“Euzu Billahi minesheytanir racim”
Dear friends, in our previous lesson we studied verses mostly related to human-human interactions. In more genral sense, we looked at the concept of jihad and saw it as a mean to achieve happiness by Qur’an which takes the happiness of humanity as a subject. In this sense, we see verdicts about personal killers, personal murders, unintentional manslaughers or intentional homicides. After that we translated verses about jihad ad its importance on the way of Allah. And lastly we saw in Qur’an that people who sit, who don’t care about these problems and not willing to make sacrifices are not going to be the same with the ones who do.
And now we continue our lesson from where we left off, 97th verse of Nisa Chapter.
97-) Innelleziyne teveffahumul Melaiketu zalimiy enfusihim kalu fiyme kuntum* kalu kunna mustad’afiyne fiyl Ard* kalu elem tekun Ardullahi vasi’aten fe tuhaciru fiyha* fe ulaike me’vahum cehennem* ve saet mesiyra;
Indeed, the angels told those who are in a state of doing wrong to themselves while they are taken by death, “In what condition were you? (Why were you in a state of doing wrong to yourselves?)”… They said, “We were weak and helpless on earth”… (The angels) said, “Was Allah’s earth not vast enough for you to migrate therein?”… Their refuge will be hell… What a wretched end! (A.Hulusi)
When angels take the souls of those who die in sin against their souls, they say: “In what (plight) were ye?” They reply: “Weak and oppressed were we in the earth.” They say: “Was not the earth of Allah spacious enough for you to move yourselves away (from evil)?” Such men will find their abode in Hell,- What an evil refuge! – (A.Yusuf Ali)
Innelleziyne teveffahumul Melaiketu zalimiy enfusihim kalu fiyme kuntum When angels take the souls of those who die in sin against their souls, they ask: “In what condition were you?” What did you do there so bad that today you are entering hell? Because no innocent person comes here. So what crime did you committed to make you come hell?
Kalu kunna mustad’afiyne fiyl Ard They will turn defensive immediately, giving them excuses one after another, but not the real answer; no they will bring forth irrelevent excuses and say; “We were weak and helpless on earth, we were among weak and oppressed.”
Kalu elem tekun Ardullahi vasi’aten fe tuhaciru fiyha And angels will answer them; “Was Allah’s earth not vast enough for you to migrate therein?” or “Allah’s earth was big enough to relocate from your oppression, so why didn’t you go from there. fe tuhaciru fiyha relocate from there or migrate as we know it.
Actually dear friends, migration is a concept of both sides, both physical and spiritual, just like jihad. Just like we are unable to degrade jihad to physical battling, we cannot degrade migration to just relocating from one place to another or just exiting one place and entering the other one.
Jihad has a spiritual dimension, mucahede. It’s the name of the inner battle one makes with his own self, his ego, his tempting desires, his instincts, his inner demons.
Just like resisting for moral and ethic lifestyles and choices is a part of jihad, turning from evil to good, superstitious to truth, oppression to justice, blasphemy to faith, seeking sanctuary for them is another dimension of migration.
Today, especially in this particular verse, we see a specific kind of social groups, which is highly possible to meet them in our modern lives. These are the types who are willing to give up their rights to escape their responsibilities. We studied these types in our previous lesson, in 75th verse. In this verse there are three types exist. Mustazaf, the oppressed group, one of them was mustazafs which Allah praised over them. They are;
Ve nuriydu en nemunne alelleziynestud’ifu fiyl Ardi ve nec’alehum eimmeten ve nec’alehumul varisiyn; (Kasas/5)
So We wished to favor those who were left helpless and abased, and make them leaders and inheritors. This is the herald of Qur’an for them, those are the praised group. Oppressed and resisting, they are praised.
There’s also a neutral mustazaf group, they are naturally weak. We are informed by them in the next verse following. Weak men, weak women, children and elders. And of course there are oppressed who are criticised; these are the target group of the verse we are studying now. Who are they? They are the ones who accept the tyrany. Those who have no stance against oppression. You may ask why do they exist; I say this is a social illness, a weakness. A weakness in humans moral behaviours.
I choose to phrase it like this; People who choose to give up their rights in order to avoid responsibility. Because fulfilling a responsibility is about paying the price. You have to pay it. Because defending your rights isn’t an easy task. So, those who cannot show courage give up their rights in advance, they turn back and give some excuses about being weak. They say; “We had no power.” But in reality they had never tried to use their own Powers. That’s why these people cannot or should not show their incompetence as an excuse neither to people nor to Allah. This is what’s been told in this verse. These type. These people who choose to give up their rights in order to avoid responsibility and making up excuses about their weaknesses.
So to these types, Qur’an says; “You should migrate. Why don’t you leave the lands of tyrany then?” So this is the message here. You have claims; you say “We had no power there, we couldn’t do anything.” Qur’an then says; “Then why don’t you relocate to some place else where you can claim your freedom?”
This is the logic of migration hidden here. There’s this place, the land of tyrany and oppression, human freedom is violated to its very core and everything should be done to prevent it was done and there’s nothing left to do. There’s no step forward, no land to manuever, then there’s only one thing to do left. Stepping out, searching for a new land. Establishing a justice land where you can be free.
This is the absolute condition of migration. So in order to validate your migration, you should build a land of justice. Otherwise migration is actually a runaway. But in reality it’s not. What is Hejira, Hejira is the name of a search for Madina. A search for an establishment. A search for civilization. A search for a government. Migration is not a way of escape, it’s a way out. Choosing a Madina to migrate is like stepping backin order to jump forward. That’s why we should take the word migration in this sense if we look it physically.
And migration for spiritual take; actually the phrase; “Euzu Billahi minesheytanir racim” is a code for spiritual migration. I seek refuge to Allah from Satan’s evildoings. Hejira is seeking sanctuary in Allah.
Kul e’uzu BiRabbil felak; Felak/1 Kul e’uzu BirabbinNas; Nas/1 These are both orders for spiritual migration. Escape from yourself and seek refuge in Allah. Fefirru ilallah, eyne’l mefer these are the questions, where should we escape to; let’s talk with Qur’ans phrases. Qur’an answers the question of location. Fefirru ilallah (Zariat/50) Escape to Allah. This is the meaning of spiritual migration.
fe ulaike me’vahum cehennem so about these types again, these people who choose to give up their rights in order to avoid their responsibilities, these people who choose oppression willingly and bow down to tyrants. You see these people in strange conditions. These are the ones who defend tyrants actually. I remember a rather vivid expression of someone I care for his opinions. He once said; “Silly slave who drink his masters piss for remedy.”
Licking the boots of tyrants who make all that evil things to them. Why do they do that? Why do they accept that? So that no person reminds him about his own real responsibilities. In other words, finding excuses in oppression they endure just to cover up the oppression the do to themselves. These oppressed create excuses over excuses for their tyrants, before tyrants themselves. That’s why throughout the entire history tyrants owe their leadership positions to these people who willingly give up their rights for them. And for that; fe ulaike me’vahum cehennem their destionation is hell. Ve saet mesiyra; And what a wretched place it is!
98-) Illel mustad’afiyne minerRicali ven nisai vel vildani la yestetiy’une hiyleten ve la yehtedune sebiyla;
Except those who do not have the means to migrate – helpless men, women and children. (A.Hulusi)
Except those who are (really) weak and oppressed – men, women, and children – who have no means in their power, nor can they find a way (to escape). (A.Yusuf Ali)
These are the neutral mustazaf group I mentioned before, really weak ones, the ones whose excuses will be accepted by Allah. Weak men, weak women and children, those who walk without guidance, these are the exceptions. Allah won’t hold them responsible, because they really are powerless. They really cannot do anything, that’s why they are the victims.
The ve la yehtedune sebiyla expression here, it means people without having a guidance, people who cannot get the message enough. As in those who couldn’t completely comprehend what’s what yet, those who couldn’t understand the message he recieved yet, they are victims until they do. We can take it like this.
99-) Feulaike ‘asallahu en ya’fuve anhum* ve kanAllahu Afuvven Gafura;
It is expected that Allah will pardon them. Allah is the Afuw, the Ghafur. (A.Hulusi)
For these, there is hope that Allah will forgive: For Allah doth blot out (sins) and forgive again and again. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Feulaike ‘asallahu en ya’fuve anhum* It is expected that Allah will pardon them. ve kanAllahu Afuvven Gafura For Allah does blot out sins and forgive again and again.
