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TAFSIR LESSONS AL-ANFAL (1-25) (58)

01 Mar

EuzuBillahiminesheytanirracim

BismillahirRahmanirRahiym

Rabbishrah liy sadriy;

Ve yessirliy emriy;

Vahlul ukdeten min lisaniy;

Yefkahu kavliy; (Taha 25-26-27-28)

“My Rabb, expand my consciousness”

“Ease my task for me.”

“Untie the knot in my tongue.”

“So that they understand (the intricacy of) my words.”

By saying Amen to this wonderful pray, we enter another chapter of Qur’an country. The chapter of Anfal.

Chapter takes its name from the first verse. By definition it means loots, and by proximity it has meanings like tips, blessing, sustenance and war profits.

Althought in tedvin, the regular ranking of chapters, Anfal takes the place of being the eighth verse, in nüzul it’s place is different. That’s why by definitions and the timeline many of the believers call this chapter as the Badir chapter since the entire chapter is about the war time rules and the moral and ethical lines about battling.

The time of arrival, the time of Badir Battle and it means the first and the second years of Hejira, we can include the third year also but the main topic here is about the Badir Battle that took place in the second year.

You remember that the last chapter Al-Araf was about the conflict between the right and wrong, between the prophet and the blasphemers clans. Also we see glimpses of the similar conflict between Moses and the Pharaoh.

So if we ask for the reason why this chapter put next to the previous one it’s this. The conflict between the previous prophets and the clans that resisted tham has the same nature between Rasulallah and the heathen community of Mecca and the peak of this conflict eventually lead to a battle.

What is the Badir battles process that the chapters revolves around? One cannot understand the chapter properly if not understand the historical events regarding the situation. That’s why before beginning the An’fal chapter we should check the fundamentals, the roots of the chapters, one might call it the feet of the chapter.

The preparation of Badir Battle began at the final months of the first year of Hejira. A considerable caravan of goods that belong to Mecca and with the leader as Abu Sufyan, the caravan began its return from Damascus to Mecca. The news of heathen cities caravan reached Madina at the month of Shaban. This was an important caravan that travels twice a year. One in winter and one in summer. Caravan was using the path first to South, Yemen and the coast line then Ethiopia, And from Yemen again to North Damascus, Syria and Palastine.

The largest caravan that goes to the North, a group of 1000 camels of property, basically a big fortune guarded by 40 people. When the news reached Madina, Rasulallah immediately called for a war council. After Hejira, believers were beginning the create a new society and the people of Madina were organized by this facilities. Rasulallah was making an effort the create a society that will transfer the teachings to their lives and represent the signs on earth, this was one of his missions of prophethood.

That’s why he was constantly sending out seriyyes. Seriyye means battalions the scouts and guards that responsible for protection of Madina. They were also exist to show other clans and cities that Madina wasn’t an unprotected or poor city as a message.

Like I said, the news of Abu Sufyan’s caravan reached to Madina, Rasulallah called for a war council. Surely there weren’t any objection over attacking such a well and profitable caravan. But that big of an operation would surely pushes Meccan communities buttons which was a great possibility. There was no way the Meccan would leave their treasures to Madina. So natural course will lead to a battle hence the need of immediate was council.

What would a handful of believers do if Mecca declares war to Madina. All the scout groups were built with Meccan believers that migrated. Because Rasulallah didn’t want Madina to walk against Mecca. But after a while situation became a case of faith that cannot be contained and the jihad wanted a wind that carries the light of faith beyond the peninsula. That’s why Muslims were on the verge of making a serious decision.

So when the time comes Madina to wage war against Mecca, some people were hesitant, thinking it would be vastly dangerous. Saying that their numbers were limited and had no chance against Mecca.

True indeed their numbers were limited as well as their powers and weapons. But there was something else. Faith was the greatest asset and Rasulallah was counting that as wll. They were some people that were elite by their wonderful ethics. Especially the resistance of Abu Bakhir and Omar against the hesitants the war plans began to take place and the believer army to march outside Madina.

But Rasulallah did something unusual for his behaviours. He declared the news of walking towards the caravan weeks ago. He never had done that before, not by Hejira, not the day of it nor the destination. Also the latter battles wouldn’t be called beforehand as well.

By remembering that Rasulallah followed the battle strategies with finesse and secrecy all his life, we realize that this tactic was quite the opposite from the usual approach. So by that we understand that the real motive wasn’t the caravan at all. The main objective was to lure the Meccan army out of the city. It was like ringing the bell that would begun to battle between the right and the wrong.

Qur’an informs us the battle of Badir from inside. These verses arrived the days of battle. By that definition when we take the intention there was no problem according to Qur’an. This was an action that will open the path of faith. This was never about the loot in fact.

Both Islam army and the Meccans left their compounds. I believe Meccans began their march early. Because Badir and Madina were 100 miles but Madina and Mecca were 300 miles apart so it was a logical assumption.

The vicinity of Badir two armies finally met. 1000 people of Meccan army, 700 camels, 100 horses and almost fully armored 1000 soldiers.

And against them what were the conditions of Madina army. Almost 300 people that suffers from poverty. 70 camels, maybe a couple of horses. This was a battle that the numbers would bankrupt. An imbalance, a dead end by mathematical aspects. A battle that couldn’t be explained by numbers.

So with those conditions Meccan army arrived and took an avaliable spot on Badir. But the believers army was donned with faith. A handful of people like the story of David and Goliath in Baqarah chapter.

kem min fietin kaliyletin galebet fieten kesiyraten Biiznillah.. (Baqarah/249) Many times a small group has overcome a large group with the permission of Allah.

At that time period the chapter of Anfal arrived. We can analyze the Badir process and by the Anfal chapter under these topics.

1-Yevmul Furkan. The day that true is seperated from false. Badir became the name of one of the greatest revolutions that earth has ever seen.

The main topic evolves around this first headline. The war ethics. War has some ethical rules. Being an enemy with someone else doesn’t mean you should act with indecency. Even if you draw weapons to each other a line of ethical and moral values should always be considered.

