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TAFSIR LESSONS AL-ANFAL (26-48) (59)

01 Haz

“EuzuBillahiminesheytanirracim”

BismillahirRahmanirRahiym

Dear Qur’an friends, the 25th verse of Anfal chapter that we had studied in our last session was shedding light to the verses we will study today. It was like a gate way so I wish to remind you of it. What was it saying?

Vetteku fitneten la tusiybennelleziyne zalemu minkum hassa be ready and alert to a test for the hearts that not only will reach the oppressors that turned their minds upside down but to the others as well. Those people that still not fall, not be tyrants. This is fitne.

The verse uses the word fitne. What I chose to translate as the test of heart, its fitne of heart. The hardest challange for a human. It represents the stance of man both to himself and to Allah. It’s the key word to understand what we will study today. So in order to understand the real meaning of fitne, we should look into the usage in Arabic language.

Fitne is the name of the process that seperates the dirt from gold. When it is first found in mine, gold is mixed with dirt and other minerals. The process of fitne is used to seperate the unworthy pieces from the real gold itself. This word also has the meaning of cornerstone. But the meaning we percieve is quite different in our minds. So Qur’an uses the word fitne as the process of seperating the good people from the bad. Hence to nature of test.

That’s why it is said that the test not only reaches the tyrants and oppressors that wrong themselves but to everyone, every living person so that they taste the challange and choose carefully. It not only contains tyrants but scholars. Not only Abu Cehils but Muhammads. Not only pharaohs but Moses’s as well. The name gives it all actually. The test, the reason of our existence so that everyone can be prepared what’s about to come in their lives. With this knowledge and perception, I would like to begin the lesson of today.

26-) Vezkuru iz entum kaliylun mustad’afune fiyl Ardi tehafune en yetehattafekumun Nasu feavakum ve eyyedekum Bi nasriHI ve razekakum minat tayyibati leallekum teshkurun;

O believers… Remember the days when you feared the people might harm you because you were few and weak… But He sheltered you, supported you with His aid, and provided clean blessings for you so that you would be grateful (evaluate and be thankful). (A.Hulusi)

Call to mind when ye were a small (band), deemed weak through the land, and afraid that men might despoil and kidnap you; But He provided a safe asylum for you, strengthened you with His aid, and gave you Good things for sustenance: that ye might be grateful. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Vezkuru iz entum kaliylun mustad’afune fiyl Ardi O believers… Remember the days when you feared the people might harm you because you were few and weak. You were weak, you were suffering with agony under the banner of those who were in the leadership.

tehafune en yetehattafekumun Nasu and afraid that men might despoil and kidnap you feavakum ve eyyedekum Bi nasriHI ve razekakum minat tayyibati leallekum teshkurun But He provided a safe asylum for you, strengthened you with His aid, and gave you Good things for sustenance: that you might be grateful.

Here the verse directs the attention to a different kind of test. The timeline mentioned here was about the problems of muslims under the Meccan tyranny. Hard times indeed and the verse reminds us about that saying remember. Remember what you were like back then. Before not so long ago you were suffering under the oppressions of other group, the same people you watch the dead bodies now near the well of Badir. Allah turns things upside down.

ve tilkel eyyamu nudaviluha beynen Nas (Ali Imran/140)

Do you believe those days will stand forever that the tyrants always oppress and the weak always oppressed. No, when the time comes, the day turns those who were on top fall to the bottom. The verse reminds us about those days. But we have a connection to the previous verse either. The test in this verse is about the test of poverty. No power, no strength, no money, no sustenance even the basic things were stand as luxury. We are reminded. And there’s also the test of wealth.

Now the verse by reminding about the previous test of poverty, it wants them to pass the test of wealth like before. The line isn’t drawn here. It’s not enough to pass the test of poverty. If you cannot pass the test of wealth too, you be like a temporary flower that cannot stand the circle of four seasons. So you stand the hardship of winter as a flower but you cannot be complete if you cannot stand strong against the blazes of a hot summer. That’s why the test of wealth is a strong one. 25th verse suggests that by saying, Vetteku fitneten la tusiybennelleziyne zalemu minkum hassa

Fear the day of the test that shakes the foundation of inner worlds, a test that not only reaches the tyrants that suffer the upside down mentality but to everyone. There’s a saying, Enduring the hardships of poverty is every mens job, enduring the temptations of wealth, that’s the real test. Everyone can endure the loss, but standing straight against the constant victories without breaking, it’s not an easy thing to do.

So advising the believers against victory as wierdas it sounds, it’s not that farfetched either. Standing strong and enduring the temptations of victory, power and wealth. Defending the faith and honor, not all people can do that.

That’s why the verse says exactly this. “You resist the poverty, you turn your faith to opportunity and got over that test. Now you are been tested with power. You saw the earnings and loot. All Meccans dearests are in front of you. Those who were treating you like nothing are now in front of you powerless. Now you must endure. You must protect your honor, faith, morality. Against what? The simple earthly possessions. Don’t break your stance when you see the loot, don’t forget your moral principles.”

27-) Ya eyyuhelleziyne amenu la tehunullahe ver Rasule ve tehunu emanatikum ve entum ta’lemun;

O believers… Do not betray Allah and the Rasul… Do not betray (the knowledge and gnosis that has reached you through Nubuwwah and Risalah) while you know! (A.Hulusi)

O ye that believe! betray not the trust of Allah and the Messenger, nor misappropriate knowingly things entrusted to you. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ya eyyuhelleziyne amenu O believers… la tehunullahe ver Rasule Do not betray Allah and the Rasul… ve tehunu emanatikum ve entum ta’lemun nor misappropriate knowingly things entrusted to you.

Emanatikum things that should be protected. What are they? What are the values that need to be protected. Like 72nd verse of Ahzap chapter.

Inna ‘aradnel emanete ales Semavati vel Ard We had offered this “entrusted” to heavens and earth. That is the one. So among all the values we are entrusted with several of them took the highest values. Those are mind, will, conscience, revelations and nature. From there we have secondary values as well, life, time, possessions, children and son on. Basically all the things that we are supposed to protect and cherish.