100-) Ve men yuhacir fiy sebiylillahi yecid fiyl Ardi muragamen kesiyren veseaten, ve men yahruc min beytihi muhaciren ilAllahi ve RasuliHİ summe yudrikhul mevtu fekad veka’a ecruhu alellah* ve kanAllahu Gafuren Rahiyma;
Whoever migrates (from a land in which he is oppressed) in the way of Allah (based on the verse ‘flee to Allah’; migrate to your essential reality) will find immense vastness on earth… Whoever leaves his home as a migrant to Allah and His Rasul (with the reality disclosed by them) and then dies on this way, his reward will be from Allah… Allah is the Ghafur, the Rahim. (We have tried to highlight an inner meaning here alongside the obvious physical connotation of this verse.) (A.Hulusi)
He who forsakes his home in the cause of Allah, finds in the earth many a refuge, wide and spacious: Should he die as a refugee from home for Allah and His Messenger, his reward becomes due and sure with Allah. And Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve men yuhacir fiy sebiylillahi yecid fiyl Ardi muragamen kesiyren veseaten, Whoever migrates in the cause of Allah, will find immense vastness on earth. Lots of alternate places. fiyl Ardi muragamen and opportunities.
Veseaten Muragamen; I translated this as alternate places. The word Ragim comes from this. A chosen place despite others. Did you do this? Did you create a place on earth where we cannot stay and live? Then we will create an alternate place where we can use our freedoms to their limits and dedicate our lives on the way of Allah.
What can we do? We can make our houses like this. If you make our streets inhabitable, we can dedicate our lives to Allah in our homes. We turn each of them to Madina. We migrate to our homes. You make our schools the places there we cannot feel our freedoms by life and by faith, you turn them into living hells? Then we turn our houses into living heavens. We can make out neighbourhood like heaven. We can create these alternate places. We can create them with our faiths. This is the meaning of muragamen.
ve men yahruc min beytihi muhaciren ilAllahi ve RasuliHİ summe yudrikhul mevtu Whoever leaves his home as a migrant to Allah and His Rasul and then dies on this way, fekad veka’a ecruhu alellah* his reward becomes due and sure with Allah. Allah will reward them surely, his prize is from Allah.
ve kanAllahu Gafuren Rahiyma; For Allah is Oftenly Forgiving and Most Merciful.
101-) Ve iza darebtum fiyl Ardi feleyse aleykum cunahun en taksuru mines Salati, in hiftum en yeftinekumulleziyne keferu* innel kafiriyne kanu lekum aduvven mubiyna;
And when you are traveling throughout the land, there is no harm in shortening your salat (prayers) if you fear the deniers of the reality may harm you. Indeed, those deniers or concealers of the reality are clear enemies to you. (A.Hulusi)
When ye travel through the earth, there is no blame on you if ye shorten your prayers, for fear the unbelievers may attack you: For the unbelievers are unto you open enemies. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve iza darebtum fiyl Ardi And when you are traveling throughout the land, feleyse aleykum cunahun en taksuru mines Salati, in hiftum en yeftinekumulleziyne keferu* there is no harm in shortening your salat (prayers) if you fear the deniers of the reality may harm you. innel kafiriyne kanu lekum aduvven mubiyna For the unbelievers who resist on denial are unto you open enemies.
This verse has been used by some scholars as a mean to shorten the prayer when in travels. Whether subject of this travel is about going to war or not create different comments, next verse clarifies the situation for us. It’s about the travel happening during the war. Curiously enough, the verse; fiy sebiylillah there’s no record. As in Ve iza darebtum fiy sebiylillah, fiyl Ardi fiy sebiylillah. No mentioning about war, There’s no reference about only available during jihad, during fighting on the way of Allah, only when you travel to defen the humanity and Islamic values. On the contrary, the phrase is general. From this point of view, it is thought that this license is for all travelings which I believe is an accurate approach.
We said the verse about war but it also includes all traveling. There are some objections for this approach. To get the license to shorten the prayers one should be on the travel for war, travel for hacc or travel about some other worshipping act. Other than that we have no right to shorten the prayers, at least some names think it like this even they are a few. But according to the records we read, Rasulallah shorten his prayers in all his travels.
We say shortening but even this is something to argue. During a travel doing the must prays of noon, afternoon and night; 4 sections of these prays are done with only 2 sections. This is the meaning of shortening. But even this is a matter of a different discuss.
Abu Caniph says; “No this is no shortening because the travelers pray is already 2 sectioned pray and it is the genuine one.” We also see some strong stories supporting him. According to the stories we get from Mother Aisha, Must-duty prays were always 2 sectioned when they were ordered. But when the time of peace arrives Rasulallah showed 4 sectioned prays to his communirt and he asked them to do like this as his will. That’s why Abu Caniphs opinion is a strong one. As in when someone travels prays aren’t actually become short, they are taken to their original 2 sectioned form. When the time of peace, praying takes its longer form, reinforced form to be exact. This is the legacy that Rasulallah left to us, a must-duty and sunnet type praying.
This opinion isn’t just his though, Ibn Abbas and Suddi had also these opinion. Even the translator of Qur’an Ibn Abbas had this opinion too.
So like I said there’s a problem here. What is the meaning of shortening en taksuru in this verse then. There are two types of shortening.
1 – Kemmiyet shortening, numeric shortening
2 – Keyfiyet shortening, quality shortening.
Kemmiyet shortening or numeric shortening is lowering the sections of 4 to 2. But there’s also a quality shortening which came under the light many times even the era of happiness was happening. Executing the pray faster. Leaving some key parts of the pray. For example, standing up when the time of standing is actually be dangerous. When making ruku and secde are dangerous, executing them by implications. At this point there are many opinions about the boundries of these shortenings and different practices from the time of happiness (Rasulallah’s times) to this days.
As always, Imam Abu Caniph approached salat formally. According to him, you can delay prays at the heat of battle. As a proof to that, he showed Rasulallah’s practice at the Battle of Hendek, delaying 4 daily prays to a time after midnight. One occasion in Rasulallah’s life as an example but according to the records 4 daily prays were postponed due to the heat of battle. Because the war was about survival, life and death situation for Muslims. After the prays were executed all at once, Rasulallah cursed them by saying, “Because of them we missed our prays.” Interesting, he didn’t curse them because they had opened a war against them, he cursed them because they forced Rasulallah to miss the prays. I will stay on the importance of prays topic a while later.
At this point Imam Shafi had the most relaxed and low density approach to this debate. According to him, at the time of war, you can make your prays, on the horse or camel, even at war, you can do it with only your eyes.
At this point I should mention about the details, some different opinions about another matter. How far is admissable for travel prays? As in how far should we travel to be able to do daily prays as 2 sectioned. Very different answers came forward to this one.
Imam Malik says 24 hours a travel by both day and night. This can be translated to 48 miles with old caravans.
Caliph Omar also says one day trip.
Hasan Basri and Imam Yusuf says 2 days trip.
Imam Azam says 54 miles which can be taken as 90 Km.
It can be asked which one is true, a person can make shorten his daily prays if he feels himself in a long travel but only with the standards of his time and technology. One of the greatest translator Elmali Ahmed Hamdi Yazir, there’s no excuse to shorten any daily prays in these times, whether the travel is short or long, all vehicles like planes, ships and other fast vehicles, there’s no need to shorten prays.
I cannot support this opinion however; Caliph Omar showed the excuse of shortening the prays by the hardship of the travel itself. That’s why he chose to do his prays with full their content if he took off to easy travels. But Rasulallah said to him;
– Sadakatun, tasaddukullahi biha aleykum fakbilu adagatehu.
It’s an alm, a treat from your Allah. Don’t deny the treat from Allah.
Rasulallah saw this license as a treat from Allah. That’s why at this point Abu Caniph takes this matter not as a precaution by stories but as vacip. Because when it is taken like this, daily prays should be taken as vacip status, hence the necessity of shortening them.
Shafi on the other hand, sees this as an excuse and says they should be executed with their full content and sections. These two opinion derived from the same hadith and yet they stay in total opposite. I believe we should take this hadith as a treat from Allah but beyond that, we shouldn’t create a solid opinion about it. People may execute their prays however they wish on travel, whether they are in full 4 sectioned form or shortened travel prays as 2 sectioned. Last one we can see them in Mother Aisha’s stories.
Rasulallah was always shorten his prays and I was doing them fully. He was talking to me then, looking and smiling at me. “May Allah accept your prays Aisha.” As in Rasulallah was verifying my doings.”
Now we should move to another topic but salat-ul Havf, in a life threatening situation, how prays should be done. We now look further to that with more openings and details.
