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TAFSİR LESSONS AN-NISA (034-054 )(31)

28 Tem

231

BismillahirRahmanirRahiym

Dear friends we will continue our lessons with the 34th verse in this chapter, right after the verse about the inheritance related.

34-) ErRicalu kavvamune alen nisai Bi ma faddalAllahu ba’dahum ala ba’din ve Bi ma enfeku min emvalihim* fessalihatu kanitatun hafizatun lil gaybi Bi ma hafizAllah* vellatiy tehafune nushuzehunne fe’izuhunne vehcuruhunne filmedaci’i vadribuhunne, fein eta’nekum fela tebgu aleyhinne sebiyla* innAllahe kane Aliyyen Kebiyra;

 Men are protectors over women. Based on qualities Allah manifests from His bounty, some are superior to others; they give from their wealth unrequitedly. Righteous women are respectable and obedient toward their husbands. They guard their unknown with Allah’s protection (they do not unite with other men when alone). Advise your spouses (help them to recognize their mistakes), whom you suspect may be disobedient (unable to carry the responsibilities of marriage), (if they resist to understand) then forsake them in bed, and if this does not help either then strike them (enough to offend them). If they obey you then take no further action against them. Indeed, Allah is the Aliy, the Kabir. (A.Hulusi)

 Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allah has given the one more (strength) than the other, and because they support them from their means. Therefore the righteous women are devoutly obedient, and guard in (the husband’s) absence what Allah would have them guard. As to those women on whose part ye fear disloyalty and ill-conduct, admonish them (first), (next), refuse to share their beds, (and last) beat them (lightly); but if they return to obedience, seek not against them means (of annoyance): For Allah is Most High, Great (above you all). (A.Yusuf Ali)

 ErRicalu kavvamune alen nisai Bi ma faddalAllahu ba’dahum ala ba’din ve Bi ma enfeku min emvalihim Men are protectors over women. Based on qualities Allah manifests from His bounty, some are superior to others.

 There were some problems occured when the translations were done in classic times. More accurately translators of old times had different opinions about this verse. ErRicalu kavvamune alen nisa sentence is not a complete sentence. And with its unfinished nature, it was taken as a complete sentence and given a meaning like men are superior and ruler over women.

 First of all I would like t stay on the word kavvam. Some translators chose the meaning of administrator or ruler for this word but I want to look for the meaning of protector and watcher for kavvam word.

 The exaggeration for of Kaim, the word Kavvam comes in many places in Qur’an and all of them have the meaning of protector and watcher. More truly, the expression of Kaim alel Mer’e, in arabic language it has the meaning of protecting the women, the person who finances the womans needs, who watches for her well being. So the reason why the men are appointed to women as protectors is; Bi ma faddalAllahu ba’dahum ala ba’din Based on qualities Allah manifests from His bounty, some are superior to others.

 The meaning of this expression Allah gives some people more bounty than others, that doesn’t mean they are superior to others. Lots of translations give this unfortunate meaning of superiority but this alone doesn’t reflects Allah’s will in this verse. The superiority here isn’t about mens power over women andabsolute dominion. Here the downside of superiority is also explained.

 ve Bi ma enfeku min emvalihim They are appointed as protector because of the expense capabilities they can make from their own possessions.

 The word kavvam; watching over. Watcher and protector.

 2- The meaning of the expression the mens positions of protectors over women, has also the same explanation of the 1 to 2 ratio in inheritance situations, as in men have one part much than women. So if men ask why should we cover womens expenses and take care of their needs, because you have 1 part over from women in inheritance, that one part is not for you, its for the needs of your women and your house. Only then the balance can be set and justice can be done.

 The protection and watching here have obviously economical aspects. Because they are the ones who cover the expenses. So the real meaning of the verse is this, whoever has the expenses in a household, that’s the one who have the position of protector. And if you ask why men? Because their wealth incomes are more then women. From that point we can deduce that whoever has the most income in a house should handle the wellbeing of that household. Like I said before, it has the same explanation of 1 to 2 ratio of inheritance business.

 Kavvam as you remember has the same meaning with the word Kayyum. As in the being who protect, who cover others needs, the one who looks after. Allah is the most merciful as being Kayyum. All things like wealth income, the status, honor and other things Allah gives at birth are not means to be above others. Especially they are not the reason of power of men over women. All this superiority situation is the responsibility of taking care of others in a household because of the reason a wealth income is more than the other individuals under the same roof. It’s just that.

 That’s why you cannot find any verse or sentence in Qur’an that takes men over women for no reason. Because being a man or being a woman is not something a person chooses to be. No person chooses to be a man neither chooses to be a women. If a person gloats for something he has no power of choosing, then the all those words become empty.

         Qur’ans logic, Qur’ans main thoughts and theme are always set on being proud of the things a person earns, bragging with the meaningful incomes. The things like race, color, geograpy, being male or female; things which a person has no right to choose from the beginning, bragging with them is a simple and crude materializm.

 fessalihatu kanitatun hafizatun lil gaybi Bi ma hafizAllah Righteous women are respectable and obedient toward their husbands.

 In the first sentence of this verse the mens responsibilities and duties also his rights are correctly explained. We are told that a mens duty is to protect the house, as well as the women of house, taking care of them, looking after them. Those things… Of course as a result for all these responsibilities men earn a right here. Just like womens rights over men to be under this responsibility. So to learn this responsibility we should look at this verse and it is explained like this. Righteous women are respectable and obedient toward their husbands.

 In this verse where the honesty, virtue and respects measurements are set for women, Allah also gives the responsibility of protection of privacy Bi ma hafizAllah which is also under Allah’s protection too, to women as the privacy of marriage, the respect of marriage. As in Allah wants women to show loyalty and respect to the marriage. In other words Allah wants women to show loyalty and respect because of the institude of marriage. Because of the reasons we listed above, women are wanted to be loyal and obedient to help the survival of family and marriage.

 The main stream of the verse circles around the concept of family, the fundamental core of society. In this verse it is explained how a family should thrive, how it can stay on its feet, on what roots it should stand.

 In fact there is a connection between this verse and the ones we studied in our previous lesson, the inheritance verses. This connection is the answer to the question, why there’s a difference between the inheritance cuts of men and women. Because these cuts are and should be reflected to the households expenses.

 In a system where the main income and all expenses were on man in a family, surely the ratio of 2 for men and 1 for women is a fair, and just distribution. We may also say, in a society where all expenses and money streams were the responsibilities of men, even distribution would be unjust.

 vellatiy tehafune nushuzehunne for the women you have concerns of loyalty.

 The verse started with the duties of men, right after that the womens responsibilities and dutied are explained and now the word comes to the women who neglect these duties and responsibilities. Now they are under the light.

 The word it uses here is the three things we counted above. What were they? Protecting the privacy that Allah put, loyalty and obedience. Where these three attributes are not found or the opposite of them are found, Qur’an names this situation and Nushuuz. So what we understand from this Nushuuz must be this.

 vellatiy tehafune nushuzehunne I told loyalties. But it is more accurate to translate it as loyalty issues and dissensions. Being unloyal to the house morally and being the center of dissension in a family. This is called nushuuz. So you might ask, do only women do this nushuuz to men? The answer is no of course, but because of this nature of answer I choose to translate the concept as loyalty issues and dissension. Otherwise you may see in most of the translations, the concept is translated as disobedience and insubordination. But if we do that, then we cannot say anything about mens nushuuz. Because disobedience and insubordination of men to women cannot fit in a community like that. Also Qur’an talks about the nushuuz of men to women later on. In fact the 128th verse of this chapter.

 So what we should understand from the concept of nushuuz is, the unfaitful and dissentive behaviours of an individual to his/her wife or husband.

 So in a situation like this, where womans loyalty for a man is disappeared and he becomes the center of dissension, what should be done? The verse answers fe’izuhunne in this time. First just advise them. vehcuruhunne filmedaci’i then seperate your beds, leave them alone in your beds.