But above all things. The will. Because those who betray their wills are ready to betray all other values as well. This is the first gift that bestowed upon mankind. The values that should be protected by physical means can be seperated to 5 topics as well.

Life, possessions, generations, mind and faith.

These five fundamental values are the ones we are supposed to protect at all times. Otherwise it is counted as the greatest betrayal.

At the last sentence of the verse, we might give the word “vav” a diferent meaning too. Based on the assumption of “la” from Ibn Abbas readings, it can also be said as “la tehunu emanatikum.” A new foırm of translation can also be made.

When we use the words literally we encounter the obvious translation. If you betray Allah and the Rasul, you betray the values that you suppose to protect as well. Betraying the mind, will, nature and so on. Also a man cannot fight against prophets without fighting with his own mind and will first. A person cannot wage war against Allah without betraying his own nature. These are the same. If we summarize the main message here, a man cannot one betrayal cannot be completed without the other. One cannot betray Allah without betraying himself and cannot betray himself without betraying Allah.

28-) Va’lemu ennema emvalukum ve evladukum fitnetun ve ennAllahe ‘indeHU ecrun aziym;

Know well that your possessions and children are only a provocation (objects of trial) for you! As for Allah, the great reward is with Him. (A.Hulusi)

And know ye that your possessions and your progeny are but a trial; and that it is Allah with Whom lies your highest reward. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Va’lemu ennema emvalukum ve evladukum fitnetun Know well that your possessions and children are only a provocation and objects of trial for you!

Surely we ask now how our children and possessions become our trials. This is the fact that we should constantly think. Our children and our things are provocation and means of trial. This is the exact translation by the way. The means of trial.

ve ennAllahe ‘indeHU ecrun aziym As for Allah, the great reward is with Him.

This is the last verse of this passage. By its nature it breaks all the limits ofl the stories and comments of the historical events in this passage. Because this verse shows us that the message in this passage is all about timeless and unbound from space that it cannot be limitied to a single event. The reference here is to humanities position. Children and possessions cannot be limited to a single time it always like thit. In all times and all grounds, all civilizations. And as long as the humanity lives on earth this will always be the case. Children and things shall always be the means of trial as the verse suggests.

As I said before we should ask that things and children are really provocation. If we see the picture from the first communities eyes I believe we might learn it more truly.

One day Caliph Omar in mosque sitting he heard someone says, “I seek shelter to you from fitne (provocation), my Allah.” He became upset and said to the man “Are you hearing your words, o man? What you ask Allah not to give you any children and possessions? Do you want to die famished and alone? No, say this. “My Rabb I seek shelter to you from the evil of fitne.” We see from this record that Caliph Omar understood the verse properly. So We should also seek shelter in Allah from the temptations and evil of the things that we are grateful to be our blessings. They are the things that turn a man against himself and by that logic against Allah.

This can be explained by this metaphor. Earth is a sea and we are all ships. Our hearts are ships. Without sea, all the ships are useless. We alll need that water for us to reach our destinations but only if we manage to keep the water outside our ships. If the water begins to seep into our hearts ship, the same means to help us reach our destination becomes the tool of our doom. Using the water as a tool but not as a purpose, this is the answer for us to pass this trial. That’s why people who knew better prayed like “Make more in our hands but wipe them away in our hearts.” This is the deep perspective that can be gained by the education of Islam.

When our prophet was loving his grandchildren, he was both kissing and loving them and saying “You, o you! You hold a man from Allah’s path.”

This is important. Always keeping in mind that every value has a treshold, a danger zone. Every blessing you receive has a side effect so when taking them also we should check our defenses. Just like when taking antibiotics we should take vitamins as well. When a blessing comes to our door it brings the trial with itself. If your children and possessions make you forget anddeny the ethical values of yours, they are no longer a blessing and become the worse kinds of troubles.

[Additional Info: If you start to betray Allah and Rasul, you begin to betray life, honor, justice and follow by the laws, the country and duties as well. When you know better you become one of the betrayers. And for that the trust among you deplete. You turn into a civilization that no one can trust one another. This creates the biggest trials, hardest ones. So avoid that you shouldn’t betray Allah and Rasul ever. Also a true believer cannot betray and lying and betraying cannot become a characteristic in believers. The hadith informs us about this. “Two character traits cannot become permanent in believers. Betraying and lying.” But even a believer can fall into the traps of fitne. Because of the concerns regarding possessions and children there can be weaknesses emerge sometimes. But now well that all possessions and children are triels for you. Just like they bring happiness and joy they can easily become the tools of your sins and disasters. Situations like these are both troubles and trials for you. (From the translations of Elmali)]

29-) Ya eyyuhelleziyne amenu in tettekullahe yec’al lekum furkanen ve yukeffir ankum seyyiatikum ve yagfir lekum* vAllahu ZulFadlilAziym;

O believers… If you protect yourselves from Allah (not betray what has reached you with the Rasul and your natural covenant; the ability to live according to the Names comprising your essence) He will form for you furqan (the ability and knowledge to differentiate the right from the wrong), cover your misdeeds and forgive you… Allah is Dhul Fadhlil Azeem (the possessor of great bounty). (A.Hulusi)

O ye who believe! if ye fear Allah, He will grant you a Criterion (to judge between right and wrong), remove from you (all) evil deeds you, and forgive you: for Allah is the Lord of Grace unbounded. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ya eyyuhelleziyne amenu O believers in tettekullahe yec’al lekum furkanen if you fear Allah, He will grant you a Criterion (to judge between right and wrong). You ask how to pass this trial. How can I prevent all these blessings to harm me. How can I seperate the good from bad. Because they all look like blessings. But just like regular things, the cute and beautiful can hide the bad within itself. This is the answer to your question. This is how you can gain the power of criterion.

If you fear Allah, He will grant you a Criterion (to judge between right and wrong). The power of Furkan. Realization.

