I’m starting this tafsir lesson with expressing my gratitude to Allah for gathering us here. And I’m doing my “Hamd”, since Allah talked to humanity and sent down His revelations as a product of mercy for humans. Allah’s revelations are the guidance themselves. And now we will continue moving forward with these verses which are the clear evidences and proofs of guidance. Todays lesson starts with 187th verse of Al-Baqarah.
187-) Uhille lekum leyletesSiyamirrefesu ila nisaikum* hunne libasun lekum ve entum libasun lehunne, alimAllahu ennekum kuntum tahtanune enfusekum fetabe aleykum ve ‘afa ankum* fel’ane bashiruhunne vebtegu ma ketebAllahu lekum* ve kulu veshrebu hatta yetebeyyene lekumul haytul’ ebyedu minel haytil’esvedi minel fecr* summe etimmusSiyame ilelleyl* ve la tubahiruhunne ve entum ‘akifune fiyl mesacid* tilke hududullahi fela takrebuha* kezalike yubeyyinullahu ayatihi linNasi leallehum yettekun;
It has been made permissible for you to approach (unite with) your wives on the nights preceding fasting. You are their garments and they are your garments (the most intimate person in one’s worldly life.) Allah knows that you have been unjust to yourselves (by abstaining from sexual relations throughout the nights) and accepted your repentance and forgave you. So approach them in accord with Allah’s creed. Eat and drink until the day begins (the break of twilight) then experience Siyam (fasting) until the night. Do not approach your wives while you are in retreat in the masjids. These are the limitations Allah puts, so do not go near them. Thus, Allah explains His signs so that you may be protected. (A.Hulusi)
Permitted to you, on the night of the fasts, is the approach to your wives. They are your garments and ye are their garments. Allah knoweth what ye used to do secretly among yourselves; but He turned to you and forgave you; so now associate with them, and seek what Allah Hath ordained for you, and eat and drink, until the white thread of dawn appear to you distinct from its black thread; then complete your fast till the night appears; but do not associate with your wives while ye are in retreat in the mosques. Those are limits (set by) Allah. Approach not nigh thereto. Thus doth Allah make clear His Signs to men: that they may learn self-restraint. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Uhille lekum leyletesSiyamirrefesu ila nisaikum Approaching to your wives on the nights of fasting are permitted to you. hunne libasun lekum ve entum libasun lehunne They are your garments and you are their garments.
This wonderful expression can only be found in a celestial speech. They are your garments and you are theirs. As in; as woman and man you are the halves of a sphere in life. Life makes you a whole. When you become one, life becomes one. Be in the realization of you are two parts of a whole.
Qur’an says, “a cover like a garment”. Libas. Cloth. Dress. What’s a garment? Everything covering a humans body. Also at the same time, thing that covers the ugly things. Because clothes make a person beautiful. In this verse, there are signs of how a family, a happy family should be build, what foundations a happy family should rise upon. O, you cornerstones who are building a family; be yourselves garments. Cover each others shames like a dress. Don’t just stand with that. Make each others more beautiful like garments.
Of course there’s also a metaphoric aspect of this. And that expression holds a meaning of, put each others onto your hearts. Get dressed with each others. What’s the meaning of this? It’s closeness, fondness. This is the meaning of “ulfet”.
This verse is a fasting related verse with the passage which resides in. So you might say, “Why there’s an expression like that in a fasting related verse?” In order to understand the answer for this question, we should look for the reason of arrival for this verse, and that’s this;
In Jewish traditions, fasting was an action of 24 hours. One iftar (fasting dinner) was made and other than that, there was no food or drink or intercourse. So affected by these actions, the Muslims of Madina got the impression of fastings ritual was this. Wondering, these kind of restrictions included them too. So this verse sent down to clear that impression and in Muhammad’s (p.b.u.h) law; it was told people that the fasting action begins with dawn, with the sunset and ends with dusk, with the sundown. Here in this verse a tradition is revised and Allah’s blessing and mercy is reminded to true believers one more time.
In my previous lesson I said fasting is not the starvation of body, but the sustenance of soul. So if you ask, what’s this “skin” pleasure doing here, if the fasting is all about the education of ego and the teaching humility to soul, if fasting is the sustenance of soul, then why is there bodily pleasures doing in this journey to the depths of human soul. I say; “Allah gives the family its natural needs even in worshippings.” As in even in the process of a deed for gaining Allah’s blessing, there’s no obstacles in families inner fondness and closeness. That’s why Allah allows us to continue our family interactions except the day hours, hours of fastings happenings. So fasting becomes an activity, a journey made by entire family. A family journey to the heart. Moving on…
alimAllahu ennekum kuntum tahtanune enfusekum fetabe aleykum Allah knows that you have been unjust to yourselves and accepted your repentance and forgave you. fetabe aleykum Accepted your repentances.