102-) Ve iza kunte fiyhim feekamte lehumus Salate feltekum taifetun minhum meake vel ye’huzu eslihatehum* feiza secedu felyekunu min veraikum* velte’ti taifetun uhra lem yusallu fel yusallu meake velye’huzu hizrehum ve eslihatehum* veddelleziyne keferu lev tagfulune an eslihatikum ve emti’atikum feyemiylune aleykum meyleten vahideten, ve la cunaha aleykum in kane Bi kum ezen min metarin ev kuntum merda en teda’u eslihatekum* ve huzu hizrakum* innAllahe e’adde lil kafiriyne azaben muhiyna;
(My Rasul) when you are among them (but in an unsafe state) and you lead them in prayer (salat), let a group of them stand in salat next to you while armed with their weapons… When they prostrate let the others stand in guard behind you… Then have the others come forward, who have not yet prayed, and let them pray with you… Let them take precautions and arms… The deniers of the reality wish for you to be negligent of your weapons and possessions so they may attack you suddenly. But if you are overtaken by rain or illness, there is no harm in leaving your arms… (Though) you should still take precautions… Indeed, Allah has prepared a degrading suffering for the deniers of the reality. (A.Hulusi)
When thou (O Messenger) art with them, and standest to lead them in prayer, let one party of them stand up (in prayer) with thee, taking their arms with them: When they finish their prostrations, let them take their position in the rear, and let the other party come up which hath not yet prayed – and let them pray with thee, taking all precaution, and bearing arms: the unbelievers wish, if ye were negligent of your arms and your baggage, to assault you in a single rush. But there is no blame on you if ye put away your arms because of the inconvenience of rain or because ye are ill; but take (every) precaution for yourselves. For the unbelievers Allah hath prepared a humiliating punishment. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve iza kunte fiyhim My Rasul, when you are among them feekamte lehumus Salate and you lead them in prayer feltekum taifetun minhum meake vel ye’huzu eslihatehum let a group of them stand in salat next to you while armed with their weapons. It’s war, ongoing, right against the enemy… This verse is an addressing directly to Rasulallah but when it’s taken properly, it’s an addressing to all believers especially the leaders, commanders and elders of believers until the Judgement Day. When you look at that perspective it’s an obvious truth.
In battle, when the situation is dire and fearful, more likely dangerous; if the pray should be done in such an extraordinary situation, it is said that they should stand in salat while armed with weapons.
feiza secedu felyekunu min veraikum When they finish their prostrations, let them take their position in the rear, velte’ti taifetun uhra lem yusallu also felyekunu min veraikum we can take this expression metaphorically and say, standing behing you, as in look after you, protect you. We should also consider this fact too. velte’ti taifetun uhra lem yusallu and then the other group shall come and stand to their salats. fel yusallu meake velye’huzu hizrehum ve eslihatehum and let them pray with you, taking all precaution, and bearing arms.
The picture is clear here. During an ongoing battle, an extraordinary conflict, one part of the army comes behind imam, leader, commander to make their prays while the other part stand on guard. We can also deduce the literal meaning from the verse. One side makes 1 section of pray and the other comes and they do another section of pray. This way Imam makes the pray two sectioned but the army makes one by shortening. We can understand this too.
This is another form of shortening, just like travel prays or dangerous situation prays. What we do is the reinforced peace times prays.
Some scholars might say they should ad done section to their prays too. Even with their debates and opinions I don’t believe they have solid proofs for their claims and all the records and stories from prophets times support otherwise.
Like I said, Caniphs see the prays as a formal occurance. That’s why Abu Caniph says while in battle prays should be postponed. But Imam Malik and Sufyan Servi suggested that the prays can be done without ruku and secde, all by just signs and small movements. They show proof as the battle of Hendek which I believe I mentioned earlier.
What I want to stay on is this. Why in a situation of life and death, why even in a war, Qur’an still mentions prays. Why is daily prays are so important. Many scholars say based on stories and records if the confict is too dire, too fiery; one can make his prays over his horse, his camel or if we take it to our days on place or in tank, he can make his prays buy taking a tekbir, saying elhamdulillah twice and after that saying Allahuekber twice. Why is that so important. I believe the real message is the function of prays dear friends. The purpose of prays in humans lives. This is the message.
You will fight in the name of Allah, but you will forget Allah at the same time. That wouldn’t do. Purpose cannot be sacrificed for tools. Purpose shouldn’t be given up for vehicles. What does praying represents. It’s the relation between Allah and worshipper.
“Even if your both hands are covered in blood, you cannot do without me. You should come to my appointment.” That’s it. “Even if you have your hands full with blood, even you are facing the death head on, you will catch the celestial meeting because I’m here. You will give your salute.”
“O Rabb, I’m where I promised to be. There might be extraordinary situations going on to prevent you from meeting you. But just as I come in regular times, I’m here now in these hard times to fulfill my promise.
This is what’s given here. Because jihad might be a social mission but prays are personal missions. Jihad, protecting the human rights. You cannot ignore Allah’s rights just because you protect humans rights. Just like you cannot ignore humans rights because you will protect Allah’s rights. Here a true believer learns how to fly with two wings. You cannot break one wing and expect to fly like that.
Look, Allah doesn’t say, “Leave the battle and go to praying.” This is important. But Allah doesn’t say otherwise too. Somehow come to your appointment. Gestures and actions are not the main objective here, it’s the thought, doesn’t have to be formal. If standing up is dangerous for you, by sitting, if secde is dangerous for you, only with your eyes. But no matter what you should catch your appointment.
That’s why jihat is horizontal conquest but praying is vertical conquest. You cannot seperate these two. You cannot use your social duty as an excuse to ignore your personal duty. We should understand it like this. Verse goes one.
veddelleziyne keferu lev tagfulune an eslihatikum ve emti’atikum the unbelievers wish, if you were negligent of your arms and your baggage, feyemiylune aleykum meyleten vahideten to assault you in a single rush.
ve la cunaha aleykum in kane Bi kum ezen min metarin ev kuntum merda en teda’u eslihatekum But there is no blame on you if you put away your arms because of the inconvenience of rain or because you are ill. ve huzu hizrakum but take (every) precaution for yourselves.
innAllahe e’adde lil kafiriyne azaben muhiyna; For the unbelievers Allah hath prepared a humiliating punishment.
[Additional Info: PRAYINGS SHOULDN’T BE SHORTENED EVEN IN TRAVELS!
This should be the one. If being a traveler is Allah’s order then it should be in Qur’an, so where is it? It’s location is here. 2 verses are about this subject in Qur’an Qareem. Nisa 101 and 102. No other verses are about this. But even in these verses there’s no such order of Allah. Because in these verses Allah defines traveling as traveling for wars, life and death situations. When you travel for war or you are in the front line of a battle you have permission to shorten your prays to 1 section. Also the message says you have no respnsibility for your shortening of prays. That means you can make your prays in full.
But you travel for joy and before you reach the city limits, the man begins to talk about being a seferi, traveler. How come you have this title all of a sudden, how’s that possible. You have the car. You can stop wherever you wish. There’s no shortage of water for ablution, masjid or anything.
You shorten your must duty prays but not the sunnet prays. As in Allah lets you shorten your prays but prophet doesn’t? How can this be?
So who does that? People like us, people who explain the religion. Based on what? On Qur’an. You should notice that people who talk about being a seferi cannot read or bring forth any verse in that matter. Because there are non. Only one verse talks about this subject and it’s this.
Ve iza darebtum fiyl Ardi when you step forth to go to sefer, saying Allah. Going to sefer, a travel for battle. Not a picnic run you make with car. A war travel. Because the word Darabe means war when it is used as a verb. What happens then? Look at the other part of the verse. (Nisa/101) feleyse aleykum cunahun you don’t have the responsibility of en taksuru mines Salati in case of shortening prays. As in you have the permission of shortening. Allah doesn’t say. Shorten it. You have to shorten your prays. No, Allah says you have no obligation, you might shorten your prays if you feel like it.
But there’s a condition, this is it. What is this condition? In hiftum, if you scared of dying. Why? en yeftinekumulleziyne keferu by unbelievers create mischief, create circumstances to kill you, then there’s no responsibility to do your prays in full, you may shorten them. So what is the main purpose here? Death threat from blasphemers, no other reason, no other possibility.