2-Don’t look for the objective, look for the being that made all these possible. This is the second message. Don’t think that all success is yours alone. You owe Allah for this success. La havle vela kuvvete illa billah Power and strength belongs solely to Allah.

If you want to be elevated, don’t assume that power is yours alone. Because all things that want to be higher should find the perfect spot that maket his possible. You cannot be your own center. No creature can own the real essence of power. So human, you take your power from Allah, you are Allah’s artwork.

If you want to move the earth you need two simple things, A lever and a fulcrum. That support point is your fulcrum. Remember that message.

3-This is the struggle between truth and false, it’s not about possessions or loot, it’s not about leadership. So, be straight. If you don’t show a worthy struggle you undervalue yourselves.

4-The last lesson, if you look the situation from satans perspective you see different, if you look the situation from the spot that Allah wants you to see, you see something else, something different entirely. So let’s enter the chapter and see how these messages come together.

BismillahirRahmanirRahiym

1-) Yes’eluneke anil enfal* kulil enfalu Lillahi verRasul* fettekullahe ve aslihu zate beynikum* ve etiy’ullahe ve RasuleHU in kuntum mu’miniyn;

They ask you about the distribution of the spoils of war… Say, “The spoils of war are for Allah and His Rasul… Protect yourselves from Allah (from the consequences of not living your essential reality) and amend the relation (brotherhood based on faith) between you (by observing each other’s essential reality). If you are true believers, follow Allah and His Rasul (for your essential reality and the articulator of that reality wants you to experience your essential reality). (A.Hulusi)

They ask thee concerning (things taken as) spoils of war. Say: “(Such) spoils are at the disposal of Allah and the Messenger. So fear Allah, and keep straight the relations between yourselves: Obey Allah and His Messenger, if ye do believe.” (A.Yusuf Ali)

Yes’eluneke anil enfal They ask you about anfal, or they will ask. I didn’t translate anfal. Usually it is translated as war loots. There’s a rule in arabic language called Ihtilaf-ul Esma Tadullu ala ihtilaf-ul mana. The differences in naming means differences in meaning.

So what is the difference between loot and anfal then, since the chapter uses both the words. Especially from the 41st verse and beyond. After that line, the word becomes ganaim which almost never be seen before 41st verse. That’s because Allah has a moral teaching that us, and the first readers should deduce. Because anfal also has the meaning of taking more that deserved. Or giving more than ones supposed to.

That’s why we say nafile praying, for example. All worshipping acts that aren’t mandatory are called nafile. Why, because they are more than we are obligated to do. But there’s also a difference between overgiving and overtaking. Overgiving is basically a tip, a blessing, a treat. This is anfal. So Allah using this word on this situation, using anfal rather than ganaim has an ethical meaning. They are not ganaim, the simple war loot that you happen to achive. No, the bringings of Badir are actually the blessings and the treats that Allah bestows upon you.

That’s why when you get something, if you get it for free, you never think of showing gratitude. But if you receive a gift or treat the first think you realize the one who gives it to you and you owe that person or being a thank you.

This is the difference between ganaim and Anfal. So here Allah’s blessing and treat are informed to people beforehand by using the word anfal.

kulil enfalu Lillahi verRasul Say all the blessings and loots and gaininst that Allah blessed you by this battle are belong to Allah and the Rasul. What is this? Allah and His Rasul. What would Allah want from mere earthly loot of a battle? This is a natural question. And what’s this about all things belong to Rasulallah. We know that all in his actions Rasulallah took the possessions first and and shared them equally. So what is the lesson behind this sentence?

1-Making verdicts on this case only belongs to Allah. And executing it only belongs to Rasullah.

2-Secondly and most importantly, saying belong to Allah and Rasulallah also means the property of community. All sorts of community possessions have references to Allah in Qur’an. First expression of Qur’an “Bismillah” and the last expression is “en naas.” Allah and people, humanity. That’s why pulic properties are always under the protection of Allah. It’s like Allah says, “I’m the guardian of these things and whoever transgress the rights of public property also transgress my right as well.”

That’s the main reason why the laws of war are given and also said that all possessions are belong to Allah and Rasulallah. Especially the action part is referenced to Rasulallah.

fettekullahe ve aslihu zate beynikum So fear Allah, and keep straight the relations between yourselves: ve etiy’ullahe ve RasuleHU in kuntum mu’miniyn; Obey Allah and His Messenger, if you do believe.

An interesting saying, The verse ends with this sentence. Keep it straight it says. Know your responsibilites to Allah and Rasulallah and straight your releations between yourselves. There is something here, this is the axis of verse, the backbone.

What’s the main objective here? Saying, “O believers, you passed on the test of life and death, so don’t fail on the test of earthly possessions.” Don’t deviate, winning the battle of heart is far more difficult than winning the battle of Badir. You conquered the enemy. But don’t fall to the desires tempting. Because war loots, they are a big fortune. Suddenly it gives people a tremble in heart. It might seem that those who passed the test of faith might be falling to the test of loot.

It might lead to such scenarios that those who fought side by side just a few times ago, those who face the evil under the banner of faith together, but when the earthly possessions reveal itself as war loot suddenly becomes adversaries. So here the believers are warned by harsh and effective expressions.

2-) Innemel mu’minunelleziyne iza zukirAllahu vecilet kulubuhum ve iza tuliyet aleyhim ayatuHU zadethum iymanen ve ala Rabbihim yetevekkelun;

The believers (who are certain in their faith) are those who, when they mention and think of Allah, their consciousness shivers (they feel their impotence in respect of His might) and when His signs are recited to them, it increases their faith (to the extent they are able to contemplate)… They trust (submit to) their Rabb (they believe the Name Wakil in their essence will fulfill its function). (A.Hulusi)

For, Believers are those who, when Allah is mentioned, feel a tremor in their hearts, and when they hear His revelations rehearsed, find their faith strengthened, and put (all) their trust in their Lord; (A.Yusuf Ali)

Innemel mu’minunelleziyne iza zukirAllahu vecilet kulubuhum For, Believers are those who, when Allah is mentioned, feel a tremor in their hearts ve iza tuliyet aleyhim ayatuHU zadethum iymanen and when they hear His revelations rehearsed, find their faith strengthened ve ala Rabbihim yetevekkelun and put (all) their trust in their Lord.