This sentence is about the reason of arrival for this verse. Because if the fasting duty is set for 24 hours and the true believers fastings last 30 days, this situation may present some difficulties for true believers especially in their family interactions. Jews fastings are 1 or 3 days long fastings which they do that in the day ashura. But muslims are ordered to do their fastings for 30 days, not a short period for uncut fastings. That’s why Allah showed His blessings to true believers again and gave this part of the verse to ease difficulties.
ve ‘afa ankum Allah removed the hardness over you. Not just acting with forgiveness, removing the hardship too. As in, not just forgive you about the faults you have done so far, also making celestial adjustments for you not to feel the same struggle again.
fel’ANe basiruhunne vebtegu ma ketebAllahu lekum So approach them. You can be with your wives/husbands again and benefit from what Allah has ordained for you. vebtegu ma ketebAllahu lekum Literal meaning; seek what Allah has ordained for you.
Look at this expression. The intercourse between woman and man, every interactions between genders are put to words as, seeking what Allah has ordained for us in Qur’an within the limits of legal. This means, you cannot exclude Allah from human actions and interactions. Being unable to exclude Allah’s presence from human actions means this. Allah saying; “O human, there’s no business you can exclude me, that’s why start with besmele for every legal action you decide to do. Besmele is; officially including Allah to your actions, making something alongside with Allah.”
ve kulu veshrebu hatta yetebeyyene lekumul haytul’ ebyedu minel haytil’esvedi minel fecr Eat and drink until the day begins, then do your fastings until the night.
Here, in this part the timeline is established with clear limits. The order set in the Moses (p.b.u.h) sheria, the law before, had been changed and the new timeline was set for Muhammads (p.b.u.h) sheria. A new and more tolerable start and end zone for fasting duties.
This times as you know the time of dawn which is also translated like this by our prophet too. A hadith we see in Buhari and Muslim;
-Don’t be fooled by Bilal’s ezan (pray-calling) (As in don’t stop eating or drinking.) You may eat or drink until Ummu Mektum’s ezan.
Also another variation we see in Muslim;
–Don’t be fooled by Bilal’s ezan, the start of fasting is not the time of this light, it’s this time of daylight.
With that hadith, he showed the Fecr-i Sadik, (Second dawn), instead of Fecr-i Kazib (First dawn). With first dawn; light seems to appear from East vertically but it passes. A darkness follows it for a while. Then the daylight begins to appear slowly and horizontally.
But in translation of this verse and hadiths, the first community had different comments. And in the lights of those comments, different applications had been made. Some of the true believers said, the starting point of fasting must be the time period of illumination of mountains, roads and fields. They chose the say; “If you step up to a high ground and look around, eating and drinking is allowed until you see every road, mountain and field clearly.”
But some others, including Caliphs Abu-Bekir and Ali, saw the starting time as the time of morning ezan. There are also genuine stories about Ali and Abu-Bekir that they sometimes ate (made sahur) after making their morning prays.
But there are famous islamic law imams and scholars have similar comments and their points are more close to ours. They already took precaution first and suggested that about this matter, you should be most cautious as well.
Of course caution is good. But if a true believer chooses to eat or drink, before even one minute before morning ezan, his fasting is legit. Approved fasting, this should be known. But it’s appropriate to choose the cautious road and stick to the first dawn, just to be on the safe side. I also think, there are some mandatory needs for the morning prays following the ezan; like abdest (cleaning) preparations, a safe time period for gusul abdest (whole body ablution). I believe these mandatory, religious and important needs for preparations are most worthy of being cautious.
ve la tubashiruhunne ve entum ‘akifune fiyl mesacid Again do not approach your wives while you are in retreat in the masjids, while you are in itikaf.
If I remember correctly, I explained the Itikaf in the verse 128 of Al-Baqarah. Itikaf means, giving your whole time to Allah. As in choosing a time period in your life and giving it to Allah as a whole. You may ask; “Does Allah need our time?” No. Actually itikaf holds a meaning of a journey to your own heart. A journey to yourselves.
Itikaf is a reenactment of Hira. That’s why our prophet chose to enter itikaf every last 10 days of Ramadan in his whole life. Even with the intention of entering itikaf, 2 hours of meditation holds this essence. Even for a small period of 2 hours. But our prophet always did that in the last 10 days of Ramadan. 1 year, he was unable to do that, and he made up for that later. Take in mind that, Rasulallah never took such an action like that for nafile duties (not ordered by Allah duties). So you can understand the importance of itikaf from that.
Like I said, itikaf is a journey to yourselves, your hearts. Itikaf means, turning a masjid to a school, a barracks, an education center for heart. Itikaf means, carrying the Rasulallah’s Hira to true believers lives. For that itikaf must took place in true believers lives as a nebevi sunnet. (a deed type directly comes from Rasulallah). This must be turned to a campain of inner education.