 There’s an education process with 3 stages here. In case a situation like this may ocur. If a woman is the center of unloyal behaviours, dishonesty and dissension, fe’izuhunne First just advise them. This is the first solution of Qur’an. Advising them. As in make a dialog first. Try to understand the reason behind dissension and unfaithful behaviours. Remember you cannot give advises to a person you cannot communicate. To be able to give and advise, first you should be in front of that person, talking. You should accept her dignity. As in you should see her as an equal and your other half, your spouse. Only then you may give any advise. Make a dialog, try to understand her, then give advise.

 vehcuruhunne filmedaci’i If that doesn’t do, then seperate your beds. Leave them alone in their beds. And if that also doesn’t cut it, vadribuhunne

 Yes, and now we have a problem in our hands that emerges from the misunderstanding of Qur’an. Vadribuhunne Beating. But should we understand this as, then beat them? Should we really understand this literally?

 We ask this to Qur’an immediately. We search the meaning of Vadribuhunne expression in Qur’an first. Vadribuhunne word comes from the root of da-re-be which also comes from the verb of da-ra-be in arabic language. But this word has multiple meaning. This multi meaning nature not only influences the arabic language but it also reflects the nature to Qur’an as well. That’s why explaining in Qur’an has the meaning of Daraballahu meselen Allah gave an example. Giving example, explaining the example, creating an example.

 So the words derived from the root of darabe in Qur’an has these meanings, walking, traveling. Traveling on earth which we can also show the expression of Iza darabu fil ard to this meaning like many others.

 Again, Qur’an uses the verb darabe in other meanings; like we see in duribet aleyhumizzille verse. Condemning one to weakness, pulling one to misery. Also dressing. Those are some other meanings.

 But despite there are many different meanings we see that the common element here is that the verbs uses, the metaphorical form. That includes, pulling, putting, sending and bringing. That’s why in his arabic language ansiclopedia, Tacul Aruz gives this meaning to the verb darabe. Darabe, dehru, beynena. As in time split us. The verb is used as a seperation word. Hence we can understand from this point of view, Qur’an chooses to use the word darabe as a mean to exclusion, seperation and sending; not as hitting or beating like many believed since its literal meaning in arabic language is this.

 Of course I’m not saying these just by looking atthe verb darabe here. It’s not just a literal look for a simple verbs use that can open the verse here. At the same time when we look at Rasulallah’s behaviours and actions, when we look at sunnet, we can easily see how a false behaviour beating might be.

 Many translators including Taberi shows an interesting event as a reason of arrival of this verse.

 A woman named Fatima binti Kays her husband hit her one day. That woman came to Rasulallah directly and said her husband slapped her without any right.

 So what do you think Rasulallah’s response? What is the verdict, what it might be? I want your attention. The response of Rasulallah to Fatima Binti Kays when she said her husband hit her without any right.

 You will hit your husband back with the same intensity.

 As in kisas. That’s that. Of course when the woman was on her way home, this verse came down to Rasulallah according to records. And when it did, this was Rasulallah’s words.

 I made a judgement call. Allah then made a judgement call. Surely Allah’s call is more worthy to comply.

 Now the verdict of Allah is pretty obvious here. But in an era like that, a woman came to Rasulallah for an unjustly beating from her husband, Rasulallah’s verdict was an event all by itself for a seventh century civilization. It’s also meaningful how a keen perspective Rasulallah had for such an occasion. That’s one.

 Secondly, Rasulallah had never hit his wives. That’s a fact. Rasulallah’s wives were sometimes crossing their usual boundries. But Rasulallah never even thought of beating them, he did however thought of sending them, leaving them or divorcing them. Thought because this verse brings us the greatest proof on this. 28th verse of Ahzap chapter and other verses related to this matter, Rasulallah advices divorce for rebellious wives, rebellious because of material issues. Not beating. He advices us the second, metaphorical meaning of darabe. Send, leave, divorce. He didn’t say beat. That was never an advise. That’s why in a hadith we read in Buhari and Muslim, Rasulallah was saying this.

 Can someone among you beat his wife like she is a slave then get into bed with her afterwards?

 Again in this hadith, the beating might not be forbidden altogether but there’s another one which does that.

 -Allah’s servants (regarding women), don’t ever beat them.

 This is from Abu Davud, Nesei, Ibn Maca, Ibn Hamber, Iyaz Bin Abdullah and from one of the true believers mother we learnt this hadith.

 So when all the evidences point otherwise, when Rasulallah never hit any of his wives, if we think about the usable meaning of the verb daraba under these evidences lights; Allah of Alla Worlds know best. The prioritized use of the verb darabe is Vadribuhunne’. As in if they didn’t do both of them, if both solutions came up empy, then leave your ways. Stay away from them. This might be the first meaning. Second meaning might be the literal one as beating, like I said Allah of All Worlds knows the best. But we should never forget this. Qur’an comes to elevate the humans honor and personality. It never trumps over them. That’s why to be able to understand Qur’an worthy enough for human honor and explaining tit with that perspective holds a great importance here. Moving on.

 fein eta’nekum fela tebgu aleyhinne sebiyla After that if they comply, restrain yourselves from hurting them. As in give advices first, then seperate your beds, leave them in their beds, in their home, then leave them or make them leave. If this solves the problem, if any of these methods achieve the solution, then restrain yourselves from punishing them more.

 innAllahe kane Aliyyen Kebiyra;  Allah indeed great and mighty.

 You may ask why a verse like that ended up with a sentence like this. Allah is great and mighty. The great Allah, the mighty Allah doesn’t want you to do small attitudes or crude behaviours. Allah wishes you to be vette hallagu bi ahlagillah  ethical with Allah’s ethic code. Be great and mighty, show compassion and respect.

 [Additional Info: 34th Verse and The Slander to Beating

 Nisa 34: Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allah has given the one more (strength) than the other, and because they support them from their means. Therefore the righteous women are devoutly obedient, and guard in (the husband’s) absence what Allah would have them guard. As to those women on whose part ye fear disloyalty and ill-conduct, admonish them (first), (next), refuse to share their beds, (and last) beat them (lightly); but if they return to obedience, seek not against them means (of annoyance): For Allah is Most High, Great (above you all). (A.Yusuf Ali)

 Nisa 34: Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allah has given the one more (strength) than the other, and because they support them from their means. Therefore the righteous women are devoutly obedient, and guard in (the husband’s) absence what Allah would have them guard. As to those women on whose part ye fear disloyalty and ill-conduct, first give them advices, then leave them intheir beds by themselves and at last send them away from their location, home. But if they return to be gentle and respectful again, don’t seek ways to offend them anymore. For Allah is Most High, Great (above you all).  (Yasar Nuri Ozturk)

 Same verses and yet two very different translations. So should we understand Allah’s verses like this? Unfortunately we based on assumptions and heard stories when we try to understand Allah’s verses and these are the mistakes we can easily fall into. So let’s try to understand this verse together with the help of Qur’an itself.

 “Men are protector over women.” saying our Rabb. So is it really possible Allah say “Beat your wives.” at the end of the same verse? Speaking of which, there are also several translations saying, “Men are administrator over women.” for the first sentence. These are not the words of Allah but the product of unquencable egos.

 There is also a saying in the verse, some of them are different/superior to others in some ways. Mind you that there isn’t a men or women differentiation for that sentence too. So we should understand from this is, men are superior to women in some ways but women are superior to men in some others. BesIdes, the superiorIty subject cannot brIng a person prIvIlage to rule, quIte the opposIte, It brIngs responsIbIlIty.

 The obedience and respect mentioned for good women are about their attitude for Allah’s laws. And by obedience, we should understand the women who protect their virtue and decency. Otherwise it isn’t true to extract the meaning of in every condition, the woman who follow her husbands rules, making his every command is the obedient women. And by also translating this wrong, we see the examples of how the oppression over women reach its peak. Le’ts come to the most arguable and most misunderstood section of the verses translation. BEATING THEM part.