This is a verse so impactful that crushes a mans heart. Believers are those who, when Allah is mentioned, feel a tremor in their hearts.Caliph Omar also had a similar dialogue in his days.

Someone calls to Omar saying, “Fear Allah, O Omar!” Caliph Omar which at that time is the leader of a vast country almost the size of West europe, trembles and falls on his knees saying, “Who is Omar that he dares not to fear Allah? These are the peoples who stands like statues, who fear to move their fingers when Allah’s name is mentioned. These are the ones who say “I fear Allah.”

Remember even satan said that. It’s there in Qur’an. ..inni ehafullâh.. (Anfal/48),From the mouth of satan himself, “I fear Allah.”

So people who stay oblivious when Allah’s name is called are worse people even satan wouldn’t want to be close to.

So this is the answer to the question in heart how can badir battle be won. This verse answer how to win the battle of badir in a believers heart.

[Additional Info: According to the records of Ali Ibn Abu Talha from Ibn Abbas, this is the explanation about the verse Believers are those who, when Allah is mentioned, feel a tremor in their hearts.When doing the must worshipping acts, hypocrites cannot gain anything from calling Allah’s name. Because they actually don’t believe in any of Allah’s verses, they don’t think about this, when they stay alone they leave their prays and they don’t give alms of their possessions. Allah informs believers that those people are not among them and adds this verse, “Believers are those who, when Allah is mentioned, feel a tremor in their hearts. When they hear His revelations rehearsed, find their faith strengthened, and put (all) their trust in their Lord.” (Ibn Kesir tefsirinden)]

3-) Elleziyne yukiymunes Salate ve mimma razaknahum yunfikun

They are the ones who establish salat (through introspectively turning toward Allah, they realize all things are subject to His command and experientially acknowledge there is nothing in existence other than the Names of Allah, thereby manifesting the reality “Allah is pre and post eternal – the Baqi”) and they spend from what We have provided them (material provision or spiritual provision yielded as a result of experiencing the essence of salat). (A.Hulusi)

Who establish regular prayers and spend (freely) out of the gifts We have given them for sustenance: (A.Yusuf Ali)

Elleziyne yukiymunes Salate ve mimma razaknahum yunfikun The answer continues here, to the question of how to win the Badir in heart? They establish their salats.

I didn’t translate as doing regular prays since there’s a higher purpose here. They establish salat, because salat is the backbone symbol of standing straight. Surely they do their prayings as well. By doing that they strengthen the supports that helps them on the path to Allah. With all their strengths they support the truth make it rise up. In both their inner worlds and the world around them, they stand straight and share the goods that Allah bestowed them upon, they learn and teach sharing.

4-) Ulaike humul mu’minune Hakka* lehum deracatun inde Rabbihim ve magfiretun ve rizkun keriym;

They are the true believers (whose faith is founded on enquiry and verification)… They have degrees (formed by the stations of the Names comprising their essence) and forgiveness (formed by the knowledge – the forces of Names – that covers [dissolves] the ego-self) and generous provision (both material and spiritual). (A.Hulusi)

Such in truth are the Believers: they have grades of dignity with their Lord, and forgiveness, and generous sustenance: (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ulaike humul mu’minune Hakka Such in truth are the Believers. They are the ones who catch the true meaning of being a believer. This is important. Showing faith as it should be. humul mu’minune Hakka There are many people that can be counted among the belivers but how many of them really accept and handle the responsibilities of it. This is what’s been told here. Believing as it should be.

lehum deracatun inde Rabbihim ve magfiretun ve rizkun keriym they have grades of dignity with their Lord, and forgiveness, and generous sustenance. There’s more, yes there is. Endless mercy and blessings. Rizkun keriym. Interestingly Razi translates this part, rizkun keriym as the endless inner peace that faith can provide for human.

A very valuable approach. Faith gives men such a blessing, it’s like no other sustenances. All earthly blessings can be depleted. Once the consuming begins it always ends with depletion. But the inner peace that faith provides, the sense of honor, it multiplies when consumed. Such a closeness born from faith, it surrounds the person and makes the owner the man of universe. Universe becomes you, not the other way around. You grow, grow and begin to carry the other, white, black, asian or african. You have brothers and sisters. One side of you reaches the heaven, you have the support of Adam, other side reaches the earth and you reach all the people that will be present on judgement day, you become the universe, this is the greatest blessing that faith provides for humans.

An endless investment, unending profit. This verse takes the attention to the ideo of faith is the greatest opportunity. When we look at the footnotes of the verse we also see this. “O you, who set their eyes on small loots of Badir, you are missing the big picture here. That is just a small bonus. You set your eyes on the big prize, the little one is already yours. Why lose the real fortune by focusing on small loots?” This is important. Because if you cannot reach the big opportunity, you lose the small ones too. This just how it is.

5-) Kema ahraceke Rabbuke min beytike Bil Hakk* ve inne feriykan minel mu’miniyne le karihun;

Just as when your Rabb had taken you out of your home by making you experience the reality (i.e. this decision was not made as a result of your emotions, but rather based on the wisdom of your Rabb) some of the true believers were not pleased with this. (A.Hulusi)

Just as thy Lord ordered thee out of thy house in truth, even though a party among the Believers disliked it, (A.Yusuf Ali)

Kema ahraceke Rabbuke min beytike Bil Hakk* ve inne feriykan minel mu’miniyne le karihun Just as your Lord ordered you out of thy house in truth, even though a party among the Believers disliked it. The sentence continues.