So Qur’an says; you cannot approach to your wives in that time period. Because in the journey for your heart, a skin pleasure holds no place.
tilke hududullahi fela takrebuha These are the limitations Allah puts, the boundries. So do not go near them.
Be careful. The verse doesn’t say “don’t cross them.” It says “Don’t go near them.” When Allah sets boundries and if these boundries are for preventing negative potential, the order usually comes with this “Don’t go near them.” order. Why? Because approaching means, entering the dangerous zone, and every second there is a risk. That’s why, ictenibu anishufeha Avoiding suspicious things are staying out of danger zone. Avoid suspicious things, this is an advise from our prophet as a follow-up to this verse. Just like Ve la takrabuzzina.. (Isra/32) the verse saying; “Don’t go near fornication. Not “Don’t do fornication.”, it’s all about, “Don’t approach it.” There are some middle zones set in Qur’an for dangerous acts, so that people can avoid them and don’t fall into the risk.
kezalike yubeyyinullahu ayatihi linNasi leallehum yettekun; Thus, Allah explains His signs. Why? leallehum yettekun; so that you may be protected. Maybe they realize their responsibilities, maybe they hold on to their responsible state of mind.
So, there is a purpose behind these restrains. Allah doesn’t feel joy by putting restrictions to humans, more accurately, these restrictions set for humans don’t give anything to Allah. So how should we understand these then? The restrictions set for humans have things that humans can benefit from. As in, those restrictions are for the happiness of human. These are the adjustments set by Allah for humans.
And there’s a reason for this restriction too. Allah never says; “I drew this line, so you will follow without questioning.”, instead Allah teaches us a method. Persuading us. What if it doesn’t work? Nothing. Allah orders and we worshippers do, simple is that. But Allah wants to tell us this.
“Look, even I’m Allah, I try to persuade you. I give you reasons for you to understand and confirm. Don’t force each others about this. Since you are humans, don’t force something to someone without reaching his mind and logic, without giving a reason and convince them.”
Actually there’s a pattern here. leallehum yettekun; Hopefully they will be armored with responsibility. This is the problem. That’s why all these restrictions and orders. That’s why all these celestial adjustments. So that we may gain and hold our responsibilities. What happens when we do that? We reach three things.
So tell me, what more do you need when you reach these three things? If your freedom, your security and your eternal joy and happiness are all secured, what more can you even possible want? Of course these three things are not for the dimension of earth, these are guarenteed for your eternal dimension. Eternal happiness, security and freedom.
188-) Ve la te’kulu emvalekum beynekum Bil batili ve tudlu Biha ilelhukkami lite’kulu feriykan min emvalinNasi Bil ismi ve entum ta’lemun;
Do not consume the goods between you in a manner that goes against the truth. And do not deliberately run to the rulers to unjustly consume the goods of others, even though you know otherwise. (A.Hulusi)
And do not eat up your property among yourselves for vanities, nor use it as bait for the judges, with intent that ye may eat up wrongfully and knowingly a little of (other) people’s property. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve la te’kulu emvalekum beynekum Bil batili Now the verse moves on to another topic. But as usual, even we cannot see the entire picture of similarity, there’s surely a connection. And that connection is this. Fasting is a truth about a man eating or using his own belongings, now we are talking about eating and using other peoples belongings. There are some regulations on this matter too. Orders and restrictions about possessions, about eating, drinking, winning and spending things.
The verdict about having your own possessions was processed above. But there’s a matter of eating, spending other peoples belongings. Another verdict and it’s this. Ve la te’kulu emvalekum beynekum Bil batili Do not consume the goods between you illegally. I translated batil (superstitious) as illegally because in arabic language batil means, a thing without a response, an action without regulations.
Interesting, is it not? As the thing you earn without gaining it. Every profit you gain without paying a price is considered illegal. We should explain it with two basic manners of “Without right” and “Without consent”. Having right and consent are the two basic manners to legitimate the gain. There’s a saying; “A bite without a consent is a sin.” A gain without having a right is this. So right and consent legitimates the gain.
Ve la te’kulu emvalekum beynekum Bil batili Do not consume the goods between you illegally. Actually goods between you, emvalekum beynekum It’s possible to translate this as, don’t eat yourselves belongings amongst you. But what I really want to point out is; “Yourselves belongings.” This is a proof of Islam for personal possessions license. That’s a fact.
This is a permission for private belongings, having something solely for your own is accepted at first hand. But there’s more message here. What you already possesses should be considered as having other peoples rights with them as well. If you become violent and start to usurp, extort others things, then these won’t stay with you any longer. A person having things illegally, eating things filled with sins, doesn’t just harm himself. What he eats at the first place is someone elses belongings, its other peoples rights. So he at least harms two people. One, himself and the other is the one who he forcely robbed, at least.