 In a part of the verse regarding the uneasiness within the family, IN CASE MEN SEE UNLOYAL AND DOUBTFUL OF INDECENCY AND NOT ADMISSIBLE OF COMMUNITIES STANDARTS BEHAVIOURS BY WOMEN, the path that should be followed is described. In that case, man should warn his wife regarding this unpleasant behaviours he should get her attention. If that doesn’t help, in continue, regarding “our contract of marriage cannot continue.” SEPERATE YOUR BEDS.” As a final solution, you should follow this path. So even that doesn’t help, what should you do then?So what you should do is described in this verse of Allah and it’s this. I no longer want you in my house as long as you keep doing these behaviours. Telling her that you cannot be with her in the same house and a suggestion is given that they should seperate homes, sending her away. WHICH IS ALSO THE WAY OF BREAKING UP IN THESE DAYS.

 So why than the first translation by opening a parantheses saying, “Beat them (softly) The word VADRIBUHUNN in the verse is unfortunately given a meaning of a proof fo our superstitious beliefs so explaining Qur’ans teachings  to communities under these assumptions lights is the most disrespecful behaviour. This word, is the derivitive of the verb darabe and it has several different meanings of “HITTING, SENDING AWAY, STEPPING AWAY, GOING TO BATTLE, GIVING EXAMPLE, CLOSING, COVERING, SETTING ASIDE.” So by giving the most controversy, most opposite to Allah’s teachings meaning as a translation, not only the seeds of doubts were planted in communities cores, but also given a leverage to Islam’s enemies. Giving the BEATING meaning and accepting it both create a contradiction to Allah’s this verse and the entirety of Qur’an.

 NOT IN A SINGLE VERSE IN QUR’AN A PUNISHER ROLE AND AUTHORITY IS GIVEN TO ANY INDIVIDUAL IF THERE’S A CRIME INVOLVED.

 NISA 128: If a wife fears cruelty or desertion on her husband’s part, there is no blame on them if they arrange an amicable settlement between themselves; and such settlement is best; even though men’s souls are swayed by greed. But if ye do good and practice self-restraint, Allah is well-acquainted with all that ye do. (A.Yusuf Ali)

 As you might get your attention, in this verse woman is worried from her husbands indecency, she worries that he might leave her and making a complain.In Nisa 34 it was the opposite, the man waas having trouble with his wife and the solution was given under that direction. So you may see the dilemma here, if we would accept the translation of men can beat women there, so shouldn’t we say that women should do the same here. We should be able to say that women should do the same thing to men when the tables are turned but we cannot. In that case we create sexism with our words for Qur’ans understandings of us. So if we can see the big picture here, in the same terms Qur’an brings us the same solutions and giving us advices for making up, making peace between spouses. (Continues…) (Haluk Gumustabak)

 35-) Ve in hiftum shikaka beynihima feb’asu hakemen min ehlihi ve hakemen min ehliha* in yuriyda islahan yuveffikillahu beynehuma* innAllahe kane Aliymen Habiyra;

 If you fear dissension between them, assign an arbitrator from his family and an arbitrator from her family. If they desire reconciliation, Allah will enable it. Indeed Allah is the Aleem, the Habir. (A.Hulusi)

 If ye fear a breach between them twain, appoint (two) arbiters, one from his family, and the other from hers; if they wish for peace, Allah will cause their reconciliation: For Allah hath full knowledge, and is acquainted with all things. (A.Yusuf Ali)

 Ve in hiftum shikaka beynihima If you fear dissension between a married couple;

 feb’asu hakemen min ehlihi ve hakemen min ehliha* assign an arbitrator from his family and an arbitrator from her family.

 Qur’an continues the same concept of previous verse here. Because these verses are all about the survival and longevity of family. That’s why it is easy to see Qur’ans careness for this topic here.

 And at this point the offer of this verse has more meaning. Pointing a referee from husbands and wives families to settle a dispute. In the verse above we are told that if a dispute is about loyalty and money related problem from a member of the family, then the problem should be dealt with internally. As in if a member of family is the cause of problem by him or herself, then the situation should be settled inside the family as well. But this verse answers the question of what if the situation cannot be handled. If the solution cannot be found inside the family, then it’s possible to appoint two referees, one from the husbands side an done from the wives.

 What can those referees do? This question has created many debates among the lawmakers. What is the juristiction of these referees, where do their authorities start and where do they end? I guess it’s about right to say that their Powers are limited to what is given to them by the troubled couple. So if the family decide to give the authority to end the marriage to referees they appointed, then they may use this power if they see fit.

 This referee position is like the ombudsman position from the western society, so in order to prevent the dissension in family, it’s meaningful to search for a way out in law.

 It’s common in modern societies that the position of a referee or judge or ombudsman. This practice is widely known by anyone. So it has a deep understanding here that this position which is a new law based solution was offered to people 1400 years ago by Qur’an.

 in yuriyda islahan yuveffikillahu beynehuma* If they desire reconciliation, Allah will enable it.

 innAllahe kane Aliymen Habiyra; For Allah has full knowledge, and is acquainted with all things. As in Allah knows the cause and reason of the problem inside the family.

 But the ultimate goal is the preservation of family. The survival of the house. That’s why you may have the power to appoint a referee but Allah sees all including the doings of these referees. Know that Allah’s judgement will also be given. But in order to preserve the family, you should follow the verdicts of these referees. And they should follow the path of preventing this problem as much as they can.

 36-) Va’budullahe ve la tushriku BiHİ shey’en ve Bil valideyni ihsanen ve Bi zil kurba vel yetama vel mesakiyni velcari zil kurba vel caril cunubi ves sahibi Bil cenbi vebnis sebiyli ve ma meleket eymanukum* innAllahe la yuhibbu men kane muhtalen fahura;

 Serve Allah and do not associate partners (duality) to your essence with anything (do not deify or associate divinity to any form of existence)! Do good to you parents, relatives, orphans, the needy, close neighbors and far neighbors, your fellow traveler, those who are stranded, and those under your hand (in your possession). Indeed, Allah does not like those who are boastful and arrogant. (A.Hulusi)

 Serve Allah, and join not any partners with Him; and do good- to parents, kinsfolk, orphans, those in need, neighbors who are of kin, neighbors who are strangers, the companion by your side, the wayfarer (ye meet), and what your right hands possess: For Allah loveth not the arrogant, the vainglorious;- (A.Yusuf Ali)

 Va’budullahe ve la tushriku BiHİ shey’en Serve Allah and do not associate partners with Him.

 The expression of Shey’en is important here. It contains a deeper meaning then just “don’t shirk Allah”. That’s why it’s more accurate to translate it as, don’t associate partners with Allah.

 Associating partnership something other than Allah. It’s appointing features only belongs to Allah, other than Allah. What is this mean then?

 First of all, it’s an insult to Allah. Then it’s oppression to that thing. Giving a feature of Allah to a thing, a person, a material, a living or unliving, corporial or abstract; even they are not worthy of it is an oppression to that thing. Because it has the meaning of not being content of his role given by Allah to it. Allah puts it in a position of creation, a position of creature and you put it in a position of creator, making it a god. This is oppression to it. Also an oppression to the person too which is the greatest oppression. Because shirk is the greatest harm one can do to himself.

 ve Bil valideyni ihsanen do good to parents.

 Now this is interesting, the verses we studied above told us how disputes in a family should be resolved, firstly inside the family, if that’s not possible then by appointing two referees from both sides. Now after that the speech comes to the problem of faith, as in worshipping and being a worshipper problem. Here we are ordered to serve only Allah and restrain ourselves from associating partner something other than Allah. It’s possible to ask what is the connection, the relation between this and a social institute called family?

 Remember, all these Allah’s advices can be practiced by people who are in knowledge and conscious of being a worshipper. Again a problem of a person comes from not knowing his place or the boundries of the world around him. Also the problems in a family usually come from not knowing one person his/her place and responsibilities.