6-) Yucadiluneke fiyl Hakki ba’de ma tebeyyene keennema yusakune ilel mevti ve hum yenzurun;

Even though the Truth had become clearly apparent, they were not accepting it… As if they were deliberately going toward death. (A.Hulusi)

Disputing with thee concerning the truth after it was made manifest, as if they were being driven to death while they see it. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Yucadiluneke fiyl Hakki ba’de ma tebeyyene keennema yusakune ilel mevti ve hum yenzurun Even though the Truth had become clearly apparent, they were not accepting it… As if they were deliberately going toward death. We have a historical anectode here.

When I mentioned the incidents that happened during the Badir Battle at the beginning of the chapter, I made several references to these verses. Actually these verses tells us to review our notes about Badir. These verses provide us many secrets, shedding lights to those days, telling us what really happened back then.

When Rasulallah had exitted his home, when he left the city of Madina for battle, he had a target where Allah wants us to see. It’s not obvious though since it really wasn’t. Because the loot wasn’t the issue there. Abu Sufian’s caravan was coming that way but the operation that will be done for the caravan was informed to everyone publicly by Rasulallah. This style is the opposite of Rasulallah’s way. He always did all his operations covertly. But here the act is different because the purpose is different. He sees the spot where Allah wants us to see, Mecca was gathering an army. But caravan followed the shoreline and got out. And yet Rasulallah was never after the loot.

When the caravan reaches the safe shores, Meccan army might turn back though, it was a possibility. They might not come since many among them came only to save his belongings of the caravan including Abu Cehil. Abu Cehil was sincere on his denial. He defended his blasphemy by saying, “Whoever was on the right path, Allah helps them. But we are on the right path.” He had this interesting perspective. This was the all records that we have on this situation. And when the end came for him, before he died he asked “Who won?” like asking who was really on the right path.

Yes, Hakk comes forward. cael Hakku ve zehekal batil.. (Isra/81) Hakk comes and false disappears. There’s a possibility here but fifth verse doesn’t gives us certainty, we see the certainty in sixth verse. With the form of ba’de ma tebeyyene What was this truth. Meccan army was real and against this army Muslims had a choice whether to fight them or not.

Those who were thinking about the loot were in favor of following the caravan. They were trying to convince Rasulallah to go that way. They were trying to get the easy and profitable one for cheap. But those who know the rules of life, rules of Allah, they knew that valuable things can only be achieved by sacrifice. They were willing to pay this price. Because rather than fighting for small things like caravan or loot they were thinking about fighting for the faith, which was the natural choice.

That’s why these verses gives us the ultimate perspectives for any situation.

1-Earthly perspective

2-Celestial perspective.

Fighting for higher purposes or fighting for simple possessions. Two differenty perspectives and we will continue to see these points of views throughout these verses.

7-) Ve iz ye’idukumullahu ihdet taifeteyni enneha lekum ve teveddune enne gayre zatishevketi tekunu lekum ve yuriydullahu en yuhikkal hakka Bi kelimatiHI ve yakta’a dabirel kafiriyn;

Remember when Allah promised you that one of the two groups (the Quraishi army or the caravan) will be yours… You wanted the unarmed group (the caravan) to be yours (you were interested in short-term gain, the one with an easy return, whereas this was going to give you harm in the long-run)… But Allah willed to establish the Truth with His warnings and eliminate the deniers of the reality. (A.Hulusi)

Behold! Allah promised you one of the two (enemy) parties, that it should be yours: Ye wished that the one unarmed should be yours, but Allah willed to establish the Truth according to His words and to cut off the roots of the Unbelievers;- (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ve iz ye’idukumullahu ihdet taifeteyni enneha lekum Behold! Allah promised you one of the two (enemy) parties, that it should be yours: ve teveddune enne gayre zatishevketi tekunu lekum You wished that the one unarmed should be yours,

Like I said two different perspectives. One, the point that Allah wants us to see. There was a promise, one of two groups shall be yours. This is a reward in advance.

So why two from one, not just saying this one. This is the test. There are two different groups and you shall choose and be victorious over one. This is where willpower comes to stage. Which one will you choose? Loot or removing the obstacles between faith and men. This is important.

But there’s a follow up here. teveddune enne gayre zatishevketi tekunu lekum You wished that the one unarmed should be yours, ve yuriydullahu en yuhikkal hakka Bi kelimatiHI ve yakta’a dabirel kafiriyn but Allah willed to establish the Truth according to His words and to cut off the roots of the Unbelievers.

What was Allah’s wish? Allah’s choice was to make the truth real and root out the resistance on denial. That’s why Allah gave them two choices. Because there’s no other being so respectful to humans will than Allah. This is respecting His own creation. That’s why there were choices. Caravan or battle. If you enter battle, you will win, if you go after the caravan you will capture it but know that My will isn’t with the caravan.

This is the understanding of destiny. We should look this fate matter by analyzing these verse. Allah openly says, “My will is that. This is the spot where I want you to look. If you also look from there you will understand my motives. I want to cut out the blasphemy on earth and make people meet faith at last.”

Two different perspectives from two distinct lifestyles. One side gives the meaning of profit to other sides meaning of loss. Those who seek the treasure see the profit but those with Allah’s perspective know that the real treasure is paradise, morely being content and happy with yourself. They realize the true meaning of eternal happiness and no mere earth possessions can give it.

In fact loots and treasures always bring war with themselves. Conflict and confrontation as the first verse suggests. Those who stand side by side on battlefield can easily stand against each other when the sharing of the loot time comes. So which one is really the precious?

What is power? Those who seek the loot gives this meaning to money, weapon, leadership and control. But others, people who sees as Allah wants us to see, they see differently, they see faith. These verses not only inform us about them but also gives us the consciousness of it. And not 8 years passed after the battle of Badir, the entire continent submit to this faith. This change comes as this miracle to us.

Rooting them out. After that time the entire Arabic peninsula never see idol worshipping again even today. This is the severe cut, think about it and realize the meaning of Qur’ans miracle.