Not to mention the harm he does to society. Because friends, there’s a tight connection between your foods, drinks actions, beliefs, manners and behaviours. You may ask here now; “Can you prove this?” I can’t. But Allah proves this and life witnesses. Look at yourselves, look around, look at other peoples lives and you may notice this. I cannot put this concept into lab but if we have a device, able to seperate sin and cleansed (halal) from each other, we would see just like that. If we have a device able to do this seperation, then when we look at a boiled rice dish with sin and we would only see every rice like they are small worms.
Then maybe some people couldn’t put something to eat in their mouths for their entire life. But we cannot see that. But we understand this fact from Allah’s restriction about this matter, how a gain from sin, affects a persons behaviours, his heart and mind, his emotions and thoughts, his beliefs.
A sin-filled bits don’t stay still inside a person. Because these don’t just affects human psychology. Since that effect is a constant and proved by science. In fact I mentioned it in one of my previous tafsir lessons.
I read a study made in USA about this subject. About the effect of fast food, hamburger and cheeseburger over US citizens. The psychological effects over human biology of beef is a fact, revealed recently. But that conclusion begged a question, “So Americans become more and more like cows, mentally and spiritually?” That was an interesting conclusion. The researchers who study the effects of foods over behaviours reached a conclusion and reported it as “Yes, this great danger should be expected.”
This is only one aspect of this matter. Now think about this situations reflection over a persons beliefs, his relation with Allah, his connections between celestials, his behaviours to himself. So about the regulations and adjustments over eating and drinking, we should see this as Allah knows very well the after effects of this even you and I, people haven’t reached the same conclusions yet. We have to think that as true believers.
ve tudlu Biha ilelhukkami lite’kulu feriykan min emvalinNasi Bil ismi ve entum ta’lemun; A long sentence. We should start the translation from the end part. And do not deliberately use the cheats of law to unjustly consume peoples belongings. This is an approximate meaning. It’s not a throughly tafsir. Just a style of expression.
Here, ve tudlu Biha ilelhukkami is a reference for administrators, the ones in charge. Judges. Don’t reach for judges. tudlu Bih means bucket. feedla delveh. (Jonah/19) it’s an expression we are familiar with in Qur’an, holding a bucket. So what’s the metaphors purpose here? The bribery given to judges. State cannot have anything in its possession; that’s a wrong statement. Even all those things are actually belong to people, state have a hold of all things, so, holding a bucket, lowering a bucket to well, to state property. This is what means to be said here. In a beautiful expression of Gazali; “Lowering a bucket is a possibility.” Why would you lower a bucket to a well? To draw water. So why would you lower a bucket to state property? To draw possessions from there of course.
It’s a reference most scholars agreed upon it’s meaning for bribery. So the verse gains a meaning like this. Don’t bribe the judges in charge, for intentionally eating other peoples possessions. Don’t bribe judges, adminstrators or whoever in charge. This is banned here, Don’t apply to formal cheatings.
The real message wants to be given here is this. By fitting in its track and legitimate things, doesn’t means it’s considered halal (pure), If something doesn’t belong to you but you find a way to justify yourself by the state law, doesn’t make that thing yours, it’s still considered a sin.
“State gives us permission, if it’s considered a sin, could the state gives us pass in this situation?” This is a rotten logic. If you find a loop hole in laws or bribe the lawmakers in your country to justify your stealing and sucked all those state properties, do you really think it would be all good in Allah’s presence? If you find a way through sin, does this act justify your gains in celestial scales? Who can possible say that? If that’s true, wouldn’t all those robbers, thiefs and corruptors justified? Today all those, usurpers of state property, all those fake bankrupters; they don’t take thinks illegally. Their actions are totally legit. They are officially, legally stealing. So if your actions of stealing are legal, do you honestly think Allah will surely think the same way? On the contrary, it’s a double layered thievery. One layer is the old thievery act, the second one is, opening a way of thievery by law for further sins and corruptions. This is injustice on many aspects, that’s why the message is clear here.
I don’t want to dwell on the definitions of bribery here. The religious aspect of bribery is this. Illegally, through sin, taking something that doesn’t belong to you and paying someone for justifying your actions. That’s the definition. I believe it’s accurate and sufficent as it is important.
So this is a social scar, a common problem in our societies today. But you might say; “It’s our right to have, our job is not illegal and yet the person who is supposed to do it, who is tasked to do it, wants an illegal compensation, an extra incitement. What should we do then?” I gave you the definition of bribery just now. Giving money, paying the price for legitimate an action which is supposed to be illegal. In that case, both sides, giver and taker are in sin. But your case, you are searching your own rights. Your searching is not illegal and yet the person, the bureaucrat in front of you has this nasty habit. He wants an extra fee for the task he was already tasked to do. A bribe-eater so to speak. In that case, your giving is not considered a sin. We cannot say this for the opposite side however.