Only then you can seperate the dirt from gold. Only then you can realize the gold bottles are actually tin cans with gold cover. You become the milestone. And with this power you begin to walk the test to success.

You begin to measure all people that approach you. With this power of realization which the prophet describes like this.

Itteku feraset el mu’min.” Beware of a true believers sharp inner sight”. Because “fe innehu yenziru bi Nurullahi azze ve ceh.” He looks and sees with the light that Allah gave him.”

The light of heart that Allah bestowed upon him. Many people are unaware of this great gift and they are like poor creatures that cannot notice the poison inside their sustenance. All mice can see cheese but they cannot notice the trap. The difference between a real human and a mouse is this realization of the trap.

A man can question the existence of that cheese. How it came there, how put it there. Therefore humans have the power of thinking unlike mice. These questions are existential. Who am I? What is my purpose? Where I came from and where to am I going? The problems of existence can only be answered by existential realizations.

ve yukeffir ankum seyyiatikum ve yagfir lekum* remove from you (all) evil deeds you, and forgive you: Not only Allah gives you the power of criterion but Allah also covers the sins you committed so far. vAllahu ZulFadlilAziym for Allah is the Lord of Grace unbounded.

30-) Ve iz yemkuru Bikelleziyne keferu liyusbituke ev yaktuluke ev yuhricuke, ve yemkurune ve yemkurullah* vAllahu hayrul makiriyn;

Those who deny the knowledge of the reality were plotting against you to restrain you from your cause, or to kill you or to evict you (from your homeland). But they plan and Allah responds to their plan by making them live the consequences of their own plan (by turning their plot against them). And Allah is the best of planners! (A.Hulusi)

Remember how the Unbelievers plotted against thee, to keep thee in bonds, or slay thee, or get thee out (of thy home). They plot and plan, and Allah too plans; but the best of planners is Allah. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ve iz yemkuru Bikelleziyne keferu liyusbituke ev yaktuluke ev yuhricuke, Remember how the Unbelievers plotted against you, to keep you in bonds, or slay you, or get you out (of your home). ve yemkurune ve yemkurullah* They plot and plan, and Allah too plans vAllahu hayrul makiriyn; but the best of planners is Allah. Here hayrul makiriyn has also the mean of the best and all gooder planner.

This also creates this picture. All those people who were planning things that were for the evil of things, the bad plots so to speak but the plans that Allah created are always for the benefit of humans.

The feet of the verse might be in Mecca but the fingers show the entire timeline and humanity. All these times and eras there have been plots against people who carry the torch of faith, who create opportunities by this faith. And these plots have always been the tools of evil by the people who are tricked by their own instincts, people who take the role of satan in their times. So the verse invites all believers to be prepated for things like these. This is the truth that the verse gives us unbound from time and space.

It is said to people who create opportunities from their faith that they should be ready for all kinds of physical and spiritual traps. Remember, a trap by nature should be invisible to you in order to work. So the worst form of traps are set within a persons instincts and temptations. That’s why 25 and 26th verse explain us the greatness of the trial of humanity. Also the 28th verse indicates that these traps can come to you in many forms like children and possessions and all kinds of treasures that you value most.

31-) Ve iza tutla alehim ayatuna kalu kad semi’na lev neshau lekulna misle haza in haza illa esatiyrul evveliyn;

When Our signs are recited to them, they say, “Indeed we have heard… If we willed we could have said something like this… This is none other than legends from the past!” (A.Hulusi)

When Our Signs are rehearsed to them, they say: “We have heard this (before): if we wished, we could say (words) like these: these are nothing but tales of the ancients.” (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ve iza tutla alehim ayatuna kalu When Our Signs are rehearsed to them, kad semi’na lev neshau lekulna misle haza they say: “We have heard this (before): if we wished, we could say (words) like these:

What were they meaning when they said; “We have heard this before.” Actually the stories, poems and literature text of the pasts they had listened before.

If we wished; ekulna misle haza we could say words like these. This was their claim. Pretty interesting if not borderline arrogant. This was their claim and challenge and yet they never managed to prove their own claims even once. This is also interesting.

in haza illa esatiyrul evveliyn these are nothing but tales of the ancients.

The outrageous reaction of Meccan heathens against the signs. This arrogant move and as I said, the claim that has never been proven by anyone. Lekulna expression, as in giving out stories. Not all words derived from the root “kale” has the potential of verbal expressions. It has various meanings like, thinking, designing, claiming, asking and answering. So here the old literature text are referred by heathens and said” We could say or create words like these.

Of course the claim of old tales from the past against the Qur’an is an outrageous slander. But remember the old Meccan culture, they grew up on these stories from childhood. There are many storytellers of that time names gas, gissas or gaas.” They were just like the tv versions of old times. Especially when people were enjoying at nights when they are on partying if we might say, these storytellers and bards are their entertainments.

Those stories had no sense of reality of course. All based on legends and mythology. No one searched their authenticity anyway. It was all about having fun and tellers were using them for simple entertainment.

This was the logic. When they look at Qur’an this was their perspective, they werent’t understanding so they were slandering it as the old tales. They were incapable of noticing the principles of live within the book. Their point of view was already warped, they had lost their sight long ago.

32-) Ve iz kalullahumme in kane haza huvel hakka min ‘indike feemtir aleyna hicareten mines Semai evi’tina Bi azabin eliym;

Remember when they said, “O Allah… If this the Truth from You, then rain down upon us stones from the sky! Or afflict us with a painful suffering.” (A.Hulusi)

Remember how they said: “O Allah! if this is indeed the Truth from Thee, rain down on us a shower of stones form the sky, or send us a grievous chastisement.” (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ve iz kalullahumme in kane haza huvel hakka Remember how they said: “O Allah! if this is indeed the Truth from You, min ‘indike Truth from You feemtir aleyna hicareten mines Semai evi’tina Bi azabin eliym then rain down upon us stones from the sky! Or afflict us with a painful suffering.