 If a person cannot know his place in front of Allah, how then spouses may know their places against each other?

 If a person is unaware his limitations in front of Allah, how then he recognize his wifes boundries? Why should he?

 That’s why to problem is carried to shirk and worshipping, to reveal that the origin of the disaase underneath. And continues. ve Bil valideyni ihsanen do good to parents. ve Bi zil kurba do good to relatives.

 These are the constant values of earth. These values are Islam themselves and Islam is the name of all constant values of humanity. These values are not just in the revelations brought by the last prophet but esentiall in all the revelations brought by all the prophets sof at. That’s how we should percieve. ve Bi zil kurba do good to relatives.

 vel yetama help the orphans vel mesakiyni the poors, needies, people who seek assistance, help them. velcari zil kurba neighbours from your enviroment vel caril cunubi and the ones not from your vicinity. Help people even they are not from your area or tribe, people might not be from your ancestory, or share your faith, help them too. This part holds all these meanings. They are the meaning layers of this verse.

 vel caril cunubi help your neighbours outside your zone. This neigbour part has so many debates over it, it creates tens of hadiths about neigbours rights. I remember many of those but…

The most famous hadaith among them is this. From Buhari and Muslim. “Whoever believes in Allah and the Judgement Day, should do good to his neigbours.”

In this hadith, believing Allah and afterlife is put to the same scale with neigbours rights. You can see it even here. Worship Allah and don’t associate partnership anything other than Allah, do good to your neighbours. As you can see here, there’s a direct contact. If you as the nature of this connection, it’s this. this behaviour, this helping people other then yourself, this virtue and moral attitude is based on faith for Allah.

Only then a person can make a good deed without waiting a return because he knows that Allah will return to him. He doesn’t glorify his deeds to others, he doesn’t mock the person he helps, he doesn’t turn something good to something bad. Because there are some good deeds that leads to bad things at the end. How. You treat someone and as an exchange you take him as a slave, you enlsave him. Or you treat with someone and in exchange you take that persons honor. Honor is everything. Freedom is everything. This is the type of good deed that leads to bad conclusions at the end.

That’s why all of them, all good deeds, beautiful actions and eternal happiness; they are all from Allah and this verse shows us this fact. The foundation of that good deed is faith, worshipping Allah and Allah alone. Let’s continue.

 ves sahibi Bil cenbi to your friend close to you, to your companion, do good.

Taberi with an accurate interpretation, figured that the close friends said here is spouses. Naturally according to men, their wives and according to women, their husbands are the ultimate close friends. So it’s normal to assume that close friends here are about spouses since it matches the description of the verses above and more tuned with the concept of this verse. From this point of view of Taberi which is the most accurate one, it reveals that helping to your close friends, your spouses are related to ones worshipping nature as a person.

Unfortunately we have this infamous logic of “We are married, it’s over. We are bound to each other, we are slaves.” Ir’s likewhen you get married all the moral and ethic codes are contained between a parantheses. Marriage is used to show as an excuse to rule out all humane and moral relations between two believer people. An excuse to open the rift between husband and wife.

On the contrary one shouldn’t do what he doesn’t do to other people also his wife too. There are things a believer shouldn’t do to other believers because of the brotherhood of faith. Being married is just another nail in this unbreakable code of ethics. That’s why being married doesn’t cancel the fact of being related by faith. Moving on.

 vebnis sebiyli to traveler. If we follow the translation of Muhammad Abduh and his student Rashid Riza, it’s like this. Help those people who are cast out to streets, help children of the streets. So in our days terms help the people and children in derelicts and under bridges.

 ve ma meleket eymanukum Do good to those under your hand.

 Slaves are mentioned here at first. The good deed made to them. What is the favor? The greatest favor and good deed is giving him his freedom.

When it’s counted of zekah and charity parts in Baqarah 177, ve fiyrrikab people who are released from slavery is included. People who are slaves and set free.

So from this origin we can say this easily. It’s another step for removing the practice of ancient slavery. Like I mentioned with our previous translations, Qur’an chose to follow a path to destroy the ancient practice of slavery step by step. This is because to prevent a social scar in any society since removing slavery all of a sudden would definitely do that. This verse is  one of those verses that should be taken within this frame.

innAllahe la yuhibbu men kane muhtalen fahura; Indeed, Allah does not like those who are boastful and arrogant. Doesn’t like. Allah doesn’t like. I want you to point your attentions here. Whom is the second question here. Allah does’t like those who are arrogant. innAllahe la yuhibbu men kane muhtalen fahura; Indeed, Allah does not like those who are boastful and arrogant.

Allah likes, Allah doesn’t like. The expressions comes by these forms reflect the most refined forms of Allah-human relations. If Allah puts prize and punishment to the relations, then this relation hasn’t even reached to its maximum capacity. But more refined it become, more Meccan verses leave their places to Madinan verses, Allah changed the addressing style from prize and punishment to like and doesn’t like.

But when Allah educates peple with verses and brings them to the verge of education, when they become refined and their souls are pure, Allah reveals verses like “Allah doesn’t like those who do this.” Instead of “If you do this, Allah throw you into Hell.” Because if Allah likes, it is Heaven, it is beauty. If Allah doesn’t like, it is Hell, it is fire. That’s why at the highest point of Allah-human relation, love is the prize of expression. Because it is the ultimate prize. So for those people who wish to climb this peak, let’s see what Allah tells us more.

 37-) Elleziyne yebhalune ve ye’murunen nase Bil buhli ve yektumune ma atahumullahu min fadliHİ, ve a’tedna lil kafiriyne azaben muhiyna;

 They are stingy and command stinginess upon others, and they hide what Allah gives to them from His bounty. We have prepared a degrading suffering for the deniers of the reality. (A.Hulusi)

 (Nor) those who are niggardly or enjoin niggardliness on others, or hide the bounties which Allah hath bestowed on them; for We have prepared, for those who resist Faith, a punishment that steeps them in contempt;- (A.Yusuf Ali)

 Elleziyne yebhalune ve ye’murunen nase Bil buhli Allah also doesn’t like those are stingy and command stinginess upon others. People who are stingy and who advices being stingy are not liked by Allah too.

 What is Allah’s gain from this? What is Allah’s gain from your helps, your goodnesses, your openhanded actions? What is Allah’s gain from your helps to the poor, the stranded, to derelict children, poor slaves, workers and other people who are in need also your mother and father? A person should think this through first. All gain is for you. All gain is yours and like Allah openly informs, your gain has been though here, not Allah’s. Because Allah has no gain from your helps.

 That’s why Allah sent these orders, because Allah thinks you better than you. If you turn your backs to Allah’s orders, in reality you only turn your backs to your own interests. It’s being not in peace with yourselves. It’s being against yourselves, being in war with yourselves. That’s why people who fight against Allah’s orders are really the ones who fight against humanity and theirselves.

 ve yektumune ma atahumullahu min fadliHi and Allah doesn’t like those who hide what Allah gives to them from His bounty. Yes Allah doesn’t like who hides and refuse to give what Allah gives them. Because those people are not the real owners of that bounties. That wealth are given them as entrust by Allah and Allah wishes them not to betray it by keeping to themselves.

 Why hiding? Why does a person hides the wealth given him by Allah and not helping the ones in need?

 Because he doesn’t trust Allah. He has trust issues. Trust issues are really the faith issues. It’s like the speech given to us at the beginning of the verse 36. He has trust issues, he thinks Allah won’t give him again. He thinks Allah’s wealth is limited. More truly, he’s afraid because he couldn’t recognize Allah as he is supposed to. If he really knows, believes, recognizes and shows faith to Allah as the owner of infinite wealth, then why does he be so scared?

 ve a’tedna lil kafiriyne azaben muhiyna; and for all those who deny the truth, we prepared a shameful suffering. In fact this lil kafiriyn expression shouldn’t be taken as it’s first meaning of unbelievers but with the other meaning of being ungreatful. Because people who are jealous for the wealth that is given by Allah to them, people who hide and keep this wealth, who don’t give them to the poor, who don’t spend it to the places that Allah wishes to be spent; they are the ones called munkir-i nimet. Ungrateful to given wealth. In that case, the whole meaning should be like this.

