“Euzu Billahi minesheytanir racim”
Dear friends, in our previous lesson we studied to 79th verse of An-Nisa Chapter. In these verse we see the humane purpose of war, both faith and denial have prices, true believers should fight on the path of Allah and blasphemers fight for the cause of evil forces and they both struggle to reach their goals, but people who don’t fight for any cause won’t be taken seriously in the future, they won’t be counted to the aftermath and won’t have any place. Also we see about the morality of war and we should avoid overviolence in battle.
Also we see about death which is a natural consequence of war, and if fighting for the cause of truth, for the greatest cause of war, happiness of people, to remove the obstacles between faith and people, for self preservation and to defend himself; with these purposes a death comes in battle won’t be a death to be feared. Those who are familiar with death, who are living with death know that it’s nothing to be feared. And lastly we see that in total there no place Allah is absent; Allah is in every aspect of life.
In the last verse, 79th of previous lesson, everything come to humans life is in Allah’s intervention territory; all good things happening to a person comes from Allah and all bad things happening to a person comes from his personal ego. A person knows this morally, therefore he should take responsibility of his actions in his relations with Allah.
So, today with 80th verse, we will begin to study Islam’s sociopolitical model on war, how it should reveal it in a society and all purposes of revelation are to create a life for that society, a struggle is there to reach this goal and we will study the frame of the rules on how this struggle should come to life in today’s lesson.
80-) Men yutı’irRasule fekad etaAllah* ve men tevella fema erselnake aleyhim hafiyza;
Whoever obeys the Rasul, obeys Allah in the reality! And whoever turns away (it is up to him), We have not revealed you (as a guard) over them. (A.Hulusi)
He who obeys the Messenger, obeys Allah. But if any turn away, We have not sent thee to watch over them. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Men yutı’irRasule fekad etaAllah* Whoever obeys the Rasul, obeys Allah. ve men tevella fema erselnake aleyhim hafiyza But if any turn away, We have not sent you to watch over them.
It’s undeniable truth that Rasulallah’s religious attitude as well as the orders and restrictions related to religion carry a significant value. But from the full version of this verse especially the part fema erselnake aleyhim hafiyza; We have not sent you to watch over them; we see some fresh attitudes towards a living prophet. As in a warning related to show submission to Allah’s Rasul, also carries a warning to living prophets. We see that from the last sentence of this verse and the one following it.
The reason behind this warning is this. First sentence of this verse the expression of Men yutı’irRasule fekad etaAllah severing its ties from the rest of the verse and taking it like it is the single foundation of Islamic law methodology is wrong, first we should say and accept this fact. Just like we understand from the continuum of submission verse and the passage of this verse, this is about an expression related to actual attitudes of people regarding and towards a living prophet. But we cannot also say, after the death of prophet there’s no need to show faith to prophets legacy as a believer, no we cannot say that. But we also cannot interpret the first sentence of this verse without the rest of the verse since it creates a false conjecture.
In fact it is shown a disbalance here. One side has the opinion of showing faith to Rasulallah is all about following his taste pleasures, his dressing choices, his personal likes; more from that showing them as a religious order regarding a social cultural phenomenon with all their character and structure. One side has the understanding of imitating the prophet is a religious obligation and necessity.
The tefrit to this ifrat; other side, other pole is a group which doesn’t care Rasulallah at all, seeing him as a postman, seeing the revelations as a book sent down with a cable and looking Rasulallah as a mere cable, regarding revelations without prophet and casting him out from lifes vital structures. These two opposite sides exist.
So the first sentence of this verse is shown as a proof and reason to first kind of extreme. But prophet denies both kinds of extreme with this excellent attitude.
La tutruni kema etriyyet me Meryem..!
Don’t make me fly like they did on Mary’s son.
Tarae verb doesn’t have a meaning of deitifying, it has a meaning of making something extraordinary. It has the meaning of makin something supernatural. So with that in mind it can be translated as “Don’t make me look like a supernatural being, don’t turn me into something higher than myself.”
Fe innema ena abduh..!
I’m just a man, a person.
Fe kulu Abdullahi ve rasuluhu..!
Tell that I’m firstly a worshipper of Allah and then his Messenger. This is the measure of it.
If we put Rasulallah in this scale, then we can finally begin to know, understand and follow the prophet that Qur’an introduce us. Otherwise, trying to love prophet in otherways that he doesn’t approve, cannot be acceptable by Rasulallah either.
In this verse it is also said that “We have not sent you to watch over them.” Verse is clear, it is shown that the mission of risalet (deliverance) is only about showing the true path to humanity. But showing the true path doesn’t mean people who are tasked with that mission should also step outside their mission and take over the role of military security. He should address to peoples minds and wills and if those people have minds and wills of their own they will turn into the truth and Hakk. Otherwise, if they don’t turn into the truth and Hakk, he should know that this is the law of nature; good and evil will always be there, truth and false, faith and blasphemy, believer and denier roles will always be there. This is a reference to that notion.
81-) Ve yekulune taatun, feiza berezu min indike beyyete taifetun minhum gayrelleziy tekulu, vAllahu yektubu ma yubeyyitun* fea’rid anhum ve tevekkel alellahi, ve kefa Billahi vekiyla;
“Aye” they say, yet as soon as you leave them, a group of them begin to contrive things against what you say during the night. Allah records their contrivances! Turn away from them and trust in Allah, refer your dealings to Him! Sufficient is Allah’s Wakil quality in your essence, as an agent. (A.Hulusi)
They have “Obedience” on their lips; but when they leave thee, a section of them meditate all night on things very different from what thou tellest them. But Allah records their nightly (plots): So keep clear of them, and put thy trust in Allah, and enough is Allah as a disposer of affairs. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve yekulune taatun They say, “As you order.” Now this verse supports the comment I just made. As in it talks about obedience to a living prophet. Ve yekulune taatun They say, “As you order.” This expression is for hypocrites lived in that era as well as living in these modern times. Those hypocrites tell your face “Aye” and when they turn back, they throw away everything to the ground.
Their attitudes, actions contradict completely with what they say. They say they won’t do it, they don’t do what they say. Their only agenda is to fool the people in front of them. Just because they liet o themselves and believe their own lies, they think they can also cheat other people too. Because they have contradiction within them, because they have a split and torn personality, they can only show one side of their torn faces, they can only show a small piece of who they are. Because they are not complete.
feiza berezu min indike beyyete taifetun minhum gayrelleziy tekulu, yet as soon as you leave them, a group of them begin to contrive things against what you say during the night. vAllahu yektubu ma yubeyyitun Allah records their contrivances!
Fea’rid anhum Turn away from them. Leave them be. I have a decent translation for this. Because this expression looks like a persons self expression rather than a warning from outside. Mind your own business. Fea’rid anhum Mind your own business. An expression now for the targets close vicinity but to the target himself. That’s why I think a translation saying, “Mind your own business.” has a specific touch. Ve tevekkel alellah trust in Allah. As in “Don’t dwell on other things, don’t distract yourself. Don’t be reaction oriented. Don’t develop attitude against their attitudes. Don’t be antithesis, be a thesis. Develop your attitude unbound, independent from your enemy. If you develop an action dependent to your enemy, you become dependent to him in all areas. That’s why be a thesis. Don’t be an antithesis. Make your actions independent so that you may be free.