According to Enesi Bin Malike, the person who had said this was Abu Cehil of Mecca. This was a challenge against Qur’an and signs. If these words you speak come from Allah then why haven’t we been punished? His question.

So why an incident happened long ago in Mecca was been reminded all these years later, right after the Badir battle. Because one of the corpses lying down on the Badir field was Abu Cehil himself. So Allah reminds us this fact by showing how wrath may be upon those who challenge Qur’an and the signs. Allah sends the wrath via other humans. Even the wrath may come to one, it comes within the laws of nature. So waiting for a meteor storm or a miracle punishment is just a vain expectation. An Abu Cehil type of expectation.

An atheist once said that. “I rebelled Allah and I read all the Qur’an verses I knew in toilet I haven’t been smitten. An exact Abu Cehil logic. People say “Allah doesn’t have a finger to poke your eye.” So if Allah wants to poke your eye rest assures that someone with a finger comes and finds you. This is the message here. The reveal of the emptiness of Abu Cehils approach.

33-) Ve ma kanAllahu liyuazzibehum ve ente fiyhim* ve ma kanAllahu muazzibehum ve hum yestagfirun;

But Allah would not punish them while you are among them (for you have been disclosed as grace to the worlds)… And Allah would not afflict them while there are those who seek forgiveness. (A.Hulusi)

But Allah was not going to send them a chastisement whilst thou wast amongst them; nor was He going to send it whilst they could ask for pardon. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ve ma kanAllahu liyuazzibehum ve ente fiyhim Main answer comes with this verse. But Allah would not punish them while you are among them.

ve ma kanAllahu muazzibehum ve hum yestagfirun This is the most important part. And Allah would not afflict them while there are those who seek forgiveness.

Allah wouldn’t wanted to punish anyone if there’s still a chance to forgive. Why? Because Allah is Rahman and Rahim. So Allah don’t punish anyone if they haven’t depleted their chances of forgiveness. Allah is limitless in Mercy and Compassion.

34-) Ve ma lehum ella yuazzibehumullahu ve hum yasuddune anil Mescidil Harami ve ma kanu evliyaeh* in evliyauhu illel muttekune ve lakinne ekserehum la ya’lemun;

While they are prevented from (visiting the believers in) the al-Masjid al-Haram, why should Allah not punish them? (This verse does not contradict with the previous verse as the former verse is referring to a communal suffering while this verse is in reference to individual suffering…) And they are not its (al-Masjid al-Haram’s) guardians… Its guardians are only those who protect themselves… But most of them do not know (what the al-Masjid al-Haram is). (A.Hulusi)

But what plea have they that Allah should not punish them, when they keep out (men) from the Sacred Mosque – and they are not its guardians? No men can be its guardians except the righteous; but most of them do not understand. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ve ma lehum ella yuazzibehumullahu ve hum yasuddune anil Mescidil Harami But what plea have they that Allah should not punish them, when they keep out (men) from the Sacred Mosque.

Qur’an says they don’t have any more motives. It was possible until that day. In small chance of their repentance their punishments were delayed. But not anymore. They don’t have any reasoning any thesis to show Allah.

ve ma kanu evliyaeh* and they are not its guardians? in evliyauhu illel muttekune No men can be its guardians except the righteous; ve lakinne ekserehum la ya’lemun but most of them do not understand.

Here the verse talks about guardianship. Taking care of The Sacred Mosque. Managing the care and protection. It’s not vain to take the matter to this point. Because Meccan heathens were trying to take a piece of that matter by saying they were descendants of Prophet Abraham. So they were saying, “We are the children of Abraham and the caretakers of this sacred house. This is our privilege.” With this claim just like Jews they were bragging about it and thinking themselves above other clans.

When Jews were informed about Qur’an they were saying a similar thing. “We are the sons and lovers of Allah.” Thinking that being a descendant of a prophet as an advantage. No matter what we do we are among the saved ones. A jewish logic. Qur’an explains us about this by Allah’s response to Abraham’s pray in 124th verse of Baqarah chapter.

.. la yenalu ahdiyzzalimiyn; (Baqarah/124) Tyrants (wrongdoers) shall be excluded from this promise.

The pray was Abraham’s wish. He prayed that he wanted imams, leaders from his bloodline.”Allah accepted his pray with this footnote. So by this definition, tyrants, wrongdoers, basically people whom their mentality became upside down shall not be included to this prays extension.

35-) Ve ma kane Salatuhum ‘indel Beyti illa mukaen ve tasdiyeten, fezukul azabe Bi ma kuntum tekfurun;

Their prayer (introspection) at the House (Baytullah) is none other than whistling and handclapping (externalized methods of worship taught by their forefathers)… So taste the suffering for denying the Truth! (A.Hulusi)

Their prayer at the House (of Allah) is nothing but whistling and clapping of hands: (Its only answer can be), “Taste ye the Chastisement because ye blasphemed.” (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ve ma kane Salatuhum ‘indel Beyti illa mukaen ve tasdiyeten, Their prayer at the House (of Allah) is nothing but whistling and clapping of hands.

Interesting, this fact is only said in one verse in Qur’an. Mukae means whistle here. But when we look at the dictionary we see the same meaning with any form of sounds made by human mouth.

Also scholars have debated about the root of the word tastiyeten. It means clapping basically. But if the original root of the word is sadede instead of sada with an addition of a second dal, it gains the meaning of preventing someone by using his time. As in making a ruckus, so the concept of the situation becomes like this. By making noises they prevent others from making their salats and prays. I prefer this secondary metaphorical meaning more accurate though.

Whistling and clapping was all they were doing. The seriousness of the situation became such a joke between them and Allah.  How can Allah appoint them as the guardians of Kaaba when they were making a joke of their duties in the first place. And what if they really did. They weren’t protecting Kaaba, Kaaba was protecting them. For the sake of Kaaba alone their lifestyle was florished, thanks to Kaaba they were rich. They owed that to Kaaba, not the other way around.

fezukul azabe Bi ma kuntum tekfurun So taste the suffering for denying the Truth.