189-) Yes’eluneke anil ehilleh* kul hiye mevakiytu linNasi velHacc* ve leysel birru Bi en te’tul buyute min zuhuriha ve lakinnel birra menitteka* ve’tul buyute min ebvabiha* vettekullahe leallekum tuflihun;
They ask you about the phases of the moon (the lunar calendar). Say, “These (determining the times of worship via the lunar calendar) are the measurements for the benefit of people and for Hajj. Experiencing the essence of the reality (albirra) is not to enter houses from the back door (the indirect route to the truth), but to enter from the front door (the direct and short way) in order to be of the protected ones. Protect yourselves from Allah so that you may be enlightened. (A.Hulusi)
They ask thee concerning the New Moons. Say: They are but signs to mark fixed periods of time in (the affairs of) men, and for Pilgrimage. It is no virtue if ye enter your houses from the back: It is virtue if ye fear Allah. Enter houses through the proper doors: And fear Allah. That ye may prosper. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Yes’eluneke anil ehilleh Another topic and other interesting connections now. Yes’eluneke anil ehilleh They ask you about the phases of moon. In literal meaning it’s crescent moons. But I’d like to give the meaning to the word ehille basing on a hadith relevant to this verse.
We ran into a story in several sources when we asked the origin of this question. The reason of arrival for this verse. Two people from the community came to Rasulallah said;
– O Rasulallah. The moon rises like a tiny thread, then becomes thicker, turns into a full moon, then again turns into its former self and disappear.
It’s not weird that people living in that time period have curiosity over the phases of the moon. First of all the people on that landscape have passion over sky, desert folks, naturally have affinity for sky. Second; they are compelled so, since they find their ways with the signs of sky. How can you travel in desert otherwise? That’s why they are very familiar with moon, stars, The North Star and Sun. Especially with moon because at nights the moon is like a natural lantern for desert people, also it’s considered as a sky object that helps them find their ways.
It’s also a calendar, which peaks their curiosity even further because all debts are basing on that calendar. Desert people organizes their days, weeks and months, every calculations and organizations according to moon calendar. Because sun has no aspect as a calendar for desert people, since it has no phases. Of course there are some homes and zodiacs which explains the seasons but the sun is no moon. That’s why they follow moon to figure out the day, which day of month. Moon is a natural and compelled calendar for the folks of desert.
That’s it? There are some other things for moon. Moon is a sky object that can effect the ground. Tidal waves, the coloring of fruits. Not just that, moon has also personal affairs with humans. Periods of women. There’s a strange relation between moon and the men. So it’s no strange that they have curiosity over something which has so many functions, that’s why they asked about it. Of course one of these functions is the superstitious beliefs, wrong faiths and twisted thoughts about the moon over the people of that region. They have some inclinations for idolizing or giving a position of demigod over moon which has so many aspects over their lives.
So if we considered this situation from that window, we understand about the question asked to Rasulallah, the people were asking obut the phases of the moon. Of course you might ask; was the prophet, the go to person in that matter? He was no astronomer, why does this question asked to the prophet? This verse gives you the answer for this.
kul hiye mevakiytu linNasi velHacc The verse gives an answer differently. They were asking something else, according to the verse; Tell them. These are the measurements for the affairs of people. It’s a tool for measuring the time for people. And the time of Hacc. It gives us this answer and continues.
ve leysel birru Bi en te’tul buyute min zuhuriha It’s no virtue for entering a house from behind. ve lakinnel birra menitteka But the real virtue is the position of a man who knows the responsibility for Allah, that’s the real virtue and merit.
Why this expression now? First as metaphorically;
-Humans, This is not the question you should as to prophet, don’t enter a house from behind, don’t hold the weeds from above, there’s a door so don’t try to enter a building from chimney. This is not your problem, there are many other questions you should ask, many other issues you should solve. Since you found the prophet, ask them. This was a question for people who have specific knowledge for sky, a question for a specialist, for people who have technical information for that particular matter.
ve’tul buyute min ebvabiha Continues. Then enter houses from their doors.
vettekullahe leallekum tuflihun; Fear Allah as you should be and have the consciousness of responsibility to Allah. Maybe then you shall find the eternal salvation.
The expressions of entering a house from back or from a chimney and entering a house from its door; those are definitely relevant with the asked questions. But there are some who took the literal meaning of these expressions and they are based on a story like this.
A group called hums. In the region of Mecca. Actually all people were considered within two groups. Hille and hums. Hille (or without perks;) they are the ones who live outside the harem area zone. Harem area. They were also calling the ones who aren’t allies with Mecca and Kureysh as Hille. As it was; the grounds outside the harem zone is called hill. So naturally the ones who live inside the harem zone considered themselves as with perks. So they were called hums.