So how can you do this? ve tevekkel alellah by trusting Allah. That’s why always trust in Allah. When you put your trust in human you cannot develop a thesis. You are bound to be an antithesis all the time.
ve kefa Billahi vekiyla; enough is Allah as a disposer of affairs. As in seek sanctuary in Allah from humans evil.
Kul e’uzu BirabbinNas; Melikin Nas; Ilahin Nas; Min sherril vesvasil hannas, Elleziy yuvesvisu fiy sudurin Nas; Minel cinneti ven Nas; (Nas Chapter)
I seek refuge in humans Rabb from the evil of all creatures seen and unseen. From evil of people BirabbinNas Why? Melikin Nas because Allah is the malik, owner of people. That’s why seek refuge in not proxies but the real members. Seek refuge in the superior. Only then your action become noble. Only then you can act with nobility.
82-) Efela yetedebberunel Kur’an* ve lev kane min indi gayrillahi levecedu fiyhihtilafen kesiyra;
Do they not contemplate on the Quran in depth? If it were from a place other than Allah it would have been filled with many contradictions! (A.Hulusi)
Do they not consider the Qurán (with care)? Had it been from other than Allah, they would surely have found therein much discrepancy. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Efela yetedebberunel Kur’an Do they not consider the Qur’an, think it, understand it?
Why I choose to give multiple meanings? Tedebbur enters the area of mental concepts like Taakkul, tefekkur, tezekkür and tefakkuh in Qur’an. But all of them have different meanings. There are nuances between them and all of them have different understandings.
Tezekkur, thought of past. And tedebbur has the opposite meaning. Thought of the future. Tedebbur has the meaning of thinking to create precaution. Taking precaution, thinking ahead, making compensation, these are the meanings. Tezekkur to past and tedebbur to future as opposite sides.
Taakkul; connection past to the future. Delivering past experiences to future is called taakkul.
Tefekkur; doing all three of them is tefekkur.
And tefakkuh has the meaning of creating verdicts for the situation you are in, for the moment you are facing. That’s why tedebbur word comes from the root of dubur. Dubur has the meaning of behind, back. So here in this expression of Efela yetedebberunel Kur’an don’t they make tedebbur of Qur’an have two connected meanings. Don’t they make precautions for the future? By reading the subtexts, by reading the backgrounds of the events given in the verses, don’t they make lessons for the future?
Like I said the root dubur has the meaning of back and behind. The second meaning of understanding the backgrounds, underlaying causes of the events in the verses, don’t they created precautions for the future?
ve lev kane min indi gayrillahi levecedu fiyhihtilafen kesiyra; If it were from a place other than Allah it would have been filled with many contradictions.
Yes; when we take the verse as a whole, if the can read the subtexts and backgrounds of the verse, if they can read the invisible lines with the visible lines, if they can understand what Allah says and what Allah wills to say, if they can feel curiosity for the celestial will; what would they do? Simplest example, a close one in fact. Right before in the 78th verse kullun min indillah All are from Allah. And the next one in the 79th verse; Ma esabeke min hasenetin feminallahi, ve ma esabeke min seyyietin femin nefsik when a good thing comes to you, it is from Allah and when a bad thing touches you, it is from you. They could understand the tetabuk (connection) between these two. But what if they cannot see the background of the verses and read them superficial, as a bulk. They can only see contradictions.
People who look at verses with superficial visions, see contradiction in these sentences. All things are from Allah on one verse and all bad things happening to you are from yourselves. But if you manage to look deeper, if you can follow the background, you see that these two expressions complete each other. Human-Allah relations are without blockage, as in Allah doesn’t take any action independent from persons deeds. Humans deeds are the reflection of Allah’s will. And Allah’s will is the reflection of humans deeds. It is only then be understood completely.
He cannot find suffering if Hakk doesn’t write.
Hakk doesn’t write suffering if he doesn’t romp.
An old saying from the old people who can understand the concept of it. They could manage that so we hope others can understand this too. Like I said, if a verse is thought with the background in Qur’an, many things seems like contractions are in fact reveal perfect harmonies, a great connection and synchronization.
Which at this point I should say a few words about nesh theory. Nesh theory’s foundation lays in the concept of several verses in Qur’an have contradictions between them. That’s why nesh theory is needed for some. For example in one verse alcohol is mentioned as a neutral form like you create booze from grapes, another verse says don’t approach salat while you are intoxicated, in another verse it is said that alcohol is a filth from satans actions. If we put these three forms altogether in the same place it might seem like a contradiction is born at first glance.
Of course I believe there’s no contradiction here. Nesh theory is an easy way out for that time ruling that this verse invalidates this other verse, it cancels the other one, there are nasih (canceled) and mensuh (cancelor) verses i that theory. But if we can see that every expression has a context within itself, every verse has a unique meaning in its background and there are always different scenarios that can validates every verse and use it as a beacon. Even that time there might be no need for a verdict of a particular verse but one day that time may come and people may need the verdict of that verse. In that sence it’s not about canceling an order or a verdict of a verse but to follow a path of tedric is more healthy. When educating a society, you start at one point and go stages throughout the years. If you see the big picture and proceed on a true path, you don’t need a nesh theory because you don’t see any contradiction in the path. Truthfully there’s no contradiction anyway.
83-) Ve iza caehum emrun minel emni evil havfi eza’u Bihi, ve lev redduhu ilerRasuli ve ila ulil emri minhum lealimehulleziyne yestenbitunehu minhum* ve levla fadlullahi aleykum ve rahmetuHU letteba’tumusheytane illa kaliyla;
When they receive news regarding their safety or one that frightens them they hasten to spread it. Yet, if they had asked the Rasul or one with authority (ulul amr) they could have found out what the truth of the matter is. If it were not for Allah’s bounty and grace upon you, except for a very few of you, most of you would have followed Satan (in this). (A.Hulusi)
When there comes to them some matter touching (public) safety or fear, they divulge it. If they had only referred it to the Messenger, or to those charged with authority among them, the proper investigators would have known it from them (direct). Were it not for the Grace and Mercy of Allah unto you, all but a few of you would have followed Satan. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve iza caehum emrun minel emni evil havfi eza’u Bih When they receive news regarding peace or war. I translated this as peace or war, originally it’s safety or fear. It’s literal meaning however is this. And as you appreciated, the context of this verse is all about peace and war.
When they receive news regarding peace or war they hasten to spread it. Who are they? Those who say, “As you order.” to Rasulallah but do with half hearts. We can also call them Rasulallahs half hearted fans. Torn personalities.
ve lev redduhu ilerRasuli ve ila ulil emri minhum lealimehulleziyne yestenbitunehu minhum If they had only referred it to the Messenger, or to those charged with authority ulil emr among them, proper investigators would have known it from them. Strategists, specialists may evaluate the situation properly.
Here the verse takes the matter of keeping a secret, showing respect to seperation and their connection with moral and political responsibilities. Also implies not to be a tool in propagandas. As in a bad propaganda shouldn’t start with you and you shouldn’t be anywhere near a bad propaganda.