36-) Innelleziyne keferu yunfikune emvalehum li yasuddu an sebiylillah* fe seyunfikuneha summe tekunu aleyhim hasreten summe yuglebun* velleziyne keferu ila cehenneme yuhsherun;

Those who deny the knowledge of the reality, give away their wealth in order to prevent (people) from the way of Allah! They will spend all of it! And then this spending will cause them heartache (painful regret)! Then they will be overcome! And (finally) in hell they, the deniers of the knowledge of the reality, will all be gathered. (A.Hulusi)

The Unbelievers spend their wealth to hinder (man) from the path of Allah, and so will they continue to spend; but in the end they will have (only) regrets and sighs; at length they will be overcome: and the Unbelievers will be gathered together to Hell;- (A.Yusuf Ali)

Innelleziyne keferu yunfikune emvalehum li yasuddu an sebiylillah The Unbelievers spend their wealth to hinder other men from the path of Allah fe seyunfikuneha and so will they continue to spend. They don’t even realize what the true faith means. They think they can buy the believers with their money. They think their wealth can by faith for them. They think they can protect themselves from Allah by the blessings and wealth Allah gave them in the first place. They should spend more then. It’s never enought. Qur’an says this. They will continue to spend for sure.

summe tekunu aleyhim hasreten summe yuglebun but in the end they will have (only) regrets and sighs; at length they will be overcome.

There’s no need for additional translation the verse gives us perfectly. They will perish. Their spendings agains faith and Allah will have no use and in the end they will be overcome. It becomes a cancer within them, a scar that will never heal. They cann succeed at ending faith and they will end instead.

velleziyne keferu ila cehenneme yuhsherun and the Unbelievers will be gathered together to Hell.

37-) Li yemiyzAllahul habiyse minet tayyibi ve yec’alel habiyse ba’dahu ala ba’din feyerkumehu cemiy’an feyec’alehu fiy cehennem* ulaike humul hasirun;

This is so that Allah separates the filthy from the clean, and fills hell with the filthy ones stacked on top of another… Indeed, they are the very losers. (A.Hulusi)

In order that Allah may separate the impure from the pure, put the impure, one on another, heap them together, and cast them into Hell. They will be the ones to have lost. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Li yemiyzAllahul habiyse minet tayyibi In order that Allah may separate the impure from the pure. This is a seperation process. A process to seperate the ones who brought the water and who broket he cup on the way.

ve yec’alel habiyse ba’dahu ala ba’din feyerkumehu cemiy’an feyec’alehu fiy cehennem* put the impure, one on another, heap them together, and cast them into Hell. ulaike humul hasirun; They will be the ones to have lost.

38-) Kul lilleziyne keferu in yentehu yugfer lehum ma kad selef* ve in ye’udu fe kad medat sunnetul ‘evveliyn;

Tell those who deny the knowledge of the reality, if they abandon (their false beliefs) then their past mistakes will be forgiven! But if they return to their old beliefs, then remind them of what happened to the previous people! (A.Hulusi)

Say to the Unbelievers, if (now) they desist (from Unbelief), their past would be forgiven them; but if they persist, the punishment of those before them is already (a matter of warning for them). (A.Yusuf Ali)

Kul lilleziyne keferu in yentehu yugfer lehum ma kad selef Say to the Unbelievers, if now they desist from Unbelief, their past would be forgiven them;

ve in ye’udu fe kad medat sunnetul ‘evveliyn But if they return to their old beliefs, then remind them of what happened to the previous people! There’s a law of Allah and that law also applies here. So those who fight against Allah shall meet the same fate of those who had done that before. This is a law and it cannot be changed.

39-) Ve katiluhum hatta la tekune fitnetun ve yekuned diynu kulluhu Lillah* feinintehev feinnAllahe Bi ma ya’melune Basiyr;

And fight them until oppression is lifted from the believers and the Religion (the knowledge of the reality and the system and order of Allah) becomes clearly apparent and acknowledged (but if they forcefully prevent you from this then fight them based on the Truth ‘There is no compulsion in the matters of religion.’). If they abandon (oppression and prevention), certainly Allah is Basir over what they do. (A.Hulusi)

And fight them on until there is no more persecution, and religion becomes Allah’s in its entirety; but if they cease, verily Allah doth see all that they do. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ve katiluhum hatta la tekune fitnetun ve yekuned diynu kulluhu Lillah And fight them on until there is no more persecution, and religion becomes Allah’s in its entirety.

It might be a loose translation but necessary to explain the meaning of the verse. Mind you that the word fitne is used again. Here this word is used as the most metaphorical meaning as can be. The use of the word is surely different that the 28th verse. Otherwise we might end up with a translation like “Destroy all your wealth and children and fight until you vanished.” So there’s no point to use that path.

Here fitne is about the pressure and tyranny over the faith. The main meaning is all those oppressions. So the sentence becomes like this. “Keep your fight until the oppression is lifted. Until the freedom of faith is established. Keep your campaign until you reach the freedom that will grant you an absolute and precise way to live your faith. Because the next verse verifies this translation.

feinintehev feinnAllahe Bi ma ya’melune Basiyr; but if they cease, verily Allah does see all that they do.

ve yekuned diynu kulluhu Lillah literal meaning with metaphorical one. If we use it as “Religion belongs solely to Allah” it wouldn’t be a complete translation. Here the main translation is based on this part. If they cease their oppression, if they free the faith, then it’s over.

So the main reason of the phrase religion belongs solely to Allah is meaningful if we take it as “All kinds of obstacles that prevents people to commit their lives to Allah, are gone.”

40-) Ve in tevellev fa’lemu ennAllahe Mevlakum* ni’mel Mevla ve ni’men Nasiyr;

If they turn away, know well that Allah is your Protector… An excellent Protector (owner) and an excellent Helper (giver of victory He is)! (A.Hulusi)

If they refuse, be sure that Allah is your Protector – the best to protect and the best to help. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ve in tevellev fa’lemu ennAllahe Mevlakum* If they refuse, be sure that Allah is your Protector ni’mel Mevla ve ni’men Nasiyr the best to protect and the best to help.