This division somewhat considered as this meaning. The ones who are close to Allah and those who don’t. In the times of darkness, before Rasulallah; they were labeling themselves like this. “Kaaba is in our lands, so we are close to Allah.” That’s why they weren’t staying in Araphat, they were standing in an area outside the Araphat zone, since they were in thoughts of we are among those who are special. So; “Hille; outsiders should stay on Araphat. But we are from Mecca, we are from Kureysh so we need special treatment.” That’s how they seperated their clans.
When those hums are doing their pilgrimage and wear the garment of Ihram, to show their special position, to show off; or to be specific to show their so-called empty religious behaviours around; the were entering their houses from back doors or from the upper, chimney like doors; instead of their normal ways when they were in garments. Considering this happenings; the verses literal meaning can be covered with these actions. But I believe we should take the metaphorical meaning from this verse and translate it as; “O people, ask a question to its specialists. Ask your questions to the people you might get the proper answer. When asking a question, know well who you are getting an answer from.”
[Additional Info: The back doors of your houses of hearts. It’s not a good behaviour to enter your hearts from the doors of your material feelings and bodily instincts.Because the back side of the heart is the door opens to body. But the real good behaviour, the real goodness is the behaviours of those who are protected. The behaviours of the people who are avoiding the interests of his senses, the imaginations of dreams and chaos of his egos. Enter the houses from their proper doors. The door which opens to the side of soul. The real door of heart opens to the path of Hakk. Fear Allah and avoid the things which hold you back from Allah. (Ibn. Arabi-Tevilat)]
190-) Ve katilu fiy sebiylillahilleziyne yukatilunekum ve la ta’tedu* innAllahe la yuhibbul mu’tediyn;
And with those who fight to kill you, fight in the way of Allah (defend your right to live). Do not transgress. Indeed, Allah does not like the transgressors. (A.Hulusi)
Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for Allah loveth not transgressors. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve katilu fiy sebiylillahilleziyne yukatilunekum ve la ta’tedu Fight (in the cause of Allah) those who fight you, but do not transgress limits. innAllahe la yuhibbul mu’tediyn; Allah does not like the transgressors.
The speech comes to war, a war related verse arrived and the first sentence is a principle maker. Can you imagine? A time period that no rules were applied to war, battles without bundries; and Qur’an limits humans about their enemies. It says war doesn’t justify everything. If you are in war with others, that doesn’t mean you can do whatever you want to them. Qur’an says them with an attitude of a celestial book. Because it’s the speech of Allah, Qur’an brings the law of war, the etiquette of battles and even in death; Qur’an says; Don’t transgress. Don’t go overboard. ve la ta’tedu Fight in the name of Allah, against those who fight you.
According to a thought, based on this verse; war can only be done in defensive situations, because the verse says; fight those who fight you. But that mean this. Islam only allows defensive battles, you cannot attack anyone else. No, that’s not the case. There are several other verses in Qur’an about offensive wars too. But their wheres and whens may differ from each others. Those decisions can only be taken by the will of leadership. That’s why some people indicates that in war related verses, some verses revokes others.
For example; This verse is revoked by other verses that orders the attack. That’s not true at all. There may be times that a defensive battle becomes mandatory, and there may be times that the war must be in attack form. The situation may change with time, space, opportunity and background. That’s why there may be times that this verses orders must be carried and other times, other verses orders must be followed. Why should we suppose to think like that?
Some people think like this. The verses which allows the war, revokes the previous 100 verses that advises peace, forgiveness, patience. Revokes… How can we think like this? Neither a war related verse revokes the beautiful verses which advises forgiveness and patience, welcomes the people and offers a path to people which welcomes them to Islam with peace; nor a defensive war related verse is revoked by other offensive battle related verses. All verses have a background, a time and an opportunity that we can relate them.
There are times of invitations, there are times of patience and there are times of war. All those times are decided by the leaders of true believers. That’s why it’s not true to evaluate these verses in limited frames.
191-) Vaktuluhum haysu sekiftumuhum ve ahricuhum min haysu ahrecukum vel fitnetu esheddu minel katl* ve la tukatiluhum ‘indelMescidil Harami hatta yukatilukum fiyh* fein katelukum faktuluhum* kezalike cezaul kafiriyn;
Kill them wherever you catch them (in the cause of defending your right to live). Expel them from where they have expelled you! Fitnah (provocation) is more severe (a crime) than killing (a man). Do not fight near the Masjid al-Haram unless they fight you there. But if they try to kill you, then kill them. Such is the recompense of those who deny the truth. (A.Hulusi)
And slay them wherever ye catch them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out; for persecution and oppression are worse than slaughter; but fight them not at the Sacred Mosque, unless they (first) fight you there; but if they fight you, slay them. Such is the reward of those who suppress faith. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Vaktuluhum haysu sekiftumuhum ve ahricuhum min haysu ahrecukum Kill them wherever you catch them. The order is clear. ve ahricuhum min haysu ahrecukum Expel them from where they have expelled you. vel fitnetu esheddu minel katl If you ask for the reason, that’s why. The oppression and tyrany; the oppression and tyrany against faith is more intense than killing.