So let’s look at verse 102 too here, let’s see how that’s gonna work? (Nisa/102) Ve iza kunte fiyhim when you are among them, this is a direct addressing to Rasulallah from Allah of Alla Worlds, if you are on the travel of war with them. When you are among them feekamte lehumus Salate and leading their prays with them feltekum taifetun minhum meake let one party of them stand up (in prayer) with you, vel ye’huzu eslihatehum taking their arms with them: feiza secedu When they finish their prostrations, felyekunu min veraikum let them take their position in the rear, velte’ti taifetun uhra lem yusallu. and let the other party come up which hath not yet prayed – fel yusallu meake and let them pray with thee, velye’huzu hizrehum ve eslihatehum taking all precaution, and bearing arms.
What does this tell us? Does this have anything to do with a journey from Istanbul to Trabzon or Rize or Samsun or something? How can Allah expain further that this is all about war? How can this be?
Some parties answer is ready for this question. “No one has seen this until now and you are the one seeing it? No one could understand it until today is it you place to question this now?”
It doesn’t matter who understand it or who doesn’t. You should look what he says, whether it’s right or wrong. Right is right and wrong is wrong. Qur’an had sent down with the parameters of life, boundries which we should be aware of, Qur’an is filled with principles that teach us how to live properly. (M.Okuyan- NAMAZ, YOLCULUKTA DAHI KISALTILAMAZ!]
103-) Feiza kadaytumus Salate fezkurullahe kiyamen ve ku’uden ve ala cunubikum* feizetme’nentum feekiymus Salate, innesSalate kanet alel mu’miniyne kitaben mevkuta;
When you have finished your salat (in an unsafe environment), remember Allah while standing, sitting, or (lying) on your sides (i.e. experience Him in your being at all times)… When you feel satiated with the remembrance (dhikr), perform your salat (duly experience the essence of salat with the sensitivity and receptivity incited by dhikr). Indeed, the experience of salat at specific times has been inscribed upon the believers. (A.Hulusi)
When ye have performed the prayers, celebrate Allah’s praises, standing, sitting down, or lying down on your sides; but when ye are free from danger, set up regular prayers: For such prayers are enjoined on believers at stated times. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Feiza kadaytumus Salate When you have performed the prayers, when you finished your prayers like this, fezkurullahe kiyamen ve ku’uden ve ala cunubikum This part is intriguing my friends. It supports the translation I did earlier. Celebrate Allah’s praises, standing, sitting down, or lying down on your sides. After finishing the prayers.
What’s that suppose to mean. Don’t sever the bonds of prayers and times outside the prayers like cut by a knife. You cannot say, prayers are to Allah and other things are to me. Outside the prayers zone, I can go back to my earthly field. Spiritual grounds for Allah and earthly grounds are for me, you cannot say that. When you finish your prayers, be with Allah. This is the message here. Why, standing up, sitting down and laying down. Because these are the three stances a person lives his life.
So what’s the significance then? Don’t act without Allah in any of lifes plains. This is it. Otherwise laying, sitting or standing are just postures. When saying this, Qur’an actually means to say, don’t act without Allah in any part of your lives. Don’t make anything independent from Allah. Know your responsibilities and be conscious that you are in need of Allah.
feizetme’nentum feekiymus Salate And when you are free from danger, set up regular prayers.
innesSalate kanet alel mu’miniyne kitaben mevkuta; For such prayers are enjoined on believers at stated times.
I took notes of the verses regarding the times of prayers. I should say these now and then I will move on.
Baqarah 238, Hud 114, Isra 78, Taha 130 and Rum 17-18. There are the verses Allah points out about the times of prayers.
Baqarah 238 – Maintain salat (prayer; turning to Allah) with care, (in particular) the middle salat (asr prayer – the constant experience of this in one’s consciousness). Live in full submission in the way of Allah. (A.Hulusi)
Hud/114 – Establish salat at the two ends of the day and at the approach of the night… Indeed, good deeds (experiencing the reality; a pleasant lifestyle) will remove the bad deeds (the act of covering the reality, and the consequences of offences resulting from an ego-based existence)… This is an advice for those with comprehension. (A.Hulusi)
Isra/78 – So establish prayer (salat) at the time the sun sets in the west until the darkness of the night. Also, the Quran of the dawn (the morning prayer)… Indeed, the recitation of the Quran of the dawn is ever witnessed. (A.Hulusi)
Taha/130 – So be patient about what they say… Glorify (tasbih) your Rabb as His Hamd (by feeling the One who manifests Hamd within you) before the sun rises and before it sets! And glorify (tasbih; experience your essential reality) in a part of the night (I’sha) and in the middle of the day (zuhr) so that you may attain the state of pleasure (observing). (A.Hulusi)
Rum/17 – Subhan is Allah, in your evening and in your morning! (A.Hulusi)
Rum/18 – Hamd belongs to Him in the heavens and the earth… At midday when the sun is at its peak and late afternoon when it begins to set! (A.Hulusi)
104-) Ve la tehinu fibtigail kavm* in tekunu te’lemune feinnehum ye’lemune kema te’lemun* ve tercune minAllahi ma la yercun* ve kanAllahu Aliymen Hakiyma;
Do not relent in the pursuit of the enemy… If you are suffering, they too are suffering just the same… Yet you can wish from Allah things that they cannot hope for… Allah is the Aleem, the Hakim. (A.Hulusi)
And slacken not in following up the enemy: If ye are suffering hardships, they are suffering similar hardships; but you have hope from Allah, while they have not. And Allah is full of knowledge and wisdom. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve la tehinu fibtigail kavm* Do not relent in the pursuit of the enemy. in tekunu te’lemune feinnehum ye’lemune kema te’lemun If you are suffering, they too are suffering just the same. If you are paying a price, they too are paying. This is important. The difference between you and them is feeling. Difference of target. You have afterlife, you are people of two worlds. They have only one. While being a member of a group with two worlds, you should pay double the price, don’t you think that they won’t be willing to pay a price for their single world? The have only one world there’s nothing for them beyond. And yet they pay a heavy price just as you, sometimes even bigger.
Those one worlded people give their lives sometimes but us two worlded people sometimes we don’t. There are times when two worlded people couldn’t do the same sacrifice as those one worlded groups. So when you have the earth life and afterlife but you have no will to make sacrifice, how will you face Allah then. This is the one.
ve tercune minAllahi ma la yercun This is the thing I was saying. Yet you can wish from Allah things that they cannot hope for. They have no expectation of heaven but you do. They have no expectation from afterlife but you do. But you’re not acting like a person who has expectations from afterlife ad paradise.
ve kanAllahu Aliymen Hakiyma; For Allah is full of knowledge and wisdom.
Passage ends here. But just like the entire Qur’an is linked together we will enter another passage connected to this one based on the events that occured in that era.
105-) Inna enzelna ileykel Kitabe Bil Hakkı li tahkume beynenNasi Bi ma erakellah* ve la tekun lil hainiyne hasiyma;
Most certainly We have revealed the knowledge of the reality to you, so that you judge among the people by the Truth shown by Allah. Do not defend the traitors! (A.Hulusi)
We have sent down to thee the Book in truth, that thou mightest judge between people by that which Allah has shown thee; so be not an advocate by those who betray their trust; (A.Yusuf Ali)
Inna enzelna ileykel Kitabe Bil Hakki li tahkume beynenNasi Bi ma erakellah We have sent down to you the Book in truth, that you mightest judge between people by that which Allah has shown you. So the goal of revelations is reordering peoples lives by verses. Establish a lifestyle that these verses are at the center of them. Build a social model. Create a society which their goals corelate with Qur’ans goals politically. So that Allah’s will may manifest in that society.
ve la tekun lil hainiyne hasiyma; Do not defend the traitors!
Here is the worlds most general rule comes from a specific event. This event is by all translations write in agreement but by records with different variants, it’s this.
Abu Ta’me from Ubeyrik clan, had made an offensive move to an ensar named Rifa’a who happened to convert to Islam recently, this man might be someone else according to other stories but the main premise is the same. Abu Ta’ma had stolen his armor and sword that was hidden in a flour bag. This Ubeyrik, he had brothers. They are known as Ubeyrik sons Abu Ta’me and his brother Beshir. Others too. They were from a shady background. People of ignorance and some negative impacted behaviours. They had kept that stolen armor and sword in their home first but out of fear of search they chose to pawn them to a Jew. In that era giving something to a Jew as pawn is some sort of bank function.
Rifa’a clan members began searching for the stolen armor and by following the trail of flour they reached the house of Abu Ta’me. They searched but not found the armor. But it was obvious that the trail ended there. So they began to pressure him. Abu Ta’me in pinch chose to rat the Jew by slandering him.