41-) Va’lemu ennema ganimtum min shey’in feenne Lillahi humusehu ve lirRasuli ve lizil kurba vel yetama vel mesakiyni vebnissebiyli, in kuntum amentum Billahi ve ma enzelna ala abdina yevmel furkani yevmel tekalcem’an* vAllahu ala kulli shey’in Kadiyr;

If you have believed in Allah and the day of furqan (the day of those who separate and fight in the cause of either the truth or falsity) (that is) to that which We have revealed to Our servant (the reinforcement of the angels) on the day when the two groups met in opposition (the battle of Badr) then know that one fifth of what you obtain of spoils is for Allah (to be spent in the way of Allah), the Rasul, his relatives, the orphans, the needy and the travelers who have been stranded in the way of Allah… Allah is Qadir over all things. (A.Hulusi)

And know that out of all the booty that ye may acquire (in war), a fifth share is assigned to Allah,- and to the Messenger, and to near relatives, orphans, the needy, and the wayfarer,- if ye do believe in Allah and in the revelation We sent down to Our Servant on the Day of Discrimination,- the Day of the meeting of the two forces. For Allah hath power over all things. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Va’lemu ennema ganimtum min shey’in feenne Lillahi humusehu ve lirRasuli And the answer to the first question of the chapter arrives. Until this 41st verse we haven’t got the answer that was asked at the beginning. There were pointers, metaphors and general ideas until now. The moral grounds of believers for things, wealth, human, earth and to themselves. That moral ground has been set but there were never a technical aspect until now, just the basis of the situation, the main stance. And here we see the technical parts now.

And know that out of all the booty that ye may acquire (in war), a fifth share is assigned to Allah,- and to the Messenger ve lizil kurba vel yetama vel mesakiyni vebnissebiyli, here the word vav has the meaning of “so” as in the one fifth share is assigned to Allah and Messenger so to near relatives, orphans, the needy, and the wayfarer.

When we look at Rasulallah’s practice we understand this better. What would Allah do to this one fifth piece of was look. There are many orphans, poors, loners and wayfarers hence the word vebnissebiyl Several translations have been mad efor this word but El Menar takes a totally different path and said, these are sons of paths. As in babies who are left at the road. And by this definitions all children that are left by their parents, orphans basically all in all children of streets by todays terms.

The guardian of all these children are Allah. Because Allah is the guardian of those who have no guardian So from the part that is said here the one fifth, for Allah and Rasulallah they are the owners of these possessions by proxy.

Also Rasulallah to provide for his family is included since he had no occupation to provide, no income and prophets weren’t allowed to take charity. He had never took charity neither let his relatives to accept from others.

So even he dedicated his life to this movement of faith, his part is one fifth of the one fifth. As in one part of 25 parts to Rasulallah and his close relatives. Because all the other groups had their shares as well.

Rasulallah represents the government and he protects the law in the name of government that’s why one fifth goes to Allah and Rasul. So the remaning 4/5, there might be questions of how to share among the warriors of believers now.

in kuntum amentum Billahi ve ma enzelna ala abdina yevmel furkani yevmel tekalcem’an* if you do believe in Allah and in the revelation We sent down to Our Servant on the Day of Discrimination,- the Day of the meeting of the two forces.

What is the meaning of this the day we sent down. Especially the 9,10,11 and 12th verses there was Allah’s promise and we are reminded of them. If you believe in Allah’s promise follow these instructions.

Yevmel Furkan is called here specifically for the Badir battle, this is important. End of an era and beginning of a new one. The revelations sent down that day herald the change, the change that believers are no longer oppressed and be minority but the force to rule. That day history changed its course. By that time there have been no clay idols or false gods raised its head. Heathenism and idolism was buried to the ground that day.

But alas this time people become to idolize themselves or others. Althought the ideol worshipping of those days are long gone, we see other forms of blasphemies in different colors and different tones. So we understand that the verses sent down that day wasn’t about that time period alone but the eternal values are heralded for today and the future as well.

vAllahu ala kulli shey’in Kadiyr For Allah has power over all things.

42-) Iz entum Bil udvetid dunya ve hum Bil udvetil kusva verrekbu esfele minkum* velev teva’adtum lahteleftum fiyl miy’adi ve lakin li yakdiyAllahu emren kane mef’ulen, liyehlike men heleke an beyyinetin ve yahya men hayye an beyyinetin, ve innAllahe leSemiy’un ‘Aliym;

(Remember) when you were on the nearest side and they were on the furthest side… And the caravan was lower than you… Had you made an appointment to meet them you could not have met them in as timely a way! But Allah actualized a matter that was already decreed (there is no coincidence)! So that, both those who perished and those who lived would have lived its requirement, based on the clear verdict of the Truth! Certainly Allah is the Sami, the Aleem. (A.Hulusi)

Remember ye were on the hither side of the valley, and they on the farther side, and the caravan on lower ground than ye. Even if ye had made a mutual appointment to meet, ye would certainly have failed in the appointment: But (thus ye met), that Allah might accomplish a matter already decided; that those who died might die after a Clear Sign (had been given), and those who lived might live after a Clear Sign (had been given). And verily Allah is He Who heareth and knoweth (all things). (A.Yusuf Ali)

Iz entum Bil udvetid dunya ve hum Bil udvetil kusva Here the word “dunya” isnt the “world” as we know it. Here it’s the phrase of valley as in you were in hilter side and they were in farther side.

Dunya means also close, attractive at the same time, simple, low and common. But if we take this sentence geographically it also has this meaning, “You were in Madine side of Badir Valley and they were in Mecca side.

verrekbu esfele minkum and the caravan was far down from you. We are given the locations of three parties here.

velev teva’adtum lahteleftum fiyl miy’ad Even if you had made a mutual appointment to meet, you would certainly have failed in the appointment. See how Allah’s will comes to life. Allah wanted you to face the other battalion and made it possible like many things.

ve lakin li yakdiyAllahu emren kane mef’ul But thus you met, that Allah might accomplish a matter already decided.

liyehlike men heleke an beyyinetin ve yahya men hayye an beyyinetin So that, both those who perished and those who lived would have lived its requirement, based on the clear verdict of the Truth!