8 – ) Li yuhikkal hakka ve yubtilel batile ve lev kerihel mucrimun;

(He wanted) to establish the Truth and invalidate that which is vain and baseless… even if those who commit crime against Allah dislikes it! (A.Hulusi)

That He might establish Truth and prove Falsehood false, distasteful though it be to those in guilt. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Li yuhikkal hakka ve yubtilel batile That He might establish Truth and prove Falsehood false,

ve lev kerihel mucrimun even if those who commit crime against Allah dislikes it.

There’s a question herei why ve lev kerihel mucrimun and not “kafirun.” Because the word mücrim here isn’t about those who fight against faith, this words target are those who want to seek out the caravans treasure. I believe they are mentioned here as they commit a crime that Allah dislikes.

9-) Iz testegiysune Rabbekum festecabe lekum enniy mumiddukum Bi elfin minel Melaiketi murdifiyn;

Remember when you asked for help from your Rabb and He answered you, “Indeed I will reinforce you with a thousand angels in succession.” (A.Hulusi)

Remember ye implored the assistance of your Lord, and He answered you: “I will assist you with a thousand of the angels, ranks on ranks.” (A.Yusuf Ali)

Iz testegiysune Rabbekum Remember when you asked for help from your Rabb festecabe lekum enniy mumiddukum Bi elfin minel Melaiketi murdifiyn and He answered you, “Indeed I will reinforce you with a thousand angels in succession.” They were right to ask for help. There was no balance of power on battlefield. One side with 1000 army of men with 700 camels and 100 horses. Other side 300 believers with 70 camels an done or two horses. There were on a field where even the numbers gave up.

And the prophet in this hardest day of his life going up on a high point and looks at a handful of believers and then to the rabid crowd of Mecca. It’s impossible to evaluate the situation physically. No math can save the situation.

Dear prophet opens his hands and prays with crying eyes. Saying, “O Celestial,” Ilahi, in tuhlik hazihil gısaveh la tu’bed fil ard abeda. Ev len Tu’bede fil ard. “If you let these soldiers of faith right now, if you don’t let them have the victory, these lands might not even call your name again.” This was his concern. That why he was so nervous. Not because they cannot build a country, not because they cannot save Madina, not even because of life or death. No, the whole concert was about being a sincere follower of Allah. The main objective is to make men meet with faith. This was about the true conquest. And the reason behind the praying of the prophet with love.

And Allah answered, Indeed I will reinforce you with a thousand angels in succession. When you say, “I’m done, I cannot go any further.” Allah immediately say “I’m here to help, my worshipper.” When the mans power is depleted, Allah’s help arrives. And this was about that.

10-) Ve ma cealehullahu illa bushra ve li tatmeinne Bihi kulubukum* ve men nasru illa min ‘indillah* innAllahe Aziyzun Hakiym;

Allah did this only as good tidings and so your hearts would be assured by it… Help and victory is only from Allah… Indeed, Allah is the Aziz, the Hakim. (A.Hulusi)

Allah made it but a message of hope, and an assurance to your hearts: (in any case) there is no help except from Allah: and Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ve ma cealehullahu illa bushra ve li tatmeinne Bihi kulubukum How should we realize the help of 1000 angels. Should we think about it throughly or should we translate it further. Should we approach the situation with wits and finesse or just say 1000 angels came down to earth with fury, cut and destroyed. Thankfully our Rabb hasn’t let us to see the situation more than what it was. The next sentence informs us about the depths of things without further translation.

Ve ma cealehullahu illa bushra ve li tatmeinne Bihi kulubukum Allah did this only as good tidings and so your hearts would be assured by it. This is the help. ve men nasru illa min ‘indillah Help and victory is only from Allah. This is it. This is how Allah sent help to Badir Battle. Kuvve-i nefs, the breath that gives power to men. You may call it angels, energy or power. If Allah chooses to help men, Allah can easily turn the dorment static power to kinetic energy. We see several examples about this through the history. With extreme fear even a man capable of lifting 100kg weight cannot even lift 100gr. He cannot even hold a pencil. If the base of power was all about the muscle strength that should have happened. Fear is an overwhelming effect on strength.

Muscle is just a tool. An organ to distribute and deliver the power. But for that there should be a source of power, one that administer all things in the background. So if that source was unable to deliver information and orders, even a hand capable of lifting tons of weight cannot keep a feather. But the opposite is also possible. A hand normally only capable of lifting usual objects can muster a monsterous strength. Like in battle lifting a cannon ball weighted 300 kg with one pull. This wasn’t a myth, it’s a recorded fact. This was never about muscle power and that’s how our Rabb helps and informs us about the help.

innAllahe Aziyzun Hakiym; and Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise.

11-) Iz yugashiykumunnuase emeneten minhu ve yunezzilu aleykum mines Semai maen liyutahhirekum Bihi ve yuzhibe ankum riczesheytani ve li yarbita ala kulubikum ve yusebbite Bihil akdam;

Remember when He formed a state of tranquility and security from Him, and sent down water from the sky (water symbolizes knowledge, the state of certainty and the actualization of Allah’s will) to purify you (from ego-based emotions) and to rid you of the filth of Satan (fear and doubt) and to strengthen the observation of the Truth in your consciousness and secure your feet (with this knowledge). (This verse is an example of the symbolic/allegoric expression in the Quran. For, ‘rain’, when taken literally, cannot secure one’s feet or cleanse one from satanic impulses. This is an example of how such verses should be construed and evaluated.) (A.Hulusi)

Remember He covered you with drowsiness, to give you calm as from Himself, and He caused rain to descend on you from heaven, to clean you therewith, to remove from you the stain of Satan, to strengthen your hearts, and to plant your feet firmly therewith. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Iz yugashiykumunnuase emeneten minhu ve yunezzilu aleykum mines Semai maen Remember He covered you with drowsiness, to give you calm as from Himself and He caused rain to descend on you from heaven. Allah’s help is further explained here. This is security from Allah’s domain. Emeneten, Qur’an says. Insurance. Here Nuase word has the meaning of sense of trust. The force that comes with inner peace. That’s what I was mentioning when I say the faith is the greatest opportunity.

