffir ankum seyyiatikum We will cover your small mistakes. We cover all the small mistakes you did unintentionally. Just don’t do them intentionally.
Like we remembered at the beginning of our translation. Except the ones who did unintentionally. Insisting ones, defender of sins and crimes. They are excluded.
nudhilkum mudhalen keriyma; and admit you to a place of great honor.
32-) Ve la tetemennev ma faddalAllahu Bihî ba’dekum ala ba’d* lirRicali nasiybun mimmektesebu ve linnisai nasiybun mimmektesebne, ves’elullahe min fadliHİ, innAllahe kane Bikulli shey’in Aliyma;
Do not foster jealousy toward those who Allah raises over others by what He provides for them from His bounty. Men will have the blessings of what they have earned; women will have the blessings of what they have earned. Ask for Allah’s bounty. Most certainly, Allah is Aleem over all things (as their essential reality). (A.Hulusi)
And in no wise covet those things in which Allah Hath bestowed His gifts more freely on some of you than on others: to men is allotted what they earn, and to women what they earn: But ask Allah of His bounty. For Allah hath full knowledge of all things. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve la tetemennev ma faddalAllahu Bihî ba’dekum ala ba’d* Do not foster jealousy toward those who Allah raises over others, the features of others over you. Don’t be jealous of them. O women and men. You are different from another and there are values that make you unique and above to one another. But you have different roles and you have different creations that fit these roles. Don’t be jealous about them. O women, don’t say, “I wish to be a man.” O men, don’t say, “I wish to be a woman.” Don’t look to each other with jealousy. You complete one another.
lirRicali nasiybun mimmektesebu Men will have the blessings of what they have earned; ve linnisai nasiybun mimmektesebne, women will have the blessings of what they have earned.
All the reasons explained in the 11st verse in this chapter, all the inheritance business and the reasons of them are summarized here in one expression. This verse.
ves’elullahe min fadliHİ, ask Allah of His bounty. innAllahe kane Bikulli shey’in Aliyma; For Allah has full knowledge of all things.
33-) Ve likullin ce’alna mevaliye mimma terekel validani vel akrebun* velleziyne ‘akadet eymanukum featuhum nasiybehum* innAllahe kane ala kulli shey’in shehiyda;
We have appointed heirs for what parents and relatives leave behind. Give their shares to those your oath binds. Allah is a witness to all things. (A.Hulusi)
To (benefit) every one, We have appointed shares and heirs to property left by parents and relatives. To those, also, to whom your right hand was pledged, give their due portion. For truly Allah is witness to all things. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve likullin ce’alna mevaliye mimma terekel We have appointed heirs for what parents and relatives leave behind. el validani parents vel akrebun relatives velleziyne ‘akadet eymanukum featuhum nasiybehum people who shares to those your oath binds. The ones mentioned here are wife, husband and such. Give their shares.
innAllahe kane ala kulli shey’in shehiyda; Allah is a witness to all things. Allah is aware of your doings so act like Allah watches over you always.
“Ve ahiru davana velil hamdulillahi rabbil alemiyn” (Jonah/10) “Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the Worlds!” All products of our claims, causes and lives are for Allah and our last word to our Allah is “Hamd”.