There were some translators like Zemahsheri who took the life and death and metaphorically. As in Allah’s will came to life so openly, that Allah has power over all things and this is the clear proof. So whoever wish to believe choose life and whoever want to deny choose death.

Another focus point here is that faith represents life and denial represents death. So whoever chooses denial also chooses to be perished. But I also have an addition to this. I believe the sentence has a clear physical representation as well. Especially the ones who died in Badir Battle witnessed Allah’s will, witnessed the truth and died as they did. In fact it’s like the answer of Abu Cehil’s question we shall see whose side Allah is with. Because he also wished and prayed like that “Whomever Allah is with, shall be granted victory.” This is the record we read. And when he was dying asked about the winner of the battle this was the historical answer of Abdullah Ibn Mesut.

El Hakki ya’lu vela Yu’la aleyh. “Truth (Hakk) is always the superior, no power can prevail over it.”

ve innAllahe leSemiy’un ‘Aliym; For Allah hears all things, knows all things.

43-) Iz yuriykehumullahu fiy menamike kaliyla* velev erakehum kesiyren le feshiltum ve letenaza’tum fiyl emri ve lakinnAllahe sellem* inneHU Aliymun Bi zatis sudur;

Allah showed them to you in your sleep as few… If He had shown them to you as many, surely you would have been discouraged and disputed over it… But Allah emancipated you… Indeed He is Aleem of what is inside you (‘your personal world created in your mind’) as its very essence (with His Names). (A.Hulusi)

Remember in thy dream Allah showed them to thee as few: if He had shown them to thee as many, ye would surely have been discouraged, and ye would surely have disputed in (your) decision; but Allah saved (you): for He knoweth well the (secrets) of (all) hearts. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Iz yuriykehumullahu fiy menamike kaliyla Allah showed them to you in your sleep as few.

velev erakehum kesiyren le feshiltum ve letenaza’tum fiyl emri If He had shown them to you as many, surely you would have been discouraged and disputed over it.

Quite an interesting verse, this one, my dear Qur’an friends. It was mentioning about a dream that Rasulallah had before the Badir Battle. A dream only be know by Rasulallah and his Rabb. And by this verse we learn about it. This wasn’t an ordinary dream, it’s actually the encouragement and calming the heart. This dream shows us how can Allah help people, it’s a great example that we should continue the verse based on this example.

ve lakinnAllahe selleme But Allah emancipated you. How did Allah protect them? A dispute would about to rise about the deed that had to be done. You were about to be frustrated. This was the conclusion. It ultimately changed its course by the dream.

So what did the dream change? It changed the stance of the heart. Not the action but the motive and feeling. That change later reflected to the action. Because if heart feels dread about something, the failure lies there. You cannot muster strength if you cannot believe that you may succeed.

inneHU Aliymun Bi zatis sudur; This expression is important because it’s about the essence of heart. As in “Bi zatis sudur” knows the depths of heart.

This is another important part. Zatis sudur doesn’t about the mind, thoughts and feelings alone it also shows the process of thoughts and feelings. There lies the example by showing Rasulallah the dream, Allah changed the course of flow in Rasulallahs heart. And by that change the actions of Rasulallah automatically changed as well. Had Allah not show Rasulallah the dream then the numbers would come to the front. 300 against 1000. No math can solve a problem so drastic. So Allah’s intervention might seem small but the impact was the ultimate form. Energizing the potential energy, turning it into kynetical form and a historical event followed the process.

Allah knows best that which stance can lead to which action. An action can only be made to the direction of hearts desire. Also the hearts system can only be intervened by Allah. Heart may be know as wild but Allah has the power to tame it. This is a fine example for such occasion.

44-) Ve iz yuriykumuhum izil tekaytum fiy a’yunikum kaliylen ve yukallilukum fiy a’yunihim li yakdiyAllahu emren kane mef’ula* ve ilAllahi turce’ul umur;

And remember when you met them in opposition He showed them to you as few and made you appear to them as few… Thus Allah accomplished a matter already destined! All things will eventually return to Allah. (A.Hulusi)

And remember when ye met, He showed them to you as few in your eyes, and He made you appear as contemptible in their eyes: that Allah might accomplish a matter already decided. And unto Allah are all matters returned. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ve iz yuriykumuhum izil tekaytum fiy a’yunikum kaliylen And remember when you met, He made you feel like you were overestimating them. I choose to translate this sentence like this because they learned from the spy about the enemies numbers, positions and such. Otherwise the literal translation is like this.

Ve iz yuriykumuhum izil tekaytum fiy a’yunikum kaliylen And remember when you met He showed them to you as few and made you appear to them as few. But we already know that Rasulallah had clear intel about the enemy ranks. “They were slaugthering 9-10 camels a day” was the phrase, which means a group with 900 to 1000 men. So here the expression isn’t about a simple illusion but creating the feeling as they were overestimating the enemies power. As in the sheer numbers doesn’t mean anything because there’s nothing for you to be afraid of.

ve yukallilukum fiy a’yunihim and made you appear to them as few… li yakdiyAllahu emren kane mef’ula* Thus Allah accomplished a matter already destined! ve ilAllahi turce’ul umur All things will eventually return to Allah.

45-) Ya eyyuhelleziyne amenu iza lekiytum fieten fesbutu vezkurullahe kesiyren leallekum tuflihun;

O believers! Stand firm (with your faith) when you encounter a group… And engage much in the dhikr (contemplation and remembrance of the forces of the Names comprising your essence) of Allah so you can overcome difficulties and attain salvation. (A.Hulusi)

O ye who believe! When ye meet a force, be firm, and call Allah in remembrance much (and often); that ye may prosper: (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ya eyyuhelleziyne amenu O believers. iza lekiytum fieten fesbutu vezkurullahe kesiyren leallekum tuflihun When you meet a force, be firm, and call Allah in remembrance much and often; that you may prosper.