 And we prepared a degrading suffering for those who act with ungreatfulness.

 38-) Velleziyne yunfikune emvalehum riaen nasi ve la yu’minune Billahi ve la Bil yevmil ahiri, ve men yekunish sheytanu lehu kariynen fesae kariyna;

 They spend their wealth as a means to boast, while they believe neither in Allah, the One who has created their essence with His Names, nor in the eternal life to come. Whoever is close to Satan, has indeed a terrible friend. (A.Hulusi)

 Not those who spend of their substance, to be seen of men, but have no faith in Allah and the Last Day: If any take the Satan for their intimate, what a dreadful intimate he is! (A.Yusuf Ali)

 Velleziyne yunfikune emvalehum riaen nasi ve la yu’minune Billahi ve la Bil yevmil ahiri, Again Allah doesn’t like those who spend their wealth as a means to boast, while they believe neither in Allah, nor the Judgment Day.

 Dear friends you remember what we learn just now. People have trust issues, they don’t trust Allah and that leads to faith issues. Because of their faith issues they try to hoard and they don’t spend anything on the way of Allah to earn Allah’s love and blessing.

 Some of them however. Some of them spend. But those spendings don’t come from their faiths. They don’t spend because they believe? So for what? They spend out of show, for boasting.

It’s actually a follow-up to previous verse. As in Qur’an doesn’t see a different between keeping and spending like this. This is the opening argument of innemel amalu binniyat hadith. ”Actions are judged by their intentions.” So, spending anything for boasting leads to the same door as not spending at all. Moving on.

 ve men yekunish sheytanu lehu kariynen fesae kariyna; Whoever is close to Satan, has indeed a terrible friend. I remember the 268th verse of Baqarah chapter.

Esheytanu ye’idukumul fakre.. Satan scares you with poverty.

 Satan scares you with poverty. In other words, Allah promises you something, satan promises you another thing. Satan tries to pull you to his side with fear. Kariyn can be understood as friends of the same road.

 36th verse. The verse we studied two verses before. I translated this as “friend close to you.” And I said Taberi takes spouses in this frame of responsibility to one another. That means Taberi was translating it as husband and wife. Remember that expression.

 So if you act with jealousy with the sustenances and wealth that is given to you evn from your closest companion, then satan becomes your closest companion. Your friend of the same path. Because you listen to his words, not Allah’s words. And Allah doesn’t associate with with people who don’t follow His words. That persn becomes satans friend and starts to listen his orders. And by that he falls into the same road with him. One brings another. That’s why we can see the subtle expression of whomever you feel close to, him you follow his orders. This message is given here by subtext too.

39-) Ve ma za aleyhim lev’amenu Billahi vel yevmil ahiri ve enfeku mimma rezekahumullahu, ve kanAllahu Bihim Aliyma;

 What would they have lost had they believed in Allah, the creator of their essence with His Names, and the eternal life to come, and given to others from what Allah has provided for them? Allah, as the One comprising their essence, is the Aleem. (A.Hulusi)

 And what burden were it on them if they had faith in Allah and in the Last Day, and they spent out of what Allah hath given them for sustenance? For Allah hath full knowledge of them. (A.Yusuf Ali)

 Ve ma za aleyhim lev’amenu Billahi vel yevmil ahiri ve enfeku mimma rezekahumullahu Very interesting, let’s open this expression, dear friends.

 What would they have lost had they believed in Allah, and the Judgment Day and given to others from what Allah has provided for them?

 It’s pretty obvious our Rabb’s mercy for seeing eyes. What would they have lost had they believed in Allah, and the Judgment Day and given to others from what Allah has provided for them? What would they have lost if they just did that?

 If they would have done that, Allah’s wish, Allah’s will is in this direction. Not just Allah’s order, Allah also wishes us to do this. Allah says, I wish they would have done that. This is the will of Rabb of All Worlds. This is His wish, Allah wishes to see the reflection of His Mercy from them. Because Allah wishes to help the followers and be merciful to them. Allah is aware that a person who acts with compassion doesn’t ignore Allah’s mercy. That’s why the expression “What would they have just done that? What would they lost had they reach my blessing by that way? What would they have lost, if they just did this?

 This is important. This thing is a problem with faith. It’s a problem from your perspective to Allah. If the words are adequate, it’s about the credit you allow to Allah. A trust issue. And The trust you have for Allah determines the trust Allah has for you.

 I said trust issues. Infak is being tested in a narrow path. This infak mentioned in this verse. Infak is the litmus paper of faith. Spending on the way of Allah. The people who own this wealth spends on the way of Allah. The wealth who own their possessors, they cannot. They cannot spend this way. You can only give what you truly have. If wealth is your master, which also a terrible one, can a slave give his master? If you are really the master of wealth, only then you can give and spend your slave.

 The trust issue here is deeper here. You can only open credit to the ones you trust. How much you trust Allah; it has the equivelant of how much you open credit to Allah. The credit Allah has for the follower is the same with the follower has for Allah. The amounts and ratios might be differ for Allah and a simple follower but the principles stand.

 ve kanAllahu Bihim Aliyma; For Allah hath full knowledge of them.

 40-) InnAllahe la yazlimu miskale zerretin, ve in teku haseneten yuda’ifha ve yu’ti min ledunHU ecran aziyma;

 Indeed, Allah does not do wrong to anyone, not even as much as an iota’s weight! And if a good deed has been done, He multiplies it and provides a great reward from Himself (ladun; the potential of the Names comprising one’s essence). (A.Hulusi)

 Allah is never unjust in the least degree: If there is any good (done), He doubleth it, and giveth from His own self a great reward. (A.Yusuf Ali)

 InnAllahe la yazlimu miskale zerretin After all these, our Rabb reminds us a fact. Allah is never unjust in the least degree ve in teku haseneten yuda’ifha And if a good deed has been done, He multiplies it.

 ve yu’ti min ledunHU ecran aziyma; and provides a great reward from Himself.

 The fact we studied above. If you have faith and trust in Allah, if you are sure that your doings will be rewarded with additions, then you do it. If you aren’t sure, you don’t. We understand here that infak is faiths litmus paper; infak is faiths grade, it’s measure. Qur’an informs us that the amount of trust you have in Allah is the amount you can spend on the way of Allah.

 41-) Fekeyfe iza ci’na min kulli ummetin Bi shehiydin ve ci’na Bike ala haulai shehiyda;

 What will be their state when We bring forth a witness from within every community and hold you as a witness to them? (A.Hulusi)

 How then if We brought from each people a witness, and We brought thee as a witness against these people! (A.Yusuf Ali)

 Fekeyfe iza ci’na min kulli ummetin Bi shehiydin ve ci’na Bike ala haulai shehiyda; What will be their state when We bring forth a witness from within every community and hold you as a witness to them? Witness here (or witnesses) are prophets and leaders. They are the witnesses.

Compare this verse with 143rd verse of Baqarah chapter. What was Qur’an saying there? You bear witness for them, and they bear wtiness for humanity. As in, they be the examples, leaders, guides to communities like you be witness, example and guide over them. ve yekunerRasulu aleykum shehiyda… So that Rasul be an example, witness for you. That was the words of that verse.

That’s why the word shehiyd here holds the meanings of example, leader, guide and also witness. As in leader and example on the world and witness in afterlife. This verse clarify the position of prophethood, as we see the status isn’t limited with this world and will continue socially in the next one too. Every prophet and his heirs who carry the flag of that position, by living they are the guides, leaders and examples of that community they invited. And after death they are the witnesses of that community either for them or against them.