Also another implication is to respect to partiality. Because those who evaluate the situation say “Bring forth some knowledges.” You cannot bring all things. Because anything irrelevant to the situation and news in hand may cause harm that become useful. That’s why you should respect to seperation.
ve levla fadlullahi aleykum ve rahmetuHU letteba’tumusheytane illa kaliyla; Of course here we have a sentence regarding that we may understand them, people who make these mistakes and we should act with compassion and mercy to them. “Were it not for the Grace and Mercy of Allah unto you, all but a few of you would have followed Satan.” This is the message. They do this because they are left out from Allah’s blessing.
That’s why instead of bragging like “We are so smart.”, increase your gratefulness to Allah. The situation you are in is a blessing to you from Allah. And the situation they are in is not good and their inability to comprehend this situation is all from Allah, holding bak the blessing and not helping them. Don’t take all credits for good deeds and throw away the responsibilities of bad deeds. Your good features are all the results of your faiths in Allah. Don’t forget that and the station you should be thankful for it.
84-) Fekatil fiy sebiylillah* la tukellefu illa nefseke ve harridil mu’miniyn* ‘asellahu en yekuffe be’selleziyne keferu* vAllahu esheddu be’sen ve esheddu tenkiyla;
Fight in the way of Allah! You have no responsibility but to yourself! Encourage the believers, that perhaps Allah will weaken the might of the deniers of the reality. The might of Allah, and the consequences He enforces, are much more severe. (A.Hulusi)
Then fight in Allah’s Cause – Thou art held responsible only for thyself – and rouse the believers. It may be that Allah will restrain the fury of the Unbelievers; for Allah is the strongest in might and in punishment. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Fekatil fiy sebiylillah All of these were preparation. Previous verses were preparing the first readers of them, Rasulallah and true believers with him that there were enemies not just out there but there were enemies within their own ranks. So they should fight not only the enemies outside but they should fight a serious battle with the enemies inside too.
And now a verdict here that clarifies it. Fekatil fiy sebiylillah Fight in the way of Allah! With these informations we gave above now you fight in the way of Allah. la tukellefu illa nefseke You have no responsibility but to yourself.
In a verse comes with an order of war, second sentence points out a personal responsibility. Interesting isn’t it? First sentence says fight with them but no person can takes on an entire country. But no, that’s not the case. You have only responsibility in yourself. la tukellefu illa nefseke You have to fight. Because fighting evil has no connection with the society you live or the number of countries you should fight.
That’s why when people asked Ibn Mesut about “What is a a cemaat?” His answer was this. “El cemaat-u alal Hakk, velev kane vahdek.” Cemaat is the one who are with the Hakk and the truth. Even you are the only person in it. Yes, fighting evil is a personal stance for a person to Allah. A stance which you don’t have to look back to see who follow you. This is a promise given to Allah. And you are only bound to keep your promise. Other peoples promises don’t concern you. You should look for yours alone. Because if majority choose to betray the promise they gave to Allah, that won’t be an excuse for you too. But…
ve harridil mu’miniyn But encourage the believers, to rise. Of course that’s your responsibility too. Giving them advises, encouraging them, wakin them up. You should seperate the germs of fear and laziness out of their faiths. You should vaxinate them to fear and submissiveness. This is encouragement and it’s your duty.
Asellahu en yekuffe be’selleziyne keferu That perhaps Allah will weaken the might of the deniers of the reality. How come? If you wake believers, if you encourage them to rise up, then it’s also possible that other side, your enemies find this discouraging. If you manage to give courage in believers hearts, it results in fear in the hearts of unbelievers, the enemies of faith. The amount of courage believers gain has the same measurement the courage unbelievers lose.
It’s like a seesaw. If one side rises, other side goes down. That’s why you should look for being the rising side at all time.
VAllahu esheddu be’sen ve esheddu tenkiyla; for Allah is the strongest in might and in punishment.
In our previous lesson, in 75th verse we studied the high purpose of war. Intention of war should be for humans. As in battles should only be made out of concerns for life and spiritually the greatest purpse should be Allah’s blessing.
And since Allah can never be a victim, never be an enemy and never need help from humans, wars are made for people in need and oppressed ones in the name of Allah. Allah defines being close to the ones in need is being with yourselves. It’s all about this. We should remember 75th verse very carefully so that our words can be understood completely.
Ve ma lekum la tukatilune fiy sebiylillah It says, “What’s going on with you that you don’t fight in the way of Allah?” vel mustad’afiyne minerRical “Why don’t you fight for the weak men? Vennisai women vel Vildan, children… Why don’t you fight for them? Two distinct things have the same meaning according to this statement. Fighting for the weak, to help the weak is by all definition fighting for the cause of Allah. It’s this. That’s why 84th verse should be understood from that perspective.
Of course here we may also see the validity of defense, obligation even. A true believer should never have the understanding of “If you get hit to your cheek, turn the other side.” like Paulus Christianism. This understanding can only fires up the cruelty. Oppressed by heart should give his account at some point. But oppressed without his will, should he chooses to go for the length and defends his rights, will get what he wishes.
But if a person bows to every whim, couldn’t rise up to say something, even takes a stance from the tyrany, then his weakness won’t be enough to save him. He is the kind Allah denies and in our next lesson we will study the verses concerning that kind.
85-) Men yeshfa’ shefa’aten haseneten yekun lehu nasiybun minha* ve men yeshfa’ shefa’aten seyyieten yekun lehu kiflun minha* ve kanAllahu ala kulli shey’in mukiyta;
Whoever is a cause for good shall have a share of that good… And whoever is a cause for bad shall have a share in that bad… Allah is Muqeet over all things. (A.Hulusi)
Whoever interceded in a good cause becomes a partner therein: And whoever recommends and helps an evil cause, shares in its burden: And Allah hath power over all things. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Men yeshfa’ shefa’aten haseneten yekun lehu nasiybun minha Whoever is a cause for good shall have a share of that good…
ve men yeshfa’ shefa’aten seyyieten yekun lehu kiflun minha And whoever is a cause for bad shall have a share in that bad…
ve kanAllahu ala kulli shey’in mukiyta; Because Allah is witness to all things, observes and protects and values all things.
Verse gives us a moral values scale valid for all times. In fact there’s a hadith of Rasulallah that reminds us this fact.
– Men senne sunneten, haseneten, felehu ecruha, ve ecru men amile biha.
Whoever brings a good tradition, good attitude; he gains from all the behaviours of the people who follow his tradition and makes that good attitude, he gains without losing anything.
Of course opposite is also true. Following part of hadith says, “Whoever brings a bad tradition, bad attitude; he takes sins from all the behaviours of the people who follow his tradition and makes that bad attitude, he takes that sins without losing anything.
Actually this is the result of being a fronteer for beauty and evilness. Being a fronteer, first. With Qur’ans words sabikun, el evvelun, being the first. Being among the first doers. So if one becomes a flag carrier for blasphemy he shall carry the sins of other people who walk under the same banner, no exception, no excuses. Of course if one becomes a flag carrier for faith, he shall gain from other people who walk under the same banner. Because he encourages them. Surely they have an extra commission from that. Those who remove the obstacles and become a intermediary for Hakk, truth and beauty shall gain extras for their efforts.