When you meet a force call Allah in remembrance. Calling Allah here isn’t about a simple verbal repetition. No, make your contact with Allah firm and constant because been connected with Allah constantly a man should draw power from faith when needed. But in addition in assault formation all muslims cries Allah’s name when attacking. It became a historical tradition among the followers of Islam.

46-) Ve etiy’ullahe ve RasuleHU ve la tenaze’u fetefshelu ve tezhebe riyhukum vasbiru* innAllahe me’as sabiriyn;

Obey Allah and His Rasul, and do not dispute with each other or you will lose courage and your wind (strength) will depart… Be patient… Indeed, Allah is with those who are patient through the quality of the Name Sabur. (A.Hulusi)

And obey Allah and His Messenger. and fall into no disputes, lest ye lose heart and your power depart; and be patient and persevering: For Allah is with those who patiently persevere: (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ve etiy’ullahe ve RasuleHU And obey Allah and His Messenger

ve la tenaze’u fetefshelu ve tezhebe riyhukum vasbiru and do not dispute with each other or you will lose courage and your wind (strength) will depart…

ve tezhebe riyhukum is best translated as losing the wind. A literal translation and riyh can also have the meaning of smell. Losing the wind has both literal and metaphorical meanings. From that window it has a wide sense of feelings but we have additional meanings if we add the smell, the odour. If believers begin to dispute with each other noses lose the ability to smell the comforting odour of faith. Hearts become unable to perceive the closeness of belief.

vasbiru* innAllahe me’as sabiriyn and be patient and persevering: For Allah is with those who patiently persevere.

Vasbiru is resistance. So resist. Patience is resistance, against hardships, against all things that you feel bad. Patience is about standing ground of the truth you are on. Patience and resistance is being steady on truth even with all the pressure you endure.

47-) Ve la tekunu kelleziyne harecu min diyarihim betaran ve riaen Nasi ve yesuddune an sebiylillah* vAllahu Bi ma ya’melune Muhiyt;

Do not be like those who leave their homes insolently and to be seen by others and prevent people from the way of Allah! Allah is encompassing of what they do! (A.Hulusi)

And be not like those who started from their homes insolently and to be seen of men, and to hinder (men) from the path of Allah: for Allah compasseth all that they do. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ve la tekunu kelleziyne harecu min diyarihim betaran ve riaen Nasi And be not like those who started from their homes insolently

Surely the Meccan are referred here. The heathen community. They were showing off while exiting the city for battle. They thought they were the winners for sure. A handful of poor people couldn’t be able to dent them. They felt like that because they were unaware of the power of faith, onyl counting heads for battle prowess. But Allah, Allah Bi zatis sudur. Allah knows the depths of hearts.

That’s why they were looking from satans perspective and believers were looking from Allah’s perspective. That’s why Allah were instructing the prophet and the believers via dreams.

Here we also see the same heralding and calm heartness as 10 and 11th verses. There was this word mutmain. Stillness and peace of heart. And in 11th verse emaneten as a phrase for inner peace with self-courage.

In front of all those inner strengths and revitalizors of power, here we see the opposite side. Betaran ve riaen Nas. The opposide, pride, insolence, contempt. They were like viruses that rot the peoples hearts.

ve yesuddune an sebiylillah* and prevent people from the way of Allah. vAllahu Bi ma ya’melune Muhiyt; Allah is encompassing of what they do!

The word muhiyt here used with negative actions ya’melune gains the meaning of negating the actions they had done.

48-) Ve iz zeyyene lehumusheytanu a’malehum ve kale la galibe lekumul yevme minen Nasi ve inniy carun lekum* felemma teraetil fietani nekesa ala akibeyhi ve kale inniy beriyun minkum inniy era ma la teravne inniy ehafullah* vAllahu shediyd’ul ‘ikab;

Satan made their deeds appear alluring to them and said, “No one can overcome you today! Indeed, I am with you”… But when the two armies sighted each other he turned on his heels and said, “Indeed I am not with you! Indeed, I see what you do not see… And indeed, I fear Allah… Allah is Shadid al-Iqab (severe in enforcing the due consequence of an offence).” (A.Hulusi)

Remember Satan made their (sinful) acts seem alluring to them, and said: “No one among men can overcome you this day, while I am near to you”: But when the two forces came in sight of each other, he turned on his heels, and said: “Lo! I am clear of you; lo! I see what ye see not; Lo! I fear Allah. for Allah is strict in punishment.” (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ve iz zeyyene lehumusheytanu a’malehum ve kale Remember Satan made their (sinful) acts seem alluring to them la galibe lekumul yevme minen Nasi ve inniy carun lekum and said: “No one among men can overcome you this day, while I am near to you”

felemma teraetil fietani nekesa ala akibeyhi ve kale But when the two forces came in sight of each other, he turned on his heels inniy beriyun minkum and said: “Look. I am clear of you; look!  inniy era ma la teravne I see what you see not.

If satan is your guide, this is bound to happen. Says Qur’an. inniy era ma la teravne I see what you see not. inniy ehafullah And indeed, I fear Allah.

Satan admits his fear from Allah. Think about it. There are people who feel no fear for Allah it’s like people even satan should be careful around really exist. That’s why I think.

vAllahu shediyd’ul ‘ikab; for Allah is strict in punishment.

Related to 47th verse, pride, insolence and contempt is all the works of satan made from instincts of men. This is truth, if you turn your eyes from Allah’s perspective and look for satans eyes, you are fooled and bounded for the consequences.

“Ve ahiru davana velil hamdulillahi rabbil alemiyn” (Jonah/10) “Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the Worlds!” All products of our claims, causes and lives are for Allah and our last word to our Allah is “Hamd”.

“Esselamu aleykum.”

 
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Yazan: 01 Haziran 2021 in QUR'AN

 

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