 42-) Yevmeizin yeveddulleziyne keferu ve asavur Rasule levtusevva Bihimul Ard* ve la yektumunAllahe hadiysa;

 In that period, those who denied the reality and those who rebelled against the Rasul will wish to be swallowed by the earth. They will not be able to hide anything from Allah. (A.Hulusi)

 

On that day those who reject Faith and disobey the messenger will wish that the earth were made one with them: But never will they hide a single fact from Allah. (A.Yusuf Ali)

 Yevmeizin yeveddulleziyne keferu ve asavur Rasule levtusevva Bihimul Ard On that day those who reject Faith and disobey the messenger will wish that the earth were made one with them. This is the truth explained above. They wish to swallowed by the earth.

 ve la yektumunAllahe hadiysa; But never will they hide a single fact from Allah. This verse describes beautifully what a low and disgraced position those people will have in front of Allah’s prophet; those people who didn’t accept the invitation of Allah’s prophet and did what’s necessary, those who reject faith and disobey the prophet.

 43-) Ya eyyuhelleziyne amenu la takrebusSalate ve entum sukara hatta ta’lemu ma tekulune ve la cunuben illa ‘abiriy sebiylin hatta tagtesilu* ve in kuntum merda ev ala seferin ev cae ehadun minkum minel gaiti ev lamestumun nisae felem tecidu maen feteyemmemu sa’iyden tayyiben femsehu Bi vucuhikum ve eydiykum* innAllahe kane Afuvven Gafura;

 O believers, do not approach salat when you are not aware of what you do (in a drunken state) until you are conscious of what you are saying, or impure (after sexual intercourse) until you have performed whole body ablution, unless you are traveling. If you are sick or traveling, or come from the place of relieving yourselves (lavatory), or you have had sexual intercourse and you were not able to find water (to wash yourselves; ablution), then seek clean earth and wipe your faces and hands with it. Indeed, Allah is the Afuw, the Ghafur. (A.Hulusi)

 O ye who believe! Approach not prayers with a mind befogged, until ye can understand all that ye say,- nor in a state of ceremonial impurity except when you are passing by (through the mosque), until after washing your whole body. If ye are ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from offices of nature, or ye have been in contact with women, and ye find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand (or earth), and rub therewith your faces and hands. For Allah doth blot out sins and forgive again and again. (A.Yusuf Ali)

 Ya eyyuhelleziyne amenu O you believers, la takrebusSalate ve entum sukara

 Here we have a different subject. But not so independent from the last one of course. Back then, Qur’an sets some constant human values in humans daily life. And now there are some regulations given here to straighten a persons life. But these regulations are about the mistakes people do constantly because of their weaknesses.

 Ya eyyühelleziyne amenû la takrebusSalate ve entüm sükâra hatta ta’lemu ma tekulun.

 Ya eyyuhelleziyne amenu la takrebusSalate ve entum sukara hatta ta’lemu ma tekulune Do not approach salat when you are not aware of what you do (in a drunken state) until you are conscious of what you are saying,

 To handle properly this verse we should first talk about drinking situation. Qur’an says about alcohol in Baqarah 219.

Yes’eluneke anil hamri vel meysir* kul fiyhima ismun kebiyrun ve menafi’u linNas this was the verse. It came as a result of a question hene doesn’t include an verdict. Not for action but for information. It only informs us. They ask you from gamble and alcohol. Tell them, both have the potential of giving you courage; alcohol as a personal way and gamble as a social way by the gainings if it have any. Especially there some major money situation considering a great population of society was making alcohol trading and it is one of the main revenue stream. But even with that ismun kebiyrun they are largely sins. This verse the 219th verse of Baqarah is the first one related to this situation and informs us about the behaviours that Allah refuse, the sinner actions and by nature they are immoral and disrespectful.

Before that there was a Meccan origin verse that didn’t say anything good or bad about alcohol except it is made from grapes.

But after that 43rd verse of Nisa and 90th of Maida was sent down.

 Ya eyyuhelleziyne amenu innemel hamru vel meysiru vel’ensabu vel’ezlamu ricsun min amelisheytan… Maida/90

 Alcohol and others are from satans actions, they are filths from satan. Says Qur’an in Maida/90.

 Maida/90 bans alcohol for all times entirely. Some translators says Maida/90 cancelled out Nisa/43. Because they see a contradiction between these verses.  I believe, aside from the not so firm roots of nesh theory, I believe alcohol is restricted by Qur’an for all times.

 That’s a fact. In addition, worshipping in drunken state for sinner people is also restricted in order to prevent them from committing a second sin. As in alcohol is restricted but if a person falls victim to his desires and commits this sin, at least they shouldn’t break a second border of Allah by approacing salat in that drunken state. That’s why I think these two verses verdicts don’t cancel each other out.

 More that than, it is a sign about the direct connection between human consciousness and worshipping acts. A worshipping without consciousness isn’t worshipping at all. Because alcohol makes you drunk and a drunk person doesn’t have a consciousness. In other words this verse informs us about the direct connection between consciousness ad worshipping. So based on this fact any actions or substance that render you unconscious, whether it’s booze or something else, it doesn’t matter. If you aren’t conscious or not aware of what you do, then you approach salat in this drunken state. So I believe we should take this information in a large scale and including all these situations as well.

 ve la cunuben illa ‘abiriy sebiylin hatta tagtesilu or impure (after sexual intercourse) until you have performed whole body ablution, unless you are traveling. –some excuses might be given here except traveling, anything related to not been possibly able to make a body ablution. But except that, don’t approach salat while in an impure state.

 ve in kuntum merda If you are sick ev ala seferin or traveling, ev cae ehadun minkum minel gaiti or come from the place of relieving yourselves (lavatory), ev lamestumun nisae or you have had sexual intercourse felem tecidu maen and you were not able to find water (to wash yourselves; ablution), feteyemmemu sa’iyden tayyiben femsehu Bi vucuhikum ve eydiykum then seek clean earth and wipe your faces and hands with it. This is clear. It’s what we call teyemmum, a symbolical ablution.

 Ablution is physically  genuine cleaning and spiritually a symbolic cleaning. Teyemmum is a form of ablution that can be made in situations like there’s no place to make an ablution, there’s no water around or there’s water but out of reach, or there’s water but an obstacle is present like infected waters. In situations like this one, teyemmum can be made as s substitute of ablution.

 Teyemmum means intentions. That’s why niyet in teyemmum is by nature of the actions name is considered vacip or a must act by fikih masters. In this frame like I said teyemmum is a substitute for ablution and by nature it is symbolic by both physical and spiritual. Unlike ablution which is genuine physically and symbolic spiritually.

 We can also think it’s a subtle reminder for us humans that by staying close to earth, we shouldn’t forget where we came from.

 And the real objective here, the real reason of worshipping is keeping the connection between Allah and human alive. Otherwise, worshipping is just a shallow visual representations. This is shown here. So, people who make teyemmum don’t have to feel like they are worshipping Allah without ablution. Your ablution water, your praying position, the blood or flesh of your sacrifice, those aren’t the things that reach Allah, it’s your consciousness of responsibility for Allah.

 That’s why this verse advices us teyemmum also gives us this lesson. It’s not a nice thing to ritualize a worshipping act. As in religion doesn’t only about classical ritual forms, it’s the message laying in those forms. The message is important more then its envelope. That’s why keeping the envelope and throwing away the message is plain stupidity, it’s taking the body by killing the soul of worshipping. That’s what we understand from these words.

 innAllahe kane Afuvven Gafura; For Allah does blot out sins and forgive again and again.

 44-) Elem tera ilelleziyne utu nasiyben minel Kitabi yeshteruned dalalete ve yuriydune en tedillus sebiyl;

 Do you not see those whom have been given a share of the knowledge of the reality? They buy corruption and want you to go astray from your path (of belief) as well. (A.Hulusi)

 Hast thou not turned thy thought to those who were given a portion of the Book? they traffic in error, and wish that ye should lose the right path. (A.Yusuf Ali)

 Do you not see those whom have been given a share of the Book? They buy corruption and want you to go astray from your path as well.