86-) Ve iza huyyiytum Bi tehiyyetin fehayyu Bi ahsene minha ev rudduha* innAllahe kane ala kulli shey’in Hasiyba;
When someone greets you with a greeting greet him back with a more comprehensive greeting or one that is the like. Indeed Allah is Hasib over all things (enforces the consequences of all that becomes manifest). (A.Hulusi)
When a (courteous) greeting is offered you, meet it with a greeting still more courteous, or (at least) of equal courtesy. Allah takes careful account of all things. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve iza huyyiytum Bi tehiyyetin fehayyu Bi ahsene minha ev rudduha When someone greets you with a greeting greet him back with a more comprehensive greeting or one that is the like. innAllahe kane ala kulli shey’in Hasiyba; Allah takes careful account of all things.
Interesting isn’t it, dear friends? Check this wonderful rule about kindness between the verses about wars. Can you see the education methods of Allah here? Even in war, you cannot leave the ways of kindness. Even in war, you shouldn’t forget your humanity.
Making wars doesn’t mean turning into killing machines. Battling doesn’t make you a terminator. Being a mucahit is (Jihad maker) is far more different than being a terminator or a Rambo. It’s not even close. Because a jihadist cause must be humanities happiness. A terminator only fights to destroy things. A person who fights in the name of Allah shall fight for the cause of resurrection a person, making him alive, making him gain the eternal life, delivering him to eternal happiness. That’s why jihad and war are two different things.
The message is this in 86th verse. Don’t condemn all humane and good intentions out of prejudgement. The metaphorical meaning of Selam is this. When you recieve a greeting, give a better greeting in return. When you recieve a peace offering, go to the person who offer you peace with a better offering. Don’t condemn the person in front of you with your first impressions. If he is sincere, don’t turn his peace proposal back.
Baqarah/192 was telling the same thing, also a following of a war related verse. Feinintehev feinnAllahe Gafurun Rahiym; If they surrender, know well that Allah is merciful and oftenly forgiving. A source of mercy for those who surrender.
Here tehiyye expression was a greeting in ignorace age of Arabs back in the days. They were telling Hayyakallah when they see each other before the greeting. When there was no introduction or greeting before Islam they were telling this Hayyakallah. Meaning of it is, Allah gives you longevity. Allah make you live longer. Short version of these sentences is Hayyakallah a.k.a tahiyye. This is tahiyye. But what about out tahiyye? Believers greetings is Selamun aleykum. Because ve tehiyyetuhum fiyha Selam.. (Jonah/10) Greeting of paradise folks is selam. Allah’s greeting is selam. ..Selamun aleykum tibtum fedhuluha halidiyn; (Zumer/73) When people will be entering heavens, this will be the things they will be told. Selamun kavlen min Rabbin Rahiym; (Yasin/58) What is the word that comes from their merciful Rabb, Selam. Selamun kavlen min Rabbin Rahiym; A best wishes from Allah. How happy you are, hope you all happiness, all happines be yours.
This is our greeting, our tehiyye is our greeting, our selam. That’s why Rasulallah ordered Efsus selam, spread the word of greeting, selam. This is an order. Spread the selam, in all languages and by that spread the peace in all geography. Spread the peace because one of the meanings of Islam is peace. Surely people who achieve inner peace may also carry that peace to life. How can people who are in conflict , spread peace. People who dive into hypocracy, people who haven’t known themselves yet, people who suffer inner battles within themselves. How can they carry peace to the world?
87-) Allahu la ilahe illa HU* leyecme’annekum ila yevmil kiyameti la raybe fiyh* ve men asdeku minAllahi hadiysa;
Allah is HU; there is no god or godhood, only HU! He will bring you together in the period of Doomsday, of whose coming there is no doubt. And who can be more truthful in statement than Allah! (A.Hulusi)
Allah. There is no god but He: of a surety He will gather you together against the Day of Judgment, about which there is no doubt. And whose word can be truer than Allah’s? (A.Yusuf Ali)
Allahu la ilahe illa HU* leyecme’annekum ila yevmil kiyameti la raybe fiyh Allah. There is no god but He. He will gather you together against the Day of Judgment, about which there is no doubt.
ve men asdeku minAllahi hadiysa; And who can be more truthful in statement than Allah.
Interesting. This is the last verse of the passage. At the end, as usual it is pointed out to faith which should be as foundation to all moral behaviours. Faith to Allah and Judgement Day. From the beginning of several verses before this, Qur’an was setting the terms of war, putting regulations to battles and reminding us the ethics of conflictions. And at the end this is implied. To follow every one of these rules, you should possess a basic term. That term is faith to Allah and Afterlife.
These advices, these orders; for them to have meanings for you, you should first show faith to Allah and afterlife. This is the message here. Because all moral behaviours are from the faith of Allah and afterlife. Of course even we are at the end of the passage, we still have connection with the next verse too. Let’s continue.
88-) Fema lekum fiyl munafikiyne fieteyni vAllahu erkesehum Bi ma kesebu* eturiydune en tehdu men edallellah* ve men yudlilillahu felen tecide lehu sebiyla;
What is the matter with you that you were divided into two groups regarding the hypocrites, when Allah had made them fall back due to their misdeeds? Do you think you can guide those who Allah leads astray? Whoever Allah leads astray, you can no longer find a way for him. (A.Hulusi)
Why should ye be divided into two parties about the Hypocrites? Allah hath cost them of their (evil) deeds. Would ye guide those whom Allah hath thrown out of the Way? For those whom Allah hath thrown out of the Way, never shalt thou find the Way. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Fema lekum fiyl munafikiyne fieteyni vAllahu erkesehum Bi ma kesebu What is the matter with you that you were divided into two groups regarding the hypocrites, when Allah had made them fall back due to their misdeeds?
Erkesehum It means “flipped them”. As in turning them upside down, inside out. In other words capsized. I choose the phrase snub. Allah snubbed them.
eturiydune en tehdu men edallellah* Do you think you can guide those who Allah leads astray? ve men yudlilillahu felen tecide lehu sebiyla Whoever Allah leads astray, -not become astray themselves- Allah left them in blasphemy. If Allah chooses not to bring the light of revelations in front of you, you having your two eyes doesn’t mean anything. Because in order to see anything, you need two things. Eyes and light. You cannot see anything if you only have one of them.
Yes, light is there and you ahve no eyes, you still cannot see anything. Eyes are the things you should have at the beginning, as in fitrat. That’s why Allah leading someone to astray doesn’t mean that Allah will take away eyes of that person, eyes to see the truth. No eyes were given in front, to everyone. But light can be taken at any time.
Actually Allah doesn’t even take the light, that person chooses to close his eyes, pulling the curtains to it. And become just like the bats, when someone starts to curse the sun, you cannot blame the sun itself. The responsible party is the one who closes his eyes in the first place. He who closes his eyes, turns his world into a dungeon.
ve men yudlilillahu felen tecide lehu sebiyla; Yes. Whoever Allah leads astray, you can no longer find a way for him.
There are many debates over this verse, whether it’s Mecca originated or Madina. Many stories are told as a reason of arrival. I’m not going there. But according to Ibn. Abbas this verse is Mecca originated. Because it describes the hypocrites of Mecca.