Saying; “Go search his house, you find it there.”
Of course they didn’t ask for how he knows about such a thing. They are all in doubts. Finally the armor was found in Jews house. But earlier this Jew had told his fellows that Abu Ta’me had brought an armor and a sword as pawn. Naturally situation was carried to Rasulallah. All members of Abu Ta’mes clan began objecting. These people were ensar who were supposed to be Muslims. But their adversary now was a Jew.
Jew was saying, “No, he brought it to me as a pawn. And I said this to my fellows, (naming them).” They too testified for the Jew. But they were all Jews. So Abu Ta’ma’s group came and said, “We are muslims.” Almost trying to say, “O Rasulallah, will you listen to those Jews now when we, muslims are saying one things and they are saing another?” As in “Will you sacrifice a muslim out of a Jews word.” This is the point where they pulled the situation. Trying to bury the situation in an emotional background. More like tryng to but “Us and them” model in front, rather than “Hakk and the truth.”
At that point verse had come to help as a form of warning for Rasulallah. ve la tekun lil hainiyne hasiyma; don’t you side with the traitors. The case must be in a tight spot in front of Rasulallah because of the lack of evidence. Also both sides even one side is non-muslim and the other side is muslim and they should carry a degree of faith they cannot show any evidence at all. They both had witnesses but naturally there was no way of knowing whose lying and whose telling the truth. At that point Rasulallah was about to verdict in the favor of Abu Ta’me, the verse came to aid to clarify the situation.
This is our example, our event. But we should be able to comprehend universal principles without stucking to this event. But we should also take it under constant consideration in order to grasp the principle well.
Verses between 105 and 115, this passage came about this event. This situation is always on the backgroun. But the bottom stream keeps coming to create a pattern between these verses. Whoever will be in front of you, side with the oppressed and against the tyrant.
106-) Vestagfirillah* innAllahe kane Gafuren Rahiyma;
Ask for forgiveness from Allah. Indeed, Allah is the Ghafur, the Rahim. (A.Hulusi)
But seek the forgiveness of Allah. for Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Vestagfirillah* Ask for forgiveness from Allah. innAllahe kane Gafuren Rahiyma; for Allah is Oftenly Forgiving, Most Merciful.
107-) Ve la tucadil anilleziyne yahtanune enfusehum* innAllahe la yuhibbu men kane havvanen esiyma;
Do not defend those who have betrayed themselves! Indeed, Allah does not like those who persist in betraying themselves. (A.Hulusi)
Contend not on behalf of such as betray their own souls; for Allah loveth not one given to perfidy and sin: (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve la tucadil anilleziyne yahtanune enfusehum Do not defend those who have betrayed themselves! No person, my dear friends cannot betray someone else before betraying himself. In fact betrayal to Allah is ones betraying himself.
No person can tell a lie before telling himself that lie.
No person can oppress someone before oppressing himself.
A persons self betrayal is the name of alienating himself, removing himself from his fıtrat. Choking the voice is his conscience.
This is blasphemy, this is mischief. The thick veil that covers the conscience. As you already know the word kufur (blasphemy) means covering.
When you cover your conscience, you cannot hear the voice of your origin. Your connections with your conscience are cut. Even with all the yellings inside, you cannot hear or listen to yourselves. Because;
Summun bukmun umyun fehum la yerci’un;Baqarah/18
You become deaf, mute and blind. Of course this is a metaphoric meaning since Qur’an doesn’t say blind is the man without eyes. No, the real blind is the person who covers his hearts eyes, his consciences visions.
innAllahe la yuhibbu men kane havvanen esiyma; Indeed, Allah does not like those who persist in betraying themselves. Allah doesn’t like people who take betrayal as an occupation and dive into the swamp of sins.
108-) Yestahfune minen Nasi ve la yestahfune minAllahi ve HUve meahum iz yubeyyitune ma la yerda minel kavl* ve kanAllahu Bi ma ya’melune muhiyta;
(The two-faced hypocrites) can hide from others but not from Allah! For He was present with them (according to Sufism this denotes the unity of existence; that Allah creates every iota of existence with His Names) when they were plotting during the night, things which He does not like. Allah encompasses what they do! (A.Hulusi)
They seek to hide them selves from people, but they cannot hide from Allah, while He is with them when they plot by night, in words that He cannot approve: And Allah Doth compass round all that they do. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Yestahfune minen Nasi They seek to hide themselves from people, ve la yestahfune minAllahi but they cannot hide from Allah. How can they do that, how can one hide from Allah, they can only hide things from people.
ve HUve meahum iz yubeyyitune ma la yerda minel kavl while He is with them when they plot by night, in words that He cannot approve. Allah was seeing them. A person commits a sin wondering that people see him or not at that time, if he commits that sin but only tries to hide it from other people, then his faith to Allah is problematic. Because that person carries doubt in his heart that Allah sees him all the time. This is the reference for those situations.
ve kanAllahu Bi ma ya’melune muhiyta; Allah encompasses what they do.
109-) Ha entum haulai cadeltum anhum fiyl hayatid dunya femen yucadilullahe anhum yevmel kiyameti emmen yekunu aleyhim vekiyla;
You may defend them in the worldly life, but who will defend them during the period of Doomsday, and who will represent them? (A.Hulusi)
Ah! These are the sort of men on whose behalf ye may contend in this world; but who will contend with Allah on their behalf on the Day of Judgment, or who will carry their affairs through? (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ha entum haulai cadeltum anhum fiyl hayatid dunya You may defend them in the worldly life. Let’s say you did. This is for everyone of us including Rasulallah. It is said that there are people from us, among us, in the same city, same camp, same region, same religion even, from our tribe, our bloodline, from our village that we know he’s not right, he is guilty but we defend him anyway.
So let’s say you defend them in this earth life. femen yucadilullahe anhum yevmel kiyameti emmen yekunu aleyhim vekiyla; But who will defend them during the period of Doomsday, and who will represent them? Is there another shelter, sanctuary or at least a place against Allah? Rasulallah was saying even his closest relatives;
– O you (to the person he addressed) buy your ego from Allah’s hand. Because I swear I cannot do anything for you in Judgement Day.” This was his warning to them.
How can anyone defend the people who betrayed Allah while facing such an immense reality. How can you defend a person from Allah who is clearly against Allah?
So Qur’an wants us this. Don’t try to defend the things on earth if you cannot defend them in afterlife. If you cannot defend a thing or someone in front of Allah, then don’t defend him in earth life too. That means if you defend something in this life, then it should be defendable in the next life too while facing Allah’s domain. It is only possible if you defend what Allah defends in the first place as well as if you leave what Allah doesn’t defend either.
110-) Ve men ya’mel suen ev yazlim nefsehu summe yestagfirillahe yecidillahe Gafuren Rahiyma;
Whoever commits a crime or wrongs himself (because of his ego, by assigning a separate existence to himself; duality) then (realizing his mistake) repents to Allah, Allah is the Ghafur, the Rahim (He forgives and enables the experience of the beauties from His grace)… (A.Hulusi)
If any one does evil or wrongs his own soul but afterwards seeks Allah’s forgiveness, he will find Allah Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve men ya’mel suen But whoever commits a crime ev yazlim nefsehu or wrongs his own soul, betray himself summe yestagfirillahe but afterwards seeks Allah’s forgiveness. yecidillahe Gafuren Rahiyma he will find Allah Oftenly Forgiving, Most Merciful. Rabb of All Worlds shows us a path here. Allah doesn’t push, doesn’t throw away, doesn’t cut the connection. Allah does more than a compassionate mother can do to his child for followers and shows the door that they should walk to.
It’s not the mistake itself that creates treachery. It’s insisting and defending the mistake that does it. Both Adam and Satan had done the mistake. But Adam confessed his crime and yet Satan insisted on it. That’s why he became the Devil.
111-) Ve men yeksib ismen feinnema yeksibuhu alâ nefsih* ve kânAllahu Aliymen Hakiyma;
And whoever commits a crime, its consequence are for him alone (nobody else)! Allah is the Aleem, the Hakim. (A.Hulusi)
And if anyone earns sin. he earns it against his own soul: for Allah is full of knowledge and wisdom. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve men yeksib ismen feinnema yeksibuhu ala nefsih And if anyone earns sin. he earns it against himself ve kanAllahu Aliymen Hakiyma for Allah is full of knowledge and wisdom.