 The first message given here was to Rasulallah Muhammad (p.b.u.h), after him us the reader of this verse in this modern era. The topic might seem a little changed here. All these arrangements, both by law and socially and now Rasulallah was directed to the enemy that plotted against him and kept a low profile until that time. The following verse explains the situation more clearly.

 45-) VAllahu a’lemu Bi a’daikum* ve kefa Billahi Veliyyen ve kefa Billahi nasiyra;

 Of course Allah, as their creator, knows those who are your enemies. Allah, the One who comprises your essence with His Names, is sufficient for you with His Name Waliyy and He will help you from your essence! (A.Hulusi)

 But Allah hath full knowledge of your enemies: Allah is enough for a protector, and Allah is enough for a Helper. (A.Yusuf Ali)

 VAllahu a’lemu Bi a’daikum Allah has full knowledge of your enemies. ve kefa Billahi Veliyyen ve kefa Billahi nasiyra; Allah is enough for a protector, and Allah is enough for a Helper. These expressions and their reasons are filled like this now.

 46-) Minelleziyne hadu yuharrifunel Kelime an mevadi’ihi ve yekulune semi’na ve asayna vesma’ gayre musmein ve raina leyyen Bi elsinetihim ve ta’nen fid diyn* velev ennehum kalu semi’na ve ata’na vesma’ venzurna lekane hayren lehum ve akveme, ve lakin leanehumullahu Bi kufrihim fela yu’minune illa kaliyla;

 There are such among the Jews, who pervert the original meanings of the WORDS (they do not preserve the authenticity of the revelations)… They play with their tongues to form false concepts in regards to Religion and to mean: “We hear and we disobey”, “Hear, but do not be heard” and “Raina – limited in understanding.” If they had said, “We hear and we obey”, “Hear” and “Unzurna – watch over us” it would have been better and more correct for them… But Allah has damned them due to their denial of their essential reality… Except for a very few of them, they do not believe. (A.Hulusi)

 Of the Jews there are those who displace words from their (right) places, and say: “We hear and we disobey”; and “Hear, may you not hear”; and “Ráìná”; with a twist of their tongues and a slander to Faith. If only they had said: “We hear and we obey”; and “Do hear”; and “Do look at us”; it would have been better for them, and more proper; but Allah hath cursed them for their Unbelief; and but few of them will believe. (A.Yusuf Ali)

 Minelleziyne hadu yuharrifunel Kelime an mevadi’ihi The enemy which Allah knew revealed itself now. So, in that era, especially the times when these verses arrived, true believers saw their real enemies elsewhere, in different addresses which we can also see this in this verses form. Allah says there is the real enemy lurking where they didn’t pay attention.

 Minelleziyne hadu yuharrifunel Kelime an mevadi’ihi Jewminded, elleziyne hadu form can be translated as becoming jewminded in Qur’an and that would be the most accurate translation. The explanation of its reason can also be done in my book of “Yahudilesme Temayulu” (Signs of Becoming Jewminded.). It’s there with proofs from Islam sources and linguistic books. I won’t stay on this much longer.

 Some of the jewminded were warping, distorting the context of some words. How they do that? ve yekulune semi’na ve asayna they say “We listened and denied.” vesma’ gayre musmein “Hear, but do not be heard.”

 This is what we call severing the speech from its context. I translated a verse a while back, you remember it, don’t approach salat. la takrebusSalate. This one has been told as a part of a Bektashi joke.

 They ask Bektashi;

“Why don’t you do your prays (salats)?

“Allah orders in Qur’an as la takrebusSalate don’t approach salat. That’s what I’m doing.”

“Read the following part.” they say.

“Why, am I a hafiz (reader of Qur’an from memory)? he replied.

 This bektashi joke is exactly a sign of becoming jewminded. How? When you sever the bonds of context from the verse, it has a totally different meaning. It can also be taken as Allah’s wills opposite, the way Allah doesn’t want by that. This can be understood as cutting the inner and outer bonds. Inner context is that words background, the reason of arrival for a cause or event, the place in Qur’an. And the outer context of that words also make connections with previous and following verses and they become as one with life and reveal themselves as signs.

 If we cannot be able to take all the context carefully like the reason of arrival… It’s only one context. The previous and following verses are also the context of words. If we cannot take all these things under consideration, the word can be understood in completely different way.

 Qur’an means that and says Jews did this very good. Let’s see what they also can do good. They speak with subtext. It’s like Baqarah/88.

Ve kalu kulubuna gulfun “Our hearts are covered.” they were saying. This has two meanings. Both our hearts are veiled and our hearts are knowledge deposits. They refused to listen Rasulallah or listened and said these words as to explain those words didn’t reach their hearts. They were playing with words. Using puns deliberately.

 ve raina leyyen Bi elsinetihim ve ta’nen fid diyn By warping their tongues and means to insult the religion. They were saying “Raina.” They were saying “Raina” by warping their tongues and when they did it comes out as “Raiyna” which also means sheppard. Rains means “seer, look after us, watch us.”. But when you bend the tongue and speak differently it gains a meaning of sheppard which also weights the meaning with insult. This was their way of insulting Rasulallah.

 velev ennehum kalu semi’na ve ata’na vesma’ venzurna lekane hayren lehum ve akvem If only they had said: “We hear and we obey”; and “Do hear”; and “Do look at us”; it would have been better for them, and more proper and honest.

 ve lakin leanehumullahu Bi kufrihim but Allah has cursed them for their Unbelief; fela yu’minune illa kaliyla and but only a few of them will believe.

 47-) Ya eyyuhelleziyne utul Kitabe aminu Bi ma nezzelna musaddikan lima maakum min kabli en natmise vucuhen feneruddeha ala edbariha ev nel’anehum kema leanna ashabes sebt* ve kane emrullahi mef’ula;

 O those to whom the knowledge of the reality has been given, before We erase your faces and turn them toward your backs (before we erase your knowledge and return you to your previous perversity), or curse you as We cursed the Sabbath-breakers, come and believe in that which We have revealed (the Quran) to confirm the knowledge of the reality that is already with you… The decree of Allah has been fulfilled. (A.Hulusi)

 O ye People of the Book! believe in what We have (now) revealed, confirming what was (already) with you, before We change the face and fame of some (of you) beyond all recognition, and turn them hindwards, or curse them as We cursed the Sabbath-breakers, for the decision of Allah must be carried out. (A.Yusuf Ali)

 Ya eyyuhelleziyne utul Kitabe O you People of the Book! aminu Bi ma nezzelna musaddikan lima maakum min kabli en natmise vucuhen feneruddeha ala edbariha O you People of the Book! Believe in what We have now revealed, confirming what was already with you, before We change the face and fame of some of you beyond all recognition, and turn them hindwards,

 Peculiar and artistic expression. So you; if you resist on denial for this book which verifies the one in your hands, if you resist on denial of revelations, then you should have no expectation from future. We take away your hopes and you start to live in your past memories alone.

 Dear Qur’an friends, from this verse this is what I understand and what I choose to deliver. I believe this is the truth. As in communities, societies which exist in history but have no future plans and designs to shape their existences, socities that have no future, it means Allah took away their hopes and gave them the suffering instead. I believe Allah’s wrath and curse should be understood in this way when we look at the situation in a social scale.

 Living in the past, eyes on the neck, hopeless to build a future, content with pasts memories. Remember what was Nebi saying in Boycott and Hendek incidents?

 – Endure and be patient o believers. Surely Kayser and Kisra treasures will be yours soon.

 This is for giving hope to people who look to past and turn them to build a future.

 ev nel’anehum kema leanna ashabes sebt or curse them as We cursed the Sabbath-breakers,

 Sabbath as in Saturday restriction. Allah hadn’t put a rule at first but the asked for a day from Allah, a day they wished to spend with worshippings. So Allah gave them Sabbath. Even even with that, they betrayed. They were casting their rods and nets to seas and collecting them Saturday evenings. They thought they were complying the restriction by that way. Making Jewminded actions. Doing something and showing themselves like they don’t.

 ve kane emrullahi mef’ula; Otherwise the decision of Allah must be carried out. This is a sign for humans spiritual independence process.