Meccan type hypocrites… Half hearted. When we consider this nature with the verse above, we can easily see the nature of mischief, dear friends. In 87th verse, the message was that Allah is one and alone and there’s no deity but Allah; also the Judgement Day was mentioned.
Actually most fundamental problem of every hypocrite is the faith to Allah and afterlife. Because one should have doubts that Allah sees us all the time, to turn the ways of hypocracy. He should have doubts and questions about Allah may or may not sees him as a whole. As in both seeing him with the actions to outside world and the intentions within himself. Hypocrites don’t or can’t believe this fact. Because if they can then they couldn’t walk that path they have been walking. That’s why.
Innel munafikine fid derkil esfeli minen nar.. (Nisa/145) Hypocrites are in the lower layer of hell. Sort of they are lower than the blasphemers we might say.
So if we ask why is it like this; especially about the Mecca type hypocrites; because there’s a general misconception like there was no hypocrites in Mecca. If we inspect the records of translations, we might see examples of it. For example there were people in Mecca when Rasulallah was still there, admirers. But they hadn’t wanted to be seen near Rasulallah. Problem was this.
“What happens to out houses. Our children. And what will happen to me, how can I handles all these enemies if they choose to battle with me?”
They were reluctant to pay the price. They admired Rasulallah but not willing to go the length for him. They had no faith to endure several agonies on that path. That’s why they wished to hide their admiration for Rasulallah and acted with the dualists against him. All in all a hypocrite type. We might also call them, half hearted. Following verse explains this further.
89-) Veddu lev tekfurune kema keferu fetekunune sevaen fela tettehizu minhum evliyae hatta yuhaciru fiy sebiylillah* fein tevellev fehuzuhum vaktuluhum haysu vecedtumuhum* ve la tettehizu minhum veliyyen ve la nasiyra;
They wish you would deny the reality as they do so that you can be alike… So do not take them as friends until they abandon oppression and wrongdoing… If they turn away (as enemies), then seize them and kill them wherever you find them… Do not take them as friends and helpers. (A.Hulusi)
They but wish that ye should reject Faith, as they do, and thus be on the same footing (as they): So take not friends from their ranks until they flee in the way of Allah (from what is forbidden). But if they turn renegades, seize them and slay them wherever ye find them; and (in any case) take no friends or helpers from their ranks;- (A.Yusuf Ali)
Veddu lev tekfurune kema keferu fetekunune sevae They but wish that you should reject Faith, as they do, and thus be on the same footing (as they).
Interesting. It’s like they say; “You’re cool. God. But please drop your cause so that we might all get along. Look, I like you all. But can’t you just give up?” If anyone accepts this preposition and do it, they also fall into the pit of hypocracy. Because they call people to be with them, two faced. They invite people to avoid any complication, not willing to pay or risk their wellbeings.
“Just act like us. Don’t be with others. As in don’t touch their idols or talk about their false gods. Don’t touch their religions, faiths or lifestyles. Do as we do and manage them.” This is the type. Qur’an talks about them now and they wishes to invite people to their levels.
fela tettehizu minhum evliyae hatta yuhaciru fiy sebiylillah Ibn Abbas’s opinion supports this verse. So do not take them as friends until they leave the ways of oppression and turn to the way of Allah. Hejira on the path of Allah. Until they leave the lands of evil.
Emigration, physically leaving the oppression and evilness lands. That is of course there is no choice and another land with goodness exists. But spiritually emigration is leaving the ways of evil and sins and journey to goodness.
fein tevellev fehuzuhum vaktuluhum haysu vecedtumuhum* If they turn away to hostility, then seize them and kill them wherever you find them. ve la tettehizu minhum veliyyen ve la nasiyra; Do not take them as friends and helpers.
Verse is clear, it says this. White stones in rice are more dangerous. This is the message; if you measure the danger levels of black stones and white stones in rice, it’s clear that white stones have more threat than the blach ones. This is the clear warning.
Emigration concept here is matched with leaving the lands of evil, making the choice between faith and denial. So what do you choose? You choose your interests or values of higher existence, greater good. Whatever the person chooses, he stays on that side. If there’s a land of evil and a land of good there; if there’s a land of denial and a land of faith there; one should make a choice from only one side says the verse.
Of course in the background of it, there’s a personal moral attitude laying. In that moral stance, you either choose your interests, selfish reasons like; what will happen to my children, what about my home, what about my things? Or you choose your values. This is it. But know this, if you choose the path of your higher values, you will pay a price. But earning this price back is also a high possibility. If you however choose the path of your interests, you will pay a price too. But that price will be impossible to get back; there will be no return and no ending for that.
90-) Illelleziyne yesilune ila kavmin beynekum ve beynehum miysakun ev caukum hasiret suduruhum en yukatilukum ev yukatilu kavmehum* ve lev shaAllahu leselletahum aleykum felekatelukum* feini’tezelukum felem yukatilukum ve elkav ileykumus seleme, fema cealAllahu lekum aleyhim sebiyla;
Except for those who take refuge with a community with whom you have a treaty, or who come to you with their hearts strained because they do not wish to fight you or their own people… If Allah had willed, He would set them upon you and they would have fought you… So if they leave you alone, do not fight you and offer you peace, then Allah does not allow you to harm them. (A.Hulusi)
Except those who join a group between whom and you there is a treaty (of peace), or those who approach you with hearts restraining them from fighting you or fighting their own people. If Allah had pleased, He could have given them power over you, and they would have fought you: Therefore if they withdraw from you but fight you not, and (instead) send you (guarantees of) peace, then Allah Hath opened no way for you (to war against them). (A.Yusuf Ali)
Illelleziyne yesilune ila kavmin beynekum ve beynehum miysakun Except those who join a group between whom and you there is a treaty (of peace) ev caukum hasiret suduruhum en yukatilukum ev yukatilu kavmehum first it is the group you have a peace treaty with an people who seek refuge to them. They are the first exception.
Qur’an shows us the significance of social bonds and social contracts. But second sentence have more significance in this matter. ev caukum hasiret suduruhum en yukatilukum ev yukatilu kavmehum or those who approach you with hearts restraining them from fighting you or fighting their own people.
ve lev shaAllahu leselletahum aleykum felekatelukum If Allah had willed, He would set them upon you and they would have fought you. From this sentence we understand that there’s a group here, not friendly but they don’t want to fight either. They try to be neutral. Out of fear, fear of defeat or fear of being weak, they neither want to fight with their societies side as in the side of their faiths nor they fight on the side of true believers. This is about the life preservation of neutral groups in wars. So it is said that if you happens to met a group of neutral people in war, you have the responsibility of preservation of their lives, let alone attacking them for their neutrality.
Of course there’s another tell in this expression. These neutral groups may be like this because of some power assessments, not because they think their faiths have more value or believers faiths have more value then the other. These are groups that if the power balance suggests that they might become victorious, they will side with blasphemy without delay. Verse talks about them too.
feini’tezelukum but if they leave you. felem yukatilukum they quit battling with you. ve elkav ileykumus selem and offer you peace. fema cealAllahu lekum aleyhim sebiyla; then Allah does not allow you to harm them. So aside from the groups mentioned above, now we talk about a group you battled with but now they left you, left the battlefield, not attacking you. Here we have a defense battle in their hands. True believers battles can only be made under the circumstances of defense against attacks.