What’s fitne (sedition)? I choose to translate this word as oppression and tyrany against faith, because that’s the true meaning here, that’s what’s meant here. Every oppression and tyrany against the freedom of faith is considered as fitne.
In literal meaning fitne means, melting gold chunk to extract the sediments from pure gold. It’s the purification process of gold. So if a person is tested, he can be purified as gold. That’s the sedition here. For a person to be tested by Allah, to be put in a situation to defend for his faith against oppression, to be put in fire in order to be purified.
Of course this process has another meaning and it’s this. Your worth will be revealed. It will reveal your carat value. If your sediments are more than your worth, than your value is low and you will fall into this fitne. And yes, if your gold is pure, than what can more fire do to you; only you will rise more pure and more strong than ever.
In that sense, the reason of this struggle, this oppression and tyrany is put in a situation more dire and worse than killing, murder. That’s why this verse arrived.
We can understand it like this.
1.A true believers convertion to blasphemy under oppression is a worse fate than his demise. We understand it from vel fitnetu esheddu minel katl expression. It’s a true point of view, as in a true believers abandoning his faith under pressure is worse than dying. He says, “I wish I die like Ammar bin Yasin (first martyr).”
2. How can we understand? Putting a true believer in a situation like this, putting him under such oppression and tyrany is, making him worse than dying. We can take the verse from the angle of tyrant. It’s worse than killing them.
3. How can we interpret the situation? Putting oppression against faith and thoughts is a violation of humans first and fundamental rights, his first basic right of belief. So every move, threat and pressure against a persons right of believe, his faith is a worse act than killing. Says Qur’an.
Why? Becase what truly gives the meaning of humanity to a person is his faith. So by making oppressions to humans faith, by turturing him in a spiritual level, by destroying his freedom, you also destroy his lifes meaning. And a life without a meaning is more worse than being murdered. A person who is murdered, is considered dead. But a living person who has no purpose, no meaning in his life; it’s a worse fate than death. Because there would be no need, no value of living for him. Dying for a cause, for a meaning is far more valuable than living an empty life. I believe the meaning is clearer now.
ve la tukatiluhum ‘indelMescidil Harami hatta yukatilukum fiyh Do not fight near the Masjid al-Haram, in that sacred grounds that Allah blessed you with, unless they fight you there.
This is important. This sentence is explaining the first sentence of this same verse. If we try to understand this verse without this sentence, we would fall into wrong. How was the first sentence of the verse? Vaktuluhum haysu sekiftumuhum Kill them wherever you catch them. What’s the speech turns to right after that? Do not fight near the Masjid al-Haram unless they fight you there.
So the self-defense against the attackers is allowed. Self-defense, defending your life against an attack is allowed, hence the name. It’s your natural right to destroy a threat against your own life. So at that point, it’s only natural to defend your faiths against a similar threat. Qur’an takes all forms of threats against your lives meanings and your faiths; a threat against your own lives, a threat to be dealt with.
fein katelukum faktuluhum But if they fight you, slay them. Says Qur’an. kezalike cezaul kafiriyn; Such is the reward of those who suppress faith. Simple as that. No need for further translation. This verse draws the line of limitations for true believers against those who do all those oppressions and tyrany against their faiths. Moving on.
192-) Feinintehev feinnAllahe Gafurun Rahiym;
If they cease (what they do) then indeed Allah is the Ghafur and the Rahim. (A.Hulusi)
But if they cease, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Feinintehev feinnAllahe Gafurun Rahiym If they cease…! You see, if they stop their hostilities…! Pay attention to this. The verse doesn’t say, if they show their faiths; it’s not about turning into muslims. If they cease their activities against you, if they stop making suppressions against your faiths; then, Feinintehev feinnAllahe Gafurun Rahiym Allah is Often-Forgiving and Most Merciful. So let them be at that point. This is an important part. This verse explains and tafsirs the verse right above.
193-) Ve katiluhum hatta la tekune fitnetun ve yekuned diynu Lillah* feinintehev fela ‘udvane illa alezzalimiyn;
Fight them until the fitnah (the pressure to make you give up your faith) is lifted and you are able to practice the religion of Allah as you like. If they cease (pressuring and fighting), there is no hostility except against the wrongdoers. (A. Hulusi)
And fight them on until there is no more persecution or oppression, and the religion becomes Allah’s. But if they cease. Let there be no hostility except to those who practice oppression. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve katiluhum hatta la tekune fitnetun ve yekuned diynu Lillah Again a verse that we should explain carefully. And fight them on until the religion becomes Allah’s. But what was the sentence saying just now? Feinintehev if they cease, you cease as well. We already understand it as just. But here it says fight them on until the religion becomes Allah’s. And yet the verse doesn’t end there, what’s the following part says to us? Feinintehev Again this word arrives. feinintehev fela ‘udvane illa alezzalimiyn; If they cease, then there is no hostility except against the wrongdoers.