112-) Ve men yeksib hatiy’eten ev ismen summe yermi Bihi beriy’en fekadihtemele buhtanen ve ismen mubiyna;
Whoever does wrong or commits a crime and then blames an innocent person for it, he would indeed have committed open slander and a grave offence. (A.Hulusi)
But if any one earns a fault or a sin and throws it on to one that is innocent, he carries (on himself) (both) a falsehood and a flagrant sin. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve men yeksib hatiy’eten ev ismen Whoever does wrong or commits a crime summe yermi Bihi beriy’en and then blames an innocent person for it fekadihtemele buhtanen ve ismen mubiyna he would indeed have committed open slander and a grave offence.
113-) Ve levla fadlullahi aleyke ve rahmetuHU lehemmet taifetun minhum en yudilluke, ve ma yudillune illa enfusehum ve ma yedurruneke min shey’in, ve enzellAllahu ‘aleykel Kitabe vel Hikmete ve ‘allemeke ma lem tekun ta’lem* ve kane fadlullahi aleyke aziyma;
If it wasn’t for the bounty of Allah upon you and the grace of HU, a group of them would surely have attempted to mislead you… But they only mislead themselves! They cannot cause you any harm! Allah revealed (from the dimension of Names to your consciousness) the Book (knowledge of the reality) and Wisdom (the knowledge of religion and sunnatullah) to you, and taught you that which you did not know… The bounty of Allah upon you is great. (A.Hulusi)
But for the Grace of Allah to thee and his Mercy, a party of them would certainly have plotted to lead thee astray. But (in fact) they will only lead their own souls astray, and to thee they can do no harm in the least. For Allah hath sent down to thee the Book and wisdom and taught thee what thou knewest not (before): And great is the Grace of Allah unto thee. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve levla fadlullahi aleyke ve rahmetuHU If it wasn’t for the Grace of Allah to you and his Mercy lehemmet taifetun minhum en yudilluke, a group of them would surely have attempted to mislead you.
ve ma yudillune illa enfusehum ve ma yedurruneke min shey’in But they only mislead themselves! They cannot cause you any harm too.
As we remember the example event, which is also includes the reasonings of this passage entirety; the message that wants to be given here is this. They might mislead you, it’s possible. Because a judge can only make a verdict based on the proofs. You might show witnesses, you might give an oath, these are the tools of a judge. But in the end only Allah knows the inside of every business. So you might mislead the judge and make him give a verdict for your advantage but does that make your claims out of sin then?
Our prophets response to that is this.
-You need a court to resolve your issues. You create a case and come to me. Some of yours speech is stronger than others and I can only make a verdict based on testimonies, proofs and oaths. So if any of you get something what he doesn’t deserve but get by my decisions, that’s fire. He can take it or leave it then.
A genuine record. We can see this hadith in both Buhari and Muslims books. Even Rasulallah had given a verdict on something, that doesn’t change the essense of situation.
The truth that wants to be given here is this. You cannot make something legit just because you play the field. As in you cannot say it’s allowed to something it’s not clearly allowed in Allah’s book. A judges call, a states law, a scholars fetva cannot make the wrong right. It cannot make a person right if he is wrong. It cannot turn a tyrant into an innocent man. You cannot make the bad, good. Can you use it as an excuse; just because there’s a law that turn things to your advantage that Allah will accept this just like that? Can you use a scholars judgement against Allahs orders, can this validates your affairs? Even a verdict of prophet himself cannot be used against Allah’s orders. If you mislead your judge, the sin isn’t on his back, it’s all yours. We can understand this from the verse. Only the misleading group gets the harm. Allah shall ask for them eventually.
That’s why the message here is this. The feature of a thing can only be measured by its essence. Not some outside opinion or a verdict about it. If a thing is a tyrany in essence, it will always be a tyrany even everyone says it’s not. Even a situation is illegal by nature, it will always be illegal even that society looks at it as legal. If a belief is superstitious to begin with, it will always be superstitious even the entire community looks at it as the truth. That’s the message.
ve enzellAllahu ‘aleykel Kitabe vel Hikmete ve ‘allemeke ma lem tekun ta’lem* For Allah has sent down to you the Book and wisdom and taught you what you don’t know before ve kane fadlullahi aleyke aziyma And great is the Grace of Allah unto you.
The wisdom here is the ability to integrate Allah’s revelations to life. We can say it as the ability of judgement. The ability to find the absolute truth. This is wisdom. Allah gave this ability of judgement to prophets. But even with that ability, if any of the prophet took a bad call, Allah interfered there. That’s why in a famous record of Rasulallah himself;
-If a judge makes an accurate call, Allah gives him two good deeds. If the call is not accurate but the judge tries his best to make a good call but not succeed then Allah gives him one good deed anyway.
The situation here is to reward not the conclusion but the efford to reach an ending. Otherwise nobody would be a judge. Because no man can claim that he knows the whole truth of every case he is presented. Only Allah knows everything.
114-) La hayre fiy kesiyrin min necvahum illa men emera Bi sadakatin ev ma’rufin ev islahin beynen Nas* ve men yaf’al zalikebtigae merdatillahi fesevfe nu’tiyhi ecren aziyma;
There is no good in much of their private gatherings and interactions! Except those gatherings involving aid, benefit or reconciliation (and similar beneficial activities). Whoever does this seeking the pleasure of Allah, We will give him a great reward. (A.Hulusi)
In most of their secret talks there is no good: But if one exhorts to a deed of charity or goodness or conciliation between people, (secrecy is permissible): To him who does this, seeking the good pleasure of Allah, We shall soon give a reward of the highest (value). (A.Yusuf Ali)
La hayre fiy kesiyrin min necvahum We are presented with general principles again based on example events. In most of their secret talks there is no good. Necva, this means council activities. Secret propaganda, one might also say. Spreading whisper. This part is a reference for the clan Ben-i Zafer, a group to find a way to absolve their member from the theft. We read these people a while ago regarding our example event. They were making meeting after meeting till mornings just to find a way to absolve their clan member in this trial.
illa men emera Bi sadakatin ev ma’rufin ev islahin beynen Nas Except those gatherings involving aid, benefit or reconciliation and similar beneficial activities. There’s no harm in that. These meetings should only carry a humane purpose, they should only bring forth the truth and goodness.
ve men yaf’al zalikebtigae merdatillah Whoever does these goodnesses seeking the pleasure of Allah, fesevfe nu’tiyhi ecren aziyma; we will give him a great reward when the time comes. Person who does all these good deeds to earn Allah’s favor. Two parted situation; one you will make a good deed and two you will do it with good intentions. That means if you do a good deed with bad intentions, the result will be vain and bad as well.
This is like a bad, immoral and evil persons deed of taking a young and abandoned girl to his house, nurturing and growing her just to use her in his evil deeds. Because when you see the deed from outside it may look nice. Hey that man gives this girl a roof over his head, how nice of him. But when you look at the intention it’s so evil, so gross. That’s the reason Allah puts this expression in this verse, it’s important to look at the right angle to a situation.
115-) Ve men yushakikirRasule min ba’di ma tebeyyene lehul huda ve yettebi’ gayre sebiylil mu’miniyne ngvellihi ma tevella ve nuslihi cehennem* ve saet mesiyra;
Whoever opposes the Rasul after the reality becomes clearly evident; We will abandon him in his path and lead him to hell in the end! What a wretched destination that is! (A.Hulusi)
If anyone contends with the Messenger even after guidance has been plainly conveyed to him, and follows a path other than that becoming to men of Faith, We shall leave him in the path he has chosen, and land him in Hell,- what an evil refuge! (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve men yushakikirRasule min ba’di ma tebeyyene lehul huda If anyone contends with the Messenger, part his way with Messenger, turning his back to him even after guidance has been plainly conveyed to him, ve yettebi’ gayre sebiylil mu’miniyne and follows a path other than that becoming to men of Faith, nuvellihi ma tevella ve nuslihi cehennem* We will abandon him in his path and lead him to hell in the end! ve saet mesiyra What a wretched destination that is!
This is Qur’ans expression; if you try to defend the injustice because of your connections of kinsman, race, tribe, clan, relation, group or even your religion; this is what’s going to happen then. Your connection shouldn’t pull you to a situation where you defend the oppressor. Be with the weak, whoever he is. He might be Jew or something else. That’s why there’s a saying, you cannot ask the weak about his beliefs. You shouldn’t ask for the oppressed peoples religions.