War was mentioned here by itself. Jihad however is something wider then mere wars. We talked about wars only here. Battles.
91-) Setecidune ahariyne yuriydune en ye’menukum ve ye’menu kavmehum* kullema ruddu ilel fitneti urkisu fiyha* fein lem ya’tezilukum ve yulku ileykumusseleme ve yekuffu eydiyehum fehuzuhum vaktuluhum haysu sekiftumuhum* ve ulaikum ce’alna lekum aleyhim sultanen mubiyna;
On the other hand, you will find that some want security from you and their own people… Every time they encounter a situation that is a cause for trial, they are taken aback… So if they do not stay away from you, offer you peace, and restrain their hands from you, then seize them and kill them wherever you catch them… And those, We have given you clear power over them. (A.Hulusi)
Others you will find that wish to gain your confidence as well as that of their people: Every time they are sent back to temptation, they succumb thereto: if they withdraw not from you nor give you (guarantees) of peace besides restraining their hands, seize them and slay them wherever ye get them: In their case We have provided you with a clear argument against them. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Setecidune ahariyne yuriydune en ye’menukum ve ye’menu kavmehum Others you will find that wish to gain your confidence as well as that of their people kullema ruddu ilel fitneti urkisu fiyha Every time they are sent back to temptation, they are taken aback. You will also meet this kind. I think it’s understandable. As in a group who wish to besure from both you and their society. They neither want to light the fire nor be starved. In other words, they don’t want to fight you but they don’t want you to fight with them. They oppose either side and thoughts. But whenever they encounter a situation that is a cause for trial, they are inclined to go the opposite way. So inside their souls they have the temptations of evil.
We encountered the expression of mischief here. Mischief, you may also call it the keystone or seperation paper. As you already know, the word fitne is used as a seperation method for purifying gold. Seperating gold from dirt by melting the chunk in arabic language. Fitne is the word for this seperation process.
Of course when the masks fall off and the real faces are seen, there are hard times ahead of us. Because in easy times real faces hide behind masks. That’s why you cannot see and seperate the good from evil then the lands are fertile. But when the sufferings and calamities begin to strike, when the pain and hardship take over, that’s when the masks fall off. That’s when you really know. This is fitne. Hard times when everything becomes clear.
The surest way to learn the main language a person speaks of is hurting him. If a person speaks many languages, if he speaks other languages like his native tongue, it is only possible to learn his main language by hurting that person. For example if you drop a rock on his feet, he will yell, “O mama!” in his native tongue. Allah too learns the real identity of a person by putting him into hardships. What is he inclined to? That’s why the hardest times are also the test times. If there are no tests, there will be no way to seperate the masks from the real faces.
Here the verse implies how the bad temptations may reflect from heart to life of a person, by tests. That’s when you really know, that’s when the evil may surface; by putting him through trials.
fein lem ya’tezilukum that’s when they don’t leave you alone ve yulku ileykumusseleme nor they want to make peace with you ve yekuffu eydiyehum and they keep their hands in your necks fehuzuhum vaktuluhum haysu sekiftumuhum capture them whereever you see and slayt hem. They carry a great danger for you and they try to cover the danger with infiltration, as in if you encounter white stones that are trying to get in the ranks of rice, they are more dangerous than usual. Identify them. What are the measures of this identification, it is told here too. If the won’t leave you be, if they don’t want to make peace with you and if they still want to pick you, putting their hands around your necks, this is it. These are the signs. As in if their hostilities go further like this, the meaning is clear.
ve ulaikum ce’alna lekum aleyhim sultanen mubiyna; there are the people you are allowed to battle openly against them.
This sentence is important. This sentence puts the verdict that are explained in this passage all along. This is the permission of defensive battle. This verse allows us to defend ourselves against this type of enemy.
This was also the last sentence of this passage. After some orders regading human lives in community, now we will look for some orders about human lives in a personal level, also in the frame of war.
92-) Ve ma kane li mu’minin en yaktule mu’minen illa hataen, ve men katele mu’minen hataen fetahriyru rakabetin mu’minetin ve diyetun musellemetun ila ehlihi illa en yassaddeku* fein kane min kavmin aduvvin lekum ve huve mu’minun fe tahriyru rekabetin mu’minetin, ve in kane min kavmin beynekum ve beynehum miysakun fediyetun musellemetun ila ehlihi ve tahriyru rekabetin mu’minetin, femen lem yecid fesiyamu shehreyni mutetabi’ayni, tevbeten minAllahi, ve kanAllahu Aliymen Hakiyma;
It is not for a believer to kill another believer, except by mistake… And whoever kills a believer by mistake should free a believing slave and pay compensation to the family of the deceased, unless they give up (their rights to the killer)… If (the deceased) was a believer but from a people that is enemy to you, then (the killer) must free a believing slave… But if (the deceased) was from a people with whom you have a treaty, then (the killer) must pay compensation to the deceased’s family and free a believing slave… And whoever is unable to find compensation must fast for two months consecutively, as repentance to Allah… Allah is the Aleem, the Hakim. (A.Hulusi)
Never should a believer kill a believer, except by mistake. And whoever kills a believer by mistake, it is ordained that he should free a believing slave, and pay compensation to the deceased’s family, unless they remit it freely. If the deceased belonged to a people at war with you, and he was a believer, the freeing of a believing slave (is enough). If he belonged to a people with whom ye have treaty of mutual alliance, compensation should be paid to his family, and a believing slave be freed. For those who find this beyond their means, (is prescribed) a fast for two months running: by way of repentance to Allah. for Allah hath All knowledge and All wisdom. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve ma kane li mu’minin en yaktule mu’minen illa hataen It is not for a believer to kill another believer, except by mistake.
Don’t just ask about the connection with the previous verse just yet. Think about it. Families torn apart, inside a family there’s one believer and one not. Scattered, cities wrecked… In a city which the majority of population sometimes believers and sometimes the blasphemers take over. We might also say, tribe, clan, area or so on for the sake of first readers of that time. Several tents of believers, either all or most of them anyway, but there are some families who cannot reach faith. These are the situation they come across.
Believers starts a war against some place, a tribe known by its hostility. But there might be some people inside that tribe, reached the faith status but afraid to reveal themselves. This is the hardship in this status, a social problem. So Qur’an puts some regulations in order to solve this problem. These verdicts are the regulations to solve this issue.
Ve ma kane li mu’minin en yaktule mu’minen illa hataen It is not for a believer to kill another believer, except by mistake. Co-read with the next verse, the 93rd verse of this chapter, Mutezile considered intentional killing as homicide and homicide as blasphemy. But majority don’t share this vision, which I think so too. As in it is surely a great sin, it doesn’t have to be the case to brand the perpetrator as a blasphemer, an astrayed.
There are many contradicted stories about the reason of arrival for this verse, I should pass that.
Ve men katele mu’minen hataen a person who kills a believer by mistake, fetahriyru rakabetin mu’minetin should liberate another believer. What a magnificent principle, isn’t it? As in a person killed a believer not intentionally, by mistake. Mistake here is literal in that era. Unaware of his faith, a battle was occuring in a heathen tribe, people he was fighting were designated as blasphemers by intel. But an individual who was actually a believer was killed due to ignorance of situation. If we can take this situation under consideration, this verse becomes more clear for us.