48-) InnAllahe la yagfiru en yushreke BiHI ve yagfiru ma dune zalike limen yesha’* ve men yushrik Billahi fekadiftera ismen aziyma;

 Indeed, Allah does not forgive (apparent or discrete forms of) shirq (i.e. directly or indirectly assuming the existence of beings ‘other’ than Allah, whether external objects [apparent] or our own egos [discrete], thereby fragmenting the non-dual reality), but He forgives lesser sins other than this (ma doona – ‘lesser sins’ here connotes the perception that actions are initiated by the self/ego rather than by Allah), as He wills… And whoever associates partners to Allah, the essential reality of his being with His Beautiful Names (B’illahi), he would surely have made a tremendous mistake by slandering. (A.Hulusi)

 Allah forgiveth not that partners should be set up with Him; but He forgiveth anything else, to whom He pleaseth; to set up partners with Allah is to devise a sin most heinous indeed. (A.Yusuf Ali)

 InnAllahe la yagfiru en yushreke BiHI Indeed, Allah does not forgive shirq ve yagfiru ma dune zalike limen yesha’ but He forgives lesser sins other than this.

 I want your attentions to this point. In his process of spiritual independence, humans greatest obstacle is shirq. All humane qualities and sublimations are nullified by shirq. Shirqs unforgivable nature is another representation of Allah’s love. Because Allah loves people very much and if words put correctly has hops from us. Shirq is Allah’s way of leaving people and emptying their hopes. And since shirq is considered the biggest treason to Allah’s great love, it is named as unforgivable by Allah.

 ve men yushrik Billahi fekadiftera ismen aziyma; And whoever associates partners to Allah, he would surely have made a tremendous mistake by slandering. As in they really commit a terrible sin for themselves.

 49-) Elem tera ilelleziyne yuzekkune enfusehum* belillahu yuzekkiy men yeshau ve la yuzlemune fetiyla;

 Do you not see those who consider themselves clean (the Christians and Jews who claim to be pure even though they are in a state of duality)? No (it is not as they think), Allah purifies whom He wills and they will not be wronged, not even as much as a thread in a date seed. (A.Hulusi)

 Hast thou not turned thy though to those who claim sanctity for themselves? Nay-but Allah doth sanctify whom He pleaseth. But never will they fail to receive justice in the least little thing. (A.Yusuf Ali)

 Elem tera ilelleziyne yuzekkune enfusehum* Do you not see those who consider themselves clean belillahu yuzekkiy men yeshau ve la yuzlemune fetiyla No, Allah purifies whom He wills and they will not be wronged, not even by at least a little thing.

 50-) Unzur keyfe yefterune alellahil kezib* ve kefa BiHI ismen mubiyna;

 Look at how they lie and slander Allah! There cannot be a crime more evident than this! (A.Hulusi)

 Behold! how they invent a lie against Allah. but that by itself is a manifest sin! (A.Yusuf Ali)

 Unzur keyfe yefterune alellahil kezib Look at how they lie and slander Allah! How they named their own doings like they are from Allah. This verse informs us by saying how Jewminded people become this way and warns us. “O Community of Muhammad. Don’t do as Moses’s Community of Muslims did and become Jewminded.”

 ve kefa BiHI ismen mubiyna; There cannot be a sin more obvious than this!

 51-) Elem tera ilelleziyne utu nasiyben minel Kitabi yu’minune Bil cibti vettaguti ve yekulune lilleziyne keferu haulai ehda minelleziyne amenu sebiyla;

 Do you see those to whom a share of the knowledge of the reality has been given? They believe in Jibt (an idol assumed to possess power) and Taghut (satanic forces) and tell the deniers of the reality that they are on a path more righteous than the believers. (A.Hulusi)

 Hast thou not turned thy vision to those who were given a portion of the Book? they believe in sorcery and Tagut (Evil), and say to the Unbelievers that they are better guided in the (right) way than the believers! (A.Yusuf Ali)

 Elem tera ilelleziyne utu nasiyben minel Kitabi Haven’t you see those whom a share of revelations has been given?

 yu’minune Bil cibti vettagut they believe in cipt and Tagut.

 Tagut; a.k.a. old Egyptian god Thot, for some he is Hermes Trismegistus, a person who was known as the father of wisdom and knowledge. Hermes Trismegistus or in ancient Egyptian Thot, Tagut. It’s translated as Ta’ut in Fenicean and comes to Arabic from there. This individual was given a god-like position by people because of his wisdom. But the root of the word Tagut has the same general meaning. A person who was Hakim and loyal at first but then he declared himself a god. In Qur’an the word Tagut represents all things that declare themselves a source of judgement other than Allah.

 Cipt; it can be translated as superstitions or sorcery. Everything that was rumored to have power even if they don’t are in cipt territory.

         The message here to those who idolize them ve yekulune lilleziyne keferu haulai ehda minelleziyne amenu sebiyla and they, those who have become Jewminded tell the deniers of the reality that they are on a path more righteous than the believers.

 52-) Ulaikelleziyne leanehumullah* ve men yel’anillahu felen tecide lehu nasiyra;

 They are the ones whom Allah cursed (distanced from Himself). And whoever Allah curses, there is no one to help him! (A.Hulusi)

 They are (men) whom Allah hath cursed: And those whom Allah hath cursed, thou wilt find, have no one to help. (A.Yusuf Ali)

 Ulaikelleziyne leanehumullah* They are the ones whom Allah cursed ve men yel’anillahu felen tecide lehu nasiyra And whoever Allah curses, there is no one to help him!

 Idolizing is a murder for both idolizer and idolized, dear friends. This verse talks about this murder.                                                    

 53-) Em lehum nasiybun minel mulki feizen la yu’tunen nase nekiyra;

 Or have they a share of sovereignty? Had that been the case they would not have even given as much as a date seed to the people. (A.Hulusi)

 Have they a share in dominion or power? Behold, they give not a farthing to their fellow-men? (A.Yusuf Ali)

 Em lehum nasiybun minel mulki Or have they a share of sovereignty? feizen la yu’tunen nase nekiyra even that would be the case, they would not have even given as much as a date seed to the people.

 54-) Em yahsudunen Nase ala ma atahumullahu min fadliHI, fekad ateyna ale Ibrahiymel Kitabe vel Hikmete ve ateynahum mulken aziyma;

 Or are they unable to accept what Allah has given to them from His bounty and are envious? Indeed, we have given the knowledge of the reality and Wisdom (knowledge of sunnatullah) to the family of Abraham. We have given them a great sovereignty. (A.Hulusi)

 Or do they envy mankind for what Allah hath given them of his bounty? but We had already given the people of Abraham the Book and Wisdom, and conferred upon them a great kingdom. (A.Yusuf Ali)

 Em yahsudunen Nase ala ma atahumullahu min fadliHI Or do they envy mankind for what Allah has given them of his bounty?

 fekad ateyna ale Ibrahiymel Kitabe vel Hikmete but We had already given the people of Abraham the Book and Wisdom ateynahum mulken aziyma; and conferred upon them a great kingdom. O sons of Israel, who fall to the hands of the disease of becoming Jewminded, remember Abraham’s family, remember Abraham who was the father of faith. Remember, both you and Muhammad which you deny now, have claims of being followers of Abraham. And you deny Muhammad. Rejecting the message of Muhammad is rejecting your own selves and denying yourselves from being the follower of Abraham the father of faith.

 O Rabb, protect this community from becoming Jewminded like the community of Moses.

“Ve ahiru davana velil hamdulillahi rabbil alemiyn” (Jonah/10) “Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the Worlds!” All products of our claims, causes and lives are for Allah and our last word to our Allah is “Hamd”.

“Esselamu aleykum.”

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Yazan: 28 Temmuz 2016 in QUR'AN

 

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