How can faith becomes opportunity. How can it becomes power for people. If and when it is used properly of course. Rain to descend on you from heaven. liyutahhirekum Bihi ve yuzhibe ankum riczesheytani to clean you therewith, to remove from you the stain of Satan,

ve li yarbita ala kulubikum ve yusebbite Bihil akdam to strengthen your hearts, and to plant your feet firmly therewith. This help of both physical and spiritual sense also cause inner cleanse. The sense of security is so refreshing the mercy of faith both cause and took inspiration from the rain outside. This rain made 3 things.

1- Strengthened their hearts.

2-They were afraid of thirst since according to Taberi’s records heathens were holding the wells in that area.

3-They were standing above the by territory. Meccan army was down there. And since they were up at that time the rain strenghtened the land made them easier to move around. But at the same time the land beneath Meccan Army turned into mud. This was Allah’s help both physically and spiritually. The creation of Allah was used to help within the laws of nature but with great efficiency.

12-) Iz yuhiy Rabbuke ilel Melaiketi enniy me’akum fesebbitulleziyne amenu* seulkiy fiy kulubilleziyne keferurru’be fadribu fevkal a’naki vadribu minhum kulle benan;

Remember when your Rabb had revealed to the angels, “Indeed I am with you (since Allah cannot be literally next to the angels, this verse is referencing what is known in Sufism as ‘Unity of Existence’, thus, the angels are consciously aware that the power inherent within them is none other than the power of Allah)… Secure the believers… I will cast fear into the hearts of the deniers… Strike them upon their necks (anchor the deniers upon their delusion) and strike all their fingers.” (A.Hulusi)

Remember thy Lord inspired the angels (with the message): “I am with you: give firmness to the Believers: I will instill terror into the hearts of the Unbelievers: smite ye above their necks and smite all their finger-tips off them.” (A.Yusuf Ali)

Iz yuhiy Rabbuke ilel Melaiketi Remember your Lord inspired the angels with the message enniy me’akum fesebbitulleziyne amenu “I am with you: give firmness to the Believers.

fesebbitulleziyne amenu a clear meaning. You cannot find a verse saying, angels came drew their swords and hit the necks of unbelievers. Here the help that our Rabb gives is strength and morale based. It’s about energizing the power that was dorment before.

seulkiy fiy kulubilleziyne keferurru’be I will instill terror into the hearts of the Unbelievers: another help. Faith turns into courage when blasphemy turns into fear. fadribu fevkal a’naki vadribu minhum kulle benan smite you above their necks and smite all their finger-tips off them.

13-) Zalike Bi ennehum shakkullahe ve RasuleHU, ve men yushakikillahe ve RasuleHU fe innAllahe shediyd’ul ‘ikab;

This is because they opposed Allah and His Rasul, and separated and detached themselves from Allah and His Rasul… And whoever opposes Allah and His Rasul, indeed Allah is the Shadid al-Iqab (severe in enforcing the due consequence of an offence). (A.Hulusi)

This because they contended against Allah and His Messenger: if any contend against Allah and His Messenger, Allah is strict in punishment. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Zalike Bi ennehum shakkullahe ve RasuleHU, This because they contended against Allah and His Messenger ve men yushakikillahe ve RasuleHU fe innAllahe shediyd’ul ‘ikab if any contend against Allah and His Messenger, Allah is strict in punishment.

This is a reference to the core of struggle, this verse. Who are you with and who are you against? Are you with Hakk against false or are you with false against the truth. This is the real problem.

Why do people live, who do they fight, what for do they die? Here Allah draws a focus a center for humans. This is the angle of destination. It’s not about simple loot or treasure or political power or land struggle. It shouldn’t be. So instead of asking for Allah’s help on those, give your help to Islam and fight for this cause which means the ultimate happiness for humans. The things that may be asked before shall come to you as bonus then.

Remove the obstacles between Islam and people because Islam is the other name of happiness. Disasters come when people are left without Islam and Islam without people. This is the battle of love, so to speak.

14-) Zalikum fezukuhu ve enne lilkafiriyne azaben nar;

Here it is (the results of your deeds), so taste it! And for the deniers of the knowledge of the reality, there is the suffering of the fire (the flames of which burns both internally and externally). (A.Hulusi)

Thus (will it be said): “Taste ye then of the (punishment): for those who reject, is the Chastisement of the Fire.” (A.Yusuf Ali)

Zalikum fezukuhu Thus will it be said: “Taste you then of the punishment: ve enne lilkafiriyne azaben nar for those who reject, is the Chastisement of the Fire.”

15-) Ya eyyuhelleziyne amenu iza lekiytumulleziyne keferu zahfen fela tuvelluhumul edbar;

O believers… When you meet those who collectively deny the knowledge of the reality, do not turn your backs on them! (A.Hulusi)

O ye who believe! when ye meet the Unbelievers in hostile array, never turn your backs to them. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ya eyyuhelleziyne amenu O believers iza lekiytumulleziyne keferu zahfen fela tuvelluhumul edbar when you meet the Unbelievers in hostile array, never turn your backs to them. Don’t dare to escape from this holy struggle of faith. Don’t desert from the army of Allah. Don’t commit the murder of being a deserter from an army with a prophet as its commander.

16-) Ve men yuvellihim yevmeizin duburehu illa muteharrifen likitalin ev mutehayyizen ila fietin fekad bae Bi gadabin minAllahi ve me’vahu cehennem* ve bi’sel masiyr;

And whoever turns his back to them, unless as a strategy or to join another troop (of believers), will indeed return with the wrath of Allah… His abode will be fire (suffering)! And what a wretched destination that is! (A.Hulusi)

If any do turn his back to them on such a day – unless it be in a stratagem of war, or to retreat to a troop (of his own)- he draws on himself the wrath of Allah, and his abode is Hell,- an evil refuge (indeed)! (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ve men yuvellihim yevmeizin duburehu illa muteharrifen likitalin ev mutehayyizen ila fietin If any do turn his back to them on such a day – unless it be in a stratagem of war, or to retreat to a troop of his own fekad bae Bi gadabin minAllahi ve me’vahu cehennem* he draws on himself the wrath of Allah, and his abode is Hell ve bi’sel masiyr And what a wretched destination that is.