So we are told here that if one murdered a believer by mistake, in return he shall give life to another believer. This is as we may call an action based repetance.
This is the expression of the value Qur’an gives to human life. Yes, like I said, considering the mixed nature of that times societies, the weight of this verse can be understood more efficiently.
Tahriyru rakabe Freedom of a person, as a pay for a person. What’s this. Considering the nature of this time, freedom of slaves, giving liberation to war slaves of that time. This is also a battle against slavery. It is a repetance both in personal and social level. A compensation. Resurrecting a person spiritually to make amends for a mistake.
ve diyetun musellemetun ila ehlihi pay compensation to the deceased’s family illa en yassaddeku unless they remit it freely.
fein kane min kavmin aduvvin lekum ve huve mu’minun If the deceased belonged to a people at war with you, and he was a believer, fe tahriyru rekabetin mu’minetin the freeing of a believing slave is enough. So what’s the situation here. Deceased was in a hostile tribe but a believer himself. Normally there are two counter measures exists for manslaughtering.
- Freeing, liberating another true believer
- Paying compensation to deceased family.
But fein kane min kavmin aduvvin If the deceased belonged to a people at war with you, and he was a believer; previous two conditions are admissible for accidental killings for a non-hostile groups believers. But this tribe is in war with you, there’s hostility in the ground. lekum ve huve mu’minun and the deceased is a believer, fe tahriyru rekabetin mu’minetin then only one condition is enough. And that is liberating another true believer. If we carry the situation in modern days, it’s releasing a believer convict from carceration. This can be taken as an equal for this situation.
How’s that work though? I believe it’s like this, a believer has a conviction but his sentence can be transformed into money compensations, sort of like a bailing out. If you can pay his bail and release him from his sentence, it can be taken as an equal for this situation, It’s like Rashid Riza’a expression.
ve in kane min kavmin beynekum ve beynehum miysakun but if deceased belong to a group that has a covenant with you fediyetun musellemetun ila ehlihi ve tahriyru rekabetin mu’minetin, you should both liberate a believer and pay compensation to the family of deceased in this case.
Of course there were some disagreements on the quantity of pay, surely from the stories related to this matter. 100 camels also thousand gold piece or thousand dinari, 200 cloth roll, 200 bovine; many more stories backed their own arrangements. These are of course from records and hadiths. One may also think how this can ever be compensated. 100 camel, how can one man afford it.
It’s not one man. There are relative groups identified as akile in Islam, they help paying it. They share the fine between them. Same group who shall share the paid amount shall also share the punishment. This is a sort of relative cooperation. That’s why it’s not the maker of mistake who pays the fine. We can also see how Islam solves slavery problem in long term arrangements like we discussed at the beginning of Nisa chapter. Slavery was a negative tradition that Islam didn’t approve and it tried to solve this problem by long term arrangements. This tradition was completely finished with measurements beyond the revelations time period, beyond the arrival of verses days, a process that reached centuries but succeeded in the end.
femen lem yecid fesiyamu shehreyni mutetabi’ayn And whoever is unable to find compensation must fast for two months consecutively, tevbeten minAllah as repentance to Allah… Or we may also say the equivalent of repetances acceptance from Allah. It’s a penance.
Ve kanAllahu Aliymen Hakiyma; Of course Allah knows all things and acts with mercy.
There might some questions in our minds; what if the deceased was a Christian or a Jew, what should be the fine for this? According the Beyhaki’s records, in Rasulallah’s times, in Hulefa-i rashid and murshid times, it was always the same amound of fine. But first practice of paying half compensation to non-muslim believers, paying half of the amount to deceaseds family and the other half to treasury, this practice began by Muavia, we can also see it in Beyhaki’s records.
93-) Ve men yaktul mu’minen muteammiden fecezauhu cehennemu haliyden fiyha ve gadibAllahu aleyhi ve leanehu ve eadde lehu azaben aziyma;
And whoever kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is hell wherein he will abide eternally. Allah has become angry with him, cursed him and prepared for him severe suffering. (A.Hulusi)
If a man kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell, to abide therein (for ever): And the wrath and the curse of Allah are upon him, and a dreadful penalty is prepared for him. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve men yaktul mu’minen muteammiden And whoever kills a believer intentionally fecezauhu cehennemu haliyden fiyha his recompense is hell wherein he will abide eternally.
ve gadibAllahu aleyhi ve leanehu ve eadde lehu azaben aziyma; Allah has become angry with him, cursed him and prepared for him severe suffering.
This is really a sharp and horrible addressing, or more truely scolding. By the sharpness of this words some scholars including Mutezile reached the conclusion of murdering a believer intentionally will get you to eternal hell, there won’t be anything to prevent this. This situation naturally included Caliph Omar and Zeyt bin Sabit. They said their repetances weren’t accepted. But the majority of scholars disagrees this opinion. Also the general vision of Qur’an doesn’t support that either. Because the verse is clear saying every sin might be forgiven except the shirk against Allah.
InnAllahe la yagfiru en yushreke BiHI ve yagfiru ma dune zalike limen yesha’.. Nisa/48
Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him; but He forgives anything else, to whom He pleases; to set up partners with Allah is to devise a sin most heinous indeed.
Kul ya ibadiyelleziyne esrefu ala enfusihim la taknetu min rahmetillah.. innAllahe yagfiruzzunube cemiy’a inneHU “HU”vel GafururRahiym. Zumer/53
Tell, o believers who spent away their lives. This expression includes throwing away ones life by murder since a person who wastes another persons life also wastes his own life. These are all great sins. Spending your life other than the way of Allah represents a great sin. So o people who waste their lives. la taknetu min rahmetillah.. Don’t lose hope on Allah’s mercy. innAllahe yagfiruzzunube cemiy’a Allah may forgive all of your sins, every single one of them. inneHU “HU”vel GafururRahiym; Because Allah is Oftenly Forgiving and Most Merciful.
As you remember when Savage had sent a letter to Rasulallah regarding his brutal murder of Rasulallah’s uncle Hz. Hamza. He had sent this question to Rasulallah asking may he even be forgiven? Rasulallah sent this verse back as a proof of forgiveness is possible.
That’s why basing on these verse, intentional killing of a believer is in Allah’s mercy territory; Allah may forgive it if He wishes to. But it’s also obvious that a great sin, murder is.