116-) InnAllahe la yagfiru en yushreke Bihi ve yagfiru ma dune zalike li men u ve men yushrik Billahi fekad dalle dalalen be’iyda;
Allah will definitely not forgive shirq (duality) in regards to Him! But He forgives lesser faults other than this (offences lower than duality), for whom He wills… And whoever commits shirq (duality; assumes a separate existence independent of Him) to Allah (B’illahi), the creator of the entire existence with His Names, he has surely fallen into a corrupt belief far astray (from the reality)! (A.Hulusi)
Allah forgiveth not (the sin of) joining other gods with Him; but He forgiveth whom He pleaseth other sins than this: one who joins other gods with Allah, hath strayed far, far away (from the right). (A.Yusuf Ali)
InnAllahe la yagfiru en yushreke Bihi Allah will definitely not forgive shirq in regards to Him! ve yagfiru ma dune zalike li men u ve men yushrik But He forgives lesser faults other than this for whom He wills.
ma dune means “other than”, “below that.”
ve men yushrik Billahi fekad dalle dalalen be’iyda; people who joins shirq with Allah, hare the ones who stuck deep in corruption and they strayed far.
There’s a reference here to our example event. Because Ibn Tame had done something worse, instead of apologizing when his crimes were surfaced, asking forgiveness from Allah and admitting his sins, he did something awful. He escaped to Mecca, converted from Islam and joined the ranks of heathens. Funny though since he made thefts there too. While he was poking a hole on a wall in his thievery the wall collapsed on him, he didn’t die but caught there. Meccans realized that he was a cleptomaniac and forced him out of city. Then he tried to rob a group, a trade route while he was traveling with them, he tried to rob the people while he was staying under their protection. Therefore he was executed by stoning. Died a terrible way. Conclusion; Both in this life and the next a terrible example of a life.
117-) In yed’une min duniHI illa inasen, ve in yed’une illa sheytanen meriyda;
Those who turn to things other than Allah turn only to lifeless female deities in His stead, and hence they turn to none but the persistent malicious Satan (ego)! (A.Hulusi)
(The Pagans), leaving Him, call but upon female deities: They call but upon Satan the persistent rebel! (A.Yusuf Ali)
In yed’une min duniHI illa inasen Those who turn to things other than Allah turn only to lifeless female deities in His stead. Here we have two different meanings. Because the word inas one meaning of it is a lifeless thing, an artifact. According to the records of Taberi, Ibn. Abbas, Katade and Hasan Basri, all unliving things, all lifeless things are called inas by the heathens of Mecca those days. But it’s not about lifeless things per se. These things are the ones who were showed respect, being subjects of worshipping, bowed down to, stood respect to. All in all their lifeless deities. Their artifacts of respect and worshipping were all called inas. But this word has another meaning; female.
For some reason they were choosing their deities, worshipping symbols among females. Most of the choices were females. Why, you may ask? I didn’t say lady, I didn’t say woman. For the same reason I didn’t translate Inas as woman because we all know that they had no respect for their women. From the records we read today we all have a perfect understanding of those eras peoples opinion about women. Women had no right of possession, they had no right of electing. They had no right of choosing their husbands as well as no saying on inheritance. In fact, let alone inheritance, they were like possessions that can be earned from inheritance. Most of the time their right of living were taken and they were been murdered without any justification. When seeing all those it wouldn’t be normal to say they were worshipping women.
So what’s that about then? They were worshipping femininity, sexuality. Lifeless sexuality, just like ancient Greeks had done. Aphrodite was the goddess of beauty but in the same era greatest Greek scholars were arguing about whether women have souls or not. You can see the problem here. In Aristoteles’s Poetica it was argued that women should be equal as slaves or not. As in they can be reduced even more. Very peculiar since these are Greeces most respected scholars. That’s why what should be understood from this expression is lifeless objects, symbols of respect and of course the Notion of sexuality. Just like modern era western civilizations.
Modern western societies today don’t bring forth the humanity of women either. That’s why they have no respect for womens opinions. No they exploit the femininity, sexuality of women. For Allah’s sake what is it have to do with respecting women, elevating womens status, showing respect. This is expoitation of womens sexuality, not elevation of women. Islam doesn’t allow that. The logic of covers is this.
ve in yed’une illa sheytanen meriyda; and hence they turn to none but the persistent malicious Satan.
118-) Leanehullah* ve kale leettehizenne min ibadike nesiyben mefruda;
Allah has cursed (Iblis)… For Iblis had said, “I will surely take from among Your servants a significant portion”… (A.Hulusi)
Allah did curse him, but he said: “I will take of Thy servants a portion marked off; (A.Yusuf Ali)
Leanehullah* Allah did curse him. ve kale leettehizenne min ibadike nesiyben mefruda For Satan had said, “I will surely take from among Your servants a significant portion”. That is the reason of his damnation.
119-) Ve leudillennehum ve le umenniyennehum ve le amurrennehum fele yubettikunne azanelen’ami ve leamurennehum fele yugayyirunne halkallah* ve men yettehizisheytane veliyyen min dunillahi fekad hasira husranen mubiyna;
“And I will surely mislead them, and I will arouse in them (sinful, bodily, empty) desires, and I will command them so they slit the ears of cattle (as sacrifice), and I will command them so they will alter the creation of Allah.” And whoever deserts Allah and takes Satan (bodily temptations; ego) as master has certainly suffered a great loss. (A.Hulusi)
“I will mislead them, and I will create in them false desires; I will order them to slit the ears of cattle, and to deface the (fair) nature created by Allah.” Whoever, forsaking Allah, takes Satan for a friend, hath of a surety suffered a loss that is manifest. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve leudillennehum Satan continued “And I will surely mislead them ve le umenniyennehum and I will create in them false desires. umenniyennehum Umniyye means Utopia. Dreamland. I will make them follow their false desires, make them dream of things that don’t exist and they will spend their lives for the things that never come to life. This is the meaning of Umniyye. Utopia, neverland. Dreams that will never come to life. Or with old saying, raw dreams.
ve le amurrennehum fele yubettikunne azanelen’ami I will order them to slit the ears of cattle. You can put anything, any action to this expression. An action of showing an independent belief from Allah. Actually here the expression of slitting the ears of camels or cattles are used as symbolically, metaphorically. We should take this cattle ears as examples. If the verse arrives today, it would say “putting knots and rags to mausoleums.” It would say they will deitify their ancestors, or they will sell yasin books or read artifacts.
They will use mausoleums as mosques or worshipping grounds. We should understand the message like that. So all actions in regard of showing the attributes of a religion unbound from Allah can be taken under this frame. Back in the days, heathens were opening the ears of camels, both torturing them and letting them go with that scars bleeding. They were saying this belongs to Allah. As in they were making a sacrifice but with torture. Even Allah never wants such a thing. Because Allah has created these creatures so that humans may benefit from them. Torturing them cannot be helpful on that purpose.
ve leamurennehum fele yugayyirunne halkallah and I will command them so they will alter the creation of Allah.
This is a warning that should be taken seriously. A warning so serious and important that cannot be reduced to an animals ear or a womans eyebrow or a mans hair.
We may see in other translations that this is reduced to some simple, physical, material thing. No, it’s something more than that.
Altering the creation, interfering the nature of creation. Corrupting the nature of men. That’s what has been done today. This is the biggest deflection of mankind, since the modernity of a group which we may call the civilization of lies are trying to alter and corrupt the codes that were put there by Allah.
Altering the nature, when you alter the nature, when you corrupt the program of Allah, a man naturally leaves the path of truth, hakk, beautiful and good and falls into the path of superstitious. The things he does are all for his own harm. He tries to do things that destroy the lives of both him and his next generation. Just like today. He begins to turn this world into a dungeon. Every invention, every discovery led him to a step that destroys his happiness instead of creating and increasing it.
This is what altering the nature means. Interfering the main frame that are coded by Allah. Fitrat, Kullu mevludin yuledu alel fitratil Islam. That clean nature, that Islamic nature which we all born with it and to it. Pure nature.
ve men yettehizisheytane veliyyen min dunillahi fekad hasira husranen mubiyna; And whoever deserts Allah and takes Satan as master has certainly suffered a great loss.
120-) Ye’iduhum ve yumenniyhim* ve ma ye’iduhumusheytanu illa gurura;
Satan promises them and arouses false hope and desire in them. But Satan does not promise anything except delusion. (A.Hulusi)
Satan makes them promises, and creates in them false hopes; but Satan’s promises are nothing but deception. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ye’iduhum ve yumenniyhim* Satan promises them and arouses false hope and desire in them. ve ma ye’iduhumusheytanu illa gurura But Satan does not promise anything except delusion. Only thing someone may gain from Satan is deception.