17-) Felem taktuluhum ve lakinnAllahe katelehum ve ma rameyte iz rameyte ve lakinnAllahe rema* ve liyubliyel mu’miniyne minhu belaen hasena* innAllahe Semiy’un Aliym;

And you did not kill them, but it was Allah who killed them! And you threw not (the arrow) when you (illusory self; ego) threw, but it was Allah who threw! In order to make the believers experience a good from Himself (His grace)! Indeed, Allah is the Sami, the Aleem. (A.Hulusi)

It is not ye who slew them; it was Allah. When thou threwest (a handful of dust), it was not thy act, but Allah’s: in order that He might confer on the Believers a gracious benefit from Himself: for Allah is He Who heareth and knoweth (all things). (A.Yusuf Ali)

Felem taktuluhum ve lakinnAllahe katelehum And you did not kill them, but it was Allah who killed them.

What is this really mean, dear friends. How should we understand this verse. It’s not like, Allah drew His sword and fought on Badir. There are some stories that based on actual incident. If we read the following part of the verse, it can be processed easier.

ve ma rameyte iz rameyte ve lakinnAllahe rema And you threw not the arrow when you threw, but it was Allah who threw! We read the stories ar some point Rasulallah took a handful of sands and scathered to the direction of enemies. Based on stories perspective though we take that the verse should mean something more and wide.The reason of arrival is not that small that can be limited to one incident.

La havle vela kuvvete illa Billah strength and power are belong to Allah. This comfirms this saying. O humanity, don’t try to search a place unbound from Allah. Don’t possess the success without Allah. Don’t even think you can stand up without Allah’s help. Don’t assume you live without Allah. This is the message here.

You weren’t the one who threw, Allah was. You weren’t the ones you kill, Allah was. This is it. Don’t take the action all to himself, remember Allah since you cannot imagine a world without Allah. You cannot define success or happiness without Allah. So look at the owner not the motive.

Don’t thank your muscles, thank the sender of energy that drives your muscles. It’s not like the cup or bottle that gives you the water to your mouth, that cup is only the tool. See the source and give your thanks to there. Otherwise you turn into an innkeeper rather than the passanger on the road of truth. You begin to lay over the path and tackle the walkers, you talk and talk and never move an inch.

ve liyubliyel mu’miniyne minhu belaen hasena* in order that He might confer on the Believers a gracious benefit from Himself innAllahe Semiy’un Aliym for Allah is He Who hears and knows all things.

18-) Zalikum ve ennAllahe muhinu keydil kafiriyn;

Thus it is (you have lived and seen it)! Indeed, Allah will weaken the plot of those who refuse to experience the knowledge of the reality! (A.Hulusi)

That, and also because Allah is He Who makes feeble the plans and stratagem of the Unbelievers. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Zalikum remember the 14th verse. It started just like this. Here the addressing and targeted are different though. 14th verse begins with heathens here the message is for believers. ve ennAllahe muhinu keydil kafiriyn That, and also because Allah is He Who makes feeble the plans and stratagem of the Unbelievers.

19-) In testeftihu fekad caekumul feth* ve in tentehu fehuve hayrun lekum* ve in te’udu ne’ud* velen tugniye ankum fietukum shey’en velev kesuret, ve ennAllahe me’al mu’miniyn

If you want conquest (victory), conquest has come to you (at Badr)… If you stop (resisting the Rasul of Allah) it is better for you… But if you return (to duality) We will return too! (In this case) even if you are a large group, it will not benefit you… Allah is certainly with the believers (He is with those who acknowledge and experience the reality that the strength and power inherent within them belongs to Allah). (A.Hulusi)

(O Unbelievers!) if ye prayed for victory and judgment, now hath the judgment come to you: if ye desist (from wrong), it will be best for you: if ye return (to the attack), so shall We. Not the least good will your forces be to you even if they were multiplied: for verily Allah is with those who believe! (A.Yusuf Ali)

In testeftihu fekad caekumul feth O Unbelievers! if you prayed for victory and judgment, now has the judgment come to you.

In translation history this verse is a problem. To whom the verse addresses? Who are the targeted group of this verse. There are two possibilities.

  1. Believers
  2. Heathens

Although the consensus is about fifty percent for each group, I believe this verse has such finesse that it can be taken with both meanings. The celestial reason can be this.

O Unbelievers (Or believers maybe)! if you prayed for victory and judgment, now has the judgment come to you. For believers you were a few and yet you achieved victory and for unbelievers you were asking for the victory now watch it. Watch how the real victory should be. Your pride was your obstacle and now that obstacle is no more and you shall see the truth. You are about to meet with faith. You might put the name of victory false at first but here it is. It’s the prize for you that the victory of heart. Accept it. Accept the love and faith so that the victory may and shall enter your hearts as well.

ve in tentehu fehuve hayrun lekum Still with two sides of speech. O believers. If you turn to earth after seeing this, I shall pull back my support. So leave it like that. Don’t go after the loot, remember the reason why you’re here. As in don’t forget the purpose when you see the earth.

And you heathens, if you end your hostilities I shall not punish you, I shall erase the punishment I planned for you and give you to prize as well.

ve in te’udu ne’ud If you turn we turn as well. velen tugniye ankum fietukum shey’en velev kesuret, Not the least good will your forces be to you even if they were multiplied: ve ennAllahe me’al mu’miniyn for verily Allah is with those who believe!

20-) Ya eyyuhelleziyne amenu etiy’ullahe ve RasuleHU ve la tevellev ‘anHU ve entum tesme’un;

O believers… Obey Allah and His Rasul! Do not turn away from Him while you hear! (A.Hulusi)

O ye who believe! Obey Allah and His Messenger, and turn not away from him when ye hear (him speak). (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ya eyyuhelleziyne amenu O believers… etiy’ullahe ve RasuleHU Obey Allah and His Rasul! ve la tevellev ‘anHU ve entum tesme’un Do not turn away from Him while you hear!