94-) Ya eyyuhelleziyne amenu iza darabtum fiy sebiylillahi fetebeyyenu ve la tekulu limen elka ileykumus Selame leste mu’minen, tebtegune ‘aradal hayatid dunya* fe ‘indAllahi meganimu kesiyratun, kezalike kuntum min kablu femennAllahu aleykum fe tebeyyenu* innAllahe kane Bi ma ta’melune Habiyra;
O believers… When you go to war in the way of Allah, investigate well, and if one gives you a greeting (wants to make peace) do not say, “You are not a believer” aspiring for the goods of the worldly life… There are many spoils in the sight of Allah… You were like that yourself before, then Allah conferred His favor upon you… So research well… Indeed, Allah, as the creator of what you do, is the Habir. (A.Hulusi)
O ye who believe! When ye go abroad in the cause of Allah, investigate carefully, and say not to any one who offers you a salutation: “Thou art none of a believer!” Coveting the perishable goods of this life: with Allah are profits and spoils abundant. Even thus were ye yourselves before, till Allah conferred on you His favors: Therefore carefully investigate. For Allah is well aware of all that ye do. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ya eyyuhelleziyne amenu O you who believe, believers! iza darabtum fiy sebiylillahi fetebeyyenu When you go to war in the way of Allah, investigate well.
ve la tekulu limen elka ileykumus Selame leste mu’minen, tebtegune ‘aradal hayatid dunya When you go to war in the way of Allah, investigate well. Fetebeyyenu’ can also be translated as “Be very responsible.” It has the literal meaning of investigating well but be very responsible also fits in for these kinds of situations. And if one gives you a greeting and wants to make peace, do not say, “You are not a believer” aspiring for the goods of the worldly life… fe ‘indAllahi meganimu kesiyratun Because there are many spoils in the sight of Allah… Bounties are most in the domain of Allah. It’s saying that don’t kill anyone for the purpose of looting.
Kezalike kuntum min kabl You were like that yourself before. Don’t forget that. Be merciful to the person in front of you. femennAllahu aleykum But you were blessed by Allah’s Favor. You were like that before. You lived in that situation. You were in doubt, hesitation. Then you were blessed with faith. Your faiths grew now but you weren’t like that always. You were living like astrays in a part of your lives, unaware of Allah’s presence, unaware from the truth. They are like that now.
fe tebeyyenu So, in this case, be very careful. You should be very cautious on wasting people, don’t waste them so easily.
innAllahe kane Bi ma ta’melune Habiyra; Because Allah is well aware of all your doings.
Again, you may notice that there’s something in the background, a historical event that became the reason of arrival. But there are several rumors about the origin of it. For example, according to the records we read in Buhari;
During a battle when a true believer was about to murder his enemy, the person in front of his sword assured peace with him, give selam or say Kelime-i Sahadet (Word of Witness in Islam). Of course there are some other stories as well. The point is, that believer killed that person within the terms of war, because he thought that he was trying to be friendly or trying to save his life. A similar situation was told about Usame Bin Zeyd R.A. He had met the exact same situation, in battle his enemy was about to be struck by Zeyd’s sword, he said the word of witness and declared that he submitted to Allah. But Zeyd also within the terms of war, killed him; thought he was telling this only out of fear.
This situations whole version goes like this. The news of this reached Rasulallah. Rasulallah summoned the killer and scolded him. The answer was “But he said like that out of fear.” Rasulallahs answer was this.
– Hel la shekakte kalbehu..!
“Now, did you open his heart, cut open and looked into his heart?”
Also Rasulallah’s comment on a similar situation was the same.
– Lem ab as em eshukka ala kulubinnas
I wasn’t sent down to open the chests, hearts of people and look. The expression is quite meaningful.
So the message here is this, my dear friends. Be merciful to people. Try to win people, not cut them down. Be very sensitive, research extremely well. The meaning of Fetebeyyenu is this. Try to win the hearts of people. One person, one world. Win a heart, conquer hearts. If you step the road with this logic, you will see that winning a person is more gainful than conquering thousand lands.
Only then you may understand, the real conqueror of Anatolia, the legend among Anatolian people Battal Ghazi, a.k.a. Abdullah el Battal was indeed a son of non-muslim. A son that is won by heart.
Only then you may understand the conqueror of Africa Musa bin Nusayr was an orphan and a grandchildren of a non-muslim.
The conqueror of Endulus, Tarik bin Ziyad was a son of a small barber, but a barber who had fought and died in a battle against Islam.
You may understand that one of the greatest lawmen of Islam Imam Azam Abu Caniphe. His grandfather Zota was a non-muslim in Persian Army who fought against the armies of Islam and fell as a prisoner. You may see that how a great Islam person came from a prisoners grandson. This is the compassion we should act with all the time.
95-) La yestevil ka’idune minel mu’miniyne gayru uliddarari vel mucahidune fiy sebiylillahi Bi emvalihim ve enfusihim* faddalellahul mucahidiyne Bi emvalihim ve enfusihim alel kaidiyne dereceten, ve kullen veadAllahul Husna* ve faddalellahul mucahidiyne alel kaidiyne ecren aziyma;
Not equal are those who stay behind from war without a valid reason and those who fight in the way of Allah with their possessions and their lives (their sense of self)… Allah has raised the degree of those who struggle with their possessions and their lives over those who stay behind. Allah has given the best to all of them. But Allah has preferred those who strive in His cause over those who stay back, with a great reward. (A.Hulusi)
Not equal are those believers who sit, except those who are disabled, and those who strive and fight in the cause of Allah with their goods and their persons. Allah hath granted a grade higher to those who strive and fight with their goods and persons than to those who sit (at home). Unto all (in faith) Hath Allah promised good: But those who strive and fight Hath He distinguished above those who sit (at home) by a great reward,- (A.Yusuf Ali)
La yestevil ka’idune minel mu’miniyne gayru uliddarari vel mucahidune fiy sebiylillahi Bi emvalihim ve enfusihim Not equal are those who stay behind from war without a valid reason and those who strive and fight in the cause of Allah with their goods and their persons. Qur’an says here that those who sit and those who run are not the same. People who choose to sit the struggle out, those who neglect their moral responsibilities by running from challenge. Those who don’t contribute the social resurrection and revolution. We should think this through with 85th verses of people who contribute the good and truth.
faddalellahul mucahidiyne Bi emvalihim ve enfusihim alel kaidiyne dereceten Allah has raised the degree of those who struggle with their possessions and their lives over those who stay behind. Those who choose to fight back have been raised to a higher level than those who stay behind.
ve kullen veadAllahul Husna Allah has given the best to all of them. All of believers. This is an advance payment. Heaven is promised to all of us in case we keep protecting our faiths.
ve faddalellahul mucahidiyne alel kaidiyne ecren aziyma But those who strive and fight has He distinguished above those who sit at home by a great reward. This is the reward that seperates the fighting believers from stay behind, laying believers.
96-) Derecatin minhu ve magfireten ve rahmeten, ve kanAllahu Gafuren Rahiyma;
Degrees, forgiveness and grace (He has given). Allah is the Ghafur and the Rahim. (A.Hulusi)
Ranks specially bestowed by Him, and Forgiveness and Mercy. For Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Derecatin minhu ve magfireten ve rahmeten Degrees, forgiveness and grace Allah has given.
ve kanAllahu Gafuren Rahiyma; For Allah is Oftenly Forgiving and Most Merciful.
Jihad is the collective of all struggles on the cause of higher values, looking for higher purposes. In other words, jihad is the name of challange that should remove the obstacles between men and Islam.
Verse 76 was telling this, right; those who have faith are the ones who fight in the name of Allah, those who deny are the ones who fight in the name of Evil. So in the end, those who choose not to fight, who don’t face the struggle for any reasons are no man at all.
Who why are we fighting for o people? Check that and find out your value in the domain of Allah from that.
“Ve ahiru davana velil hamdulillahi rabbil alemiyn” (Jonah/10) “Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the Worlds!” All products of our claims, causes and lives are for Allah and our last word to our Allah is “Hamd”.