121-) Ulaike me’vahum cehennemu ve la yecidune anha mehiysa;
The destination of such people is hell (the state of suffering)! And they will have no way to escape it. (A.Hulusi)
They (his dupes) will have their dwelling in Hell, and from it they will find no way of escape. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ulaike me’vahum cehennemu The destination of such people is hell ve la yecidune anha mehiysa And they will have no way to escape it.
122-) Velleziyne amenu ve amilus salihati senudhiluhum cennatin tecriy min tahtihel enharu halidiyne fiyha ebeda* va’dAllahi hakka* ve men asdaku minAllahi kiyla;
As for those who believe and live according to their faith (engaging in good deeds), We will admit them to Paradises underneath which rivers flow… They will reside therein eternally (as a result of the manifestation of the Names of Allah)… This is the promise of Allah in Truth! Is anyone more truthful than Allah? (A.Hulusi)
But those who believe and do deeds of righteousness,- We shall soon admit them to Gardens, with rivers flowing beneath,-to dwell therein for ever. Allah’s promise is the truth, and whose word can be truer than Allah’s? (A.Yusuf Ali)
Velleziyne amenu ve amilus salihati senudhiluhum cennatin tecriy min tahtihel enharu halidiyne fiyha ebeda As for those who believe and live according to their faith, engaging in good deeds, We will admit them to Paradises underneath which rivers flow… They will reside therein eternally.
va’dAllahi hakka* This is the promise of Allah in Truth! If you have faith and trust in Allah, you should trust the promise Allah gave you ve men asdaku minAllahi kiyla; Is anyone more truthful than Allah?
123-) Leyse Bi emaniyyikum ve la emaniyyi ehlil Kitab* men ya’mel suen yucze Bihi ve la yecid lehu min dunillahi veliyyen ve la nasiyra;
(Sunnatullah – the system and order of Allah) is not according to your wishful thinking, nor the wishful thinking of those to whom the knowledge of the reality was given before you (and who failed to appraise it)! Whoever does wrong will live its consequences! (After which) he will not be able to find any protector or helper other than Allah! (A.Hulusi)
Not your desires, nor those of the People of the Book (can prevail): whoever works evil, will be requited accordingly. Nor will he find, besides Allah, any protector or helper. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Leyse Bi emaniyyikum ve la emaniyyi ehlil Kitab Not your desires, nor those of the People of the Book, they are not the decisives here. Not in the slighest. You cannot say or decide how you treat to Allah. More importantly Allah doesn’t look how you describe yourselves either. Important thing is how Allah sees you, not what you call yourselves. You can call yourselves anything but the important thing is what Allah calls you, in oder words what you really are, that’s the important thing.
This verse should be compared with Baqarah/62. Innelleziyne amenu velleziyne Hadu venNesara vesSabiiyne men amene Billahi..
Those who believe, those who categorised themselves as Muslims, this is the meaning. Jews, Christians, Sabians and among them men amene Billahi those who show faith. ve amile salihan those who make true and good deeds felehum ecruhum inde Rabbihim their prices, prizes will be given in their Rabbs domain. ve la havfun aleyhim ve la hum yahzenun; They won’t feel sorry for their past nor they won’t be anxious for their future.
The message here is this, my friends. Don’t defend your religion like defending a sport team. Allah rejects any kind of defense based on sole membership. No, support yourselves with your actions not your religions name. As in don’t thing you will have a special treatment just because you are among a specific society. This is what we call becoming jewminded.
What were they saying; ..nahnu ebnaullahi ve ehibbauHU.. Maida/18
We are Allah’s sons and daughters. We are Allah’s friends, beloveds. That’s why they were claiming that they won’t be touched by fire except for a few days. Why; well they were trying to say Allah will favor them but in fact they were slandering Allah. Because of that they were seeing themselves as first class individuals but calling others as goim; goim in Hebrew means outsider also have the meanings of heretic, blasphemer. So people who weren’t with them, they were all second class bunch. Those people, those who weren’t Jew, more accurately who weren’t in bloodline of sons of Israel, they had one purpose an done purpose only. Serving the cause of Jews, this was their claims.
This is completely a self-centered, egotistical approach of course, not to mention racist. Allah denies these kinds of approaches altogether. Any thing other that takva and faith, any object and concept are forbidden to use as a superiority tool, superiority measure. We read that gender is used as a different measure just now, if you remember. Also when we look at our example event, you see the tribe factor. As you see; “We are Muslims O Rasulallah. They are Jews. Will you look for a Jews’ saying or will you believe us” This is the motive. Looking from this angle they all have the same feature inside.
That’s why seek support from your actions not your memberships. Moving on.
men ya’mel suen yucze Bihi Whoever does wrong will live its consequences! ve la yecid lehu min dunillahi veliyyen ve la nasiyra he won’t be able to find any protector or helper other than Allah!
124-) Ve men ya’mel mines salihati min zekerin ev unsa ve huve mu’minun feulaike yedhulunel cennete ve la yuzlemune nekiyra;
Whoever, as a believer, does a good deed, whether male or female, they will be admitted to Paradise, not an iota of their deeds will be lost. (A.Hulusi)
If any do deeds of righteousness,- be they male or female – and have faith, they will enter Heaven, and not the least injustice will be done to them. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve men ya’mel mines salihati min zekerin ev unsa ve huve mu’minun feulaike yedhulunel cennete If any do deeds of righteousness,- be they male or female – and have faith, they will enter Heaven ve la yuzlemune nekiyra; and not the least injustice will be done to them. These people will enter Paradise whether some parties like it or not. This is not up to us, Allah has determined everything.
125-) Ve men ahsenu diynen mimmen esleme vechehu Lillahi ve huve muhsinun vettebea millete Ibrahiyme haniyfa* vettehazAllahu Ibrahiyme haliyla;
Whose understanding of religion can be better than he who follows the people of Abraham as a doer of good (with the comprehension that his being is the manifestation of Allah’s Names) and in submission to Allah (without the concept of a deity; with the consciousness of being in servitude to Allah alone) and as a Hanif! Allah took Abraham as an intimate friend (Halil; Abraham was blessed with the station of Hullet) (More information on this topic can be found in The Perfect Man by Abdulkareem Al-Jili). (A.Hulusi)
Who can be better in religion than one who submits his whole self to Allah, does good, and follows the way of Abraham the true in Faith? For Allah did take Abraham for a friend. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve men ahsenu diynen mimmen esleme vechehu Lillahi ve huve muhsinun vettebea millete Ibrahiyme haniyfa Who can be better in religion than one who submits his whole self to Allah, does good, and follows the way of Abraham the true in Faith?
Definition of Muslim is given here. If you ask who is the Muslim, there he is. A person who submits to Allah with his entire being and then giving an example, Abraham. He is like Abraham. He is the example here.
Islam isn’t a name of a group of clan. We understand it here. Islam is the stance of a persons with Allah. His personal stance. His submission. Mutual symbol is Abraham. So if anyone asks what is this stance, it’s safe to say Abraham’s stance. Rabb of All Worlds says learn submission from him. Yes.
vettehazAllahu Ibrahiyme haliyla; For Allah did take Abraham for a sincere friend.
126-) Ve Lillahi ma fiys Semavati ve ma fiyl Ard* ve kanAllahu Bikulli shey’in muhiyta;
Whatever is in the heavens and the earth is for Allah (for the manifestation of the meanings denoted by the Names). Allah, as the creator of all things with His Names, is the All-Encompassing. (A.Hulusi)
But to Allah belong all things in the heavens and on earth: And He it is that Encompasseth all things. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve Lillahi ma fiys Semavati ve ma fiyl Ard and in the end we reached the end of the passage. As a conclusion we return back to the eternal values and focus on the owner of creation.
Ve Lillahi ma fiys Semavati ve ma fiyl Ard But to Allah belong all things in the heavens and on earth.
ve kanAllahu Bikulli shey’in muhiyta; And Allah is that Encompasses all things. All these verses, all these revelations and orders and restrictions within, all these celestial advices; Allah has nothing to gain from them. You are under Allah’s power and you cannot get out whether you want it or not. You owe your existence to Allah. Then all these orders and restrictions are for your own happinesses. Don’t you think about that still?
“Ve ahiru davana velil hamdulillahi rabbil alemiyn” (Jonah/10) “Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the Worlds!” All products of our claims, causes and lives are for Allah and our last word to our Allah is “Hamd”.