Now we have a third party addressed besides real believers and deniers. Who are they? Those who seek treasures, who turn their hearts to earthly wealth. Basically people who close their ears to Allah’s message and they don’t want to hear it. This verse is about them.

21-) Ve la tekunu kelleziyne kalu semi’na ve hum la yesme’un;

Do not be like those who hear (but do not perceive) and say, “We have heard”! (A.Hulusi)

Nor be like those who say, “We hear,” but listen not: (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ve la tekunu kelleziyne kalu semi’na ve hum la yesme’un Nor be like those who say, “We hear,” but listen not: People who say we heard but not listening to begin with. As in they supposedly hear you but not fulfilling the requests. Allah’s message reached them but they neglect their duties.

22-) Inne sherred devabbi ‘indAllahis summul bukmulleziyne la ya’kilun;

Indeed, the worst of living creatures in the sight of Allah are the deaf and dumb, who do not use their reason (who live in imitation). (A.Hulusi)

For the worst of beasts in the sight of Allah are the deaf and the dumb,- those who understand not. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Inne sherred devabbi ‘indAllahis summul bukmulleziyne la ya’kilun; For the worst of beasts in the sight of Allah are the deaf and the dumb,- those who understand not. This is a verse that drives us about the problem of understanding. It’s all about using our minds. If you want to understand properly first of all you should use your common senses. Only then your problem of explaining is solved. That’s what it says.

23-) Velev alimAllahu fiyhim hayren leesme’ahum* velev esme’ahum letevellev ve hum mu’ridun;

Had Allah known any good (ability to evaluate) in them, He would surely have made them hear… And if He had made them hear (under the circumstances of their current creational program) they would still have turned away! (A.Hulusi)

If Allah had found in them any good. He would indeed have made them listen: (As it is), if He had made them listen, they would but have turned back and declined (faith). (A.Yusuf Ali)

Velev alimAllahu fiyhim hayren leesme’ahum* If Allah had found in them any good. He would indeed have made them listen: velev esme’ahum letevellev ve hum mu’ridun if He had made them listen, they would but have turned back and declined.  Magnificent expressions about human psychology. Even if they heard they would have turn back again. They would have chosen the wrong again with their own free will. Their deviations are not about destiny but their own free choices. They chose to close their ears hence the inability to talk. Many people cannot talk because they cannot hear to begin with.

24-) Ya eyyuhelleziyne amenusteciybu Lillahi ve lirRasuli iza de’akum lima yuhyiykum* va’lemu ennAllahe yehulu beynel mer’i ve kalbihi ve ennehu ileyHI tuhsherun;

O believers, when you are invited to that which revives you (the knowledge of the reality) attend to the invitation of Allah and the Rasul. Know well that (if you do not attend to this invitation) Allah will intervene between the person’s consciousness and his heart (Allah creates a barrier between his emotions and reason, abandoning him to an emotional state of existence that comprises his hell through the system of the brain) and prevent him. To Him you will be gathered (you will reside in a realm in which the Absolute Reality will become apparent; you will be evaluated by the qualities of the Names that comprise your essence). (A.Hulusi)

O ye who believe! give your response to Allah and His Messenger, when He calleth you to that which will give you life; and know that Allah cometh in between a man and his heart, and that it is He to Whom ye shall (all) be gathered. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ya eyyuhelleziyne amenusteciybu Lillahi ve lirRasuli iza de’akum lima yuhyiykum* O you who believe! give your response to Allah and His Messenger, when He calls you to that which will give you life; va’lemu ennAllahe yehulu beynel mer’i ve kalbihi and know that Allah comes in between a man and his heart, ve ennehu ileyHI tuhsherun and that it is He to Whom ye shall (all) be gathered.

25-) Vetteku fitneten la tusiybennelleziyne zalemu minkum hassaten, va’lemu ennAllahe shediyd’ul ‘ikab;

Protect yourselves from a calamity, which not only strikes the wrongdoers (but also the good among that community)… And know well that Allah is the Shadid al-Iqab (severe in enforcing the due consequence of an offence). (A.Hulusi)

And fear the trail, which affecteth not in particular (only) those of you who do wrong: and know that Allah is strict in punishment. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Vetteku fitneten la tusiybennelleziyne zalemu minkum hassaten, And fear the trail, which affecteth not in particular only those of you who do wrong va’lemu ennAllahe shediyd’ul ‘ikab and know that Allah is strict in punishment. As in you shall be tested, we all shall be tested so that the gold can be seperated from the dirt. For that we shall be tested constantly. Be careful and focus so that we may pass the test within ourselves.

“Ve ahiru davana velil hamdulillahi rabbil alemiyn” (Jonah/10) “Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the Worlds!” All products of our claims, causes and lives are for Allah and our last word to our Allah is “Hamd”.

“Esselamu aleykum.”

 
2 Yorum

Yazan: 01 Mart 2021 in QUR'AN

 

2 responses to “TAFSIR LESSONS AL-ANFAL (1-25) (58)

  1. rana belkis

    03 Mayıs 2021 at 12:42

    Merhaba
    Site sahibi olarak isminizi lütfeder misiniz?
    Ayrıca babam dediğiniz ,ismini yazmaktan alıkoyan nedir.Tefsir sahibi ile babanız arasında ki bağlantıyı anlayamadım.
    Teşekkür ederim.

     
    • ekabirweb

      03 Mayıs 2021 at 16:36

      Selamlar. Benim ismim Özgür. Babamın ismi ise Ahmet. İsim vermeyle ilgili yoğun bir engelimiz yoktu. Sadece “ben” kavramından uzak bir çalışma olmasını istemişti. Onunla alakalı bir durum. Babam tefsiri derleme olarak hazırlamayı tercih etmiş, birkaç kaynağı inceleyerek çalışmasını gerçekleştirmişti. Merkeze ise Mustafa İslamoğlu’nun video-ses kaydını almayı uygun buldu. Bunun dışında bir bağlantısı yoktu. Rica ederim. Allah ile kalın.

       

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