We cannot understand this second sentence independent from the first sentence here. If we try to block the path between these two sentence, the meaning comes out wrong. So fight them until the religion becomes Allah’s doesn’t mean this fight them until everyone becomes a muslim. No, this is against sunnetullah (Allah’s way). Lots of verses says this fact. “If Allah wishes everyone of them becomes muslim…” You can find several of this statements in Qur’an in different expressions.
That’s why the meaning here is not fighting until every person becomes a muslim. The sentence here Feinintehev feinnAllahe Gafurun Rahiym means removing the obstacles between human and Islam. That’s the real meaning of Jihad.
Feinintehev If they cease, if they stop their acts against your beliefs, fela ‘udvane illa alezzalimiyn; Don’t show hostility anymore, except against the wrongdoers.
There’s an exception here. It says, “Give the punishments of those who are doing the real tyrany. Basing on this license, after the Battle Of Badir, Rasulallah made an example to the enemy. Some captives are ransomed to teach 10 muslims reading and writing for his freedom. And for those who have nothing, Muhammad says; “You go free, then.” and release them without having any compensation. But not two of the captives. He didn’t accept the ransom from them because they were in the content of this verse. They had their punishments in full and sentenced to death because they were the real suppressors in this battle, they made the tyrany and by that they had what they did for.
Again one of the applications of this verse happened in the conquest of Mecca. Rasulallah announced an amnesty after the conquest. The group which would be in the content of amnesty wasn’t a muslim one. So they were waiting in front of Kaaba for their sentence. Rasulallah asked;
– How do you know me…!
-“You are a son of a gracious mother and a gracious father.” They were
the enemies of Rasulallah until that very day, very hour in fact.
The answer of Rasulallah was this;
– Iz hebu fe entum tu leka..! Go then, I release you. I’m letting you go, you are free now. I won’t do you anything.
That was the general amnesty of Rasulallah. But there were some who are excluded from this amnesty. 17 of them according to the records. All of those were the direct wrong-doers against faith. They were the ones who are fighting directly against Allah. 6 of them were poets and they were representing the press of those days. 3 of them were executed. Other 3 apologized and forgiven. Rest of them just ran away to different locations. So basing on the translation of this verse, this was the Rasulallah’s practice for sentencing.
194-) Eshehrulharamu Bishehrilharami vel hurumatu kisas* femeni’teda aleykum fa’tedu aleyhi Bi misli ma’teda aleykum* vettekullahe va’lemu ennAllahe ma’almuttekiyn;
The sacred month of one is as the sacred month of another, in respecting this, fairness must be observed. So, whoever transgresses their boundaries (during this period) and attacks you, attack them back in the same proportion! Protect yourselves from Allah and know well that Allah is with those who are protected. (A.Hulusi)
The prohibited month for the prohibited month,- and so for all things prohibited,- there is the law of equality. If then any one transgresses the prohibition against you, transgress ye likewise against him. But fear Allah, and know that Allah is with those who restrain themselves. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Eshehrulharamu Bishehrilharami vel hurumatu kisas In non-aggression (truce) months, the proper answer for attackers is, non-aggression. I choose to translate the prohibited month as non-aggression because that’s what they are. The time period that all fights are restricted, all battles are forbidden.
The message here is this. The proper response to non-aggression months is truce. vel hurumatu kisasu truce is mutual, so is the respect. As an example; In the year of Hudeybiye, Rasulallah departed from Madina to Mecca for making his Hacc duty. But the heathens didn’t allow him. They attacked him with arrows and stones. As you know the incident was settled with a truce, a cease-fire. The aggreement of Hudeybiye. But they didn’t let Rasulallah enter Mecca. That was a prohibited month. The year Rasulallah reached Mecca was a prohibited month. Zilkade month in fact.
As you know, the prohibited months are Zilkade, Zilhicce and Muharram. Last two and first one months of the year. Or as for kameri calendar year, the last three months. Zilkade, Zilhicce and Muharram.
Actually prohibited months are known as four. The fourth month Recep was considered and proclaimed as prohibited month by Mudar Tribe. If you ask who proclaimed the other three months as prohibited, our sources give us this information. It was a tradition came from the prophet Abraham. A tradition from the Islam prophet Abraham. That’s why Qur’an hasn’t objected this tradition.
As you know there is abrogation between sheriahs, that’s my opinion. There might be abrogations between previous sheriahs and current sheriahs. But I believe there is not a single verse can or might be revoked in that sense, within the two cover of this book. All verses in this book are valid and unrevokable. At every era and every time period. But there might be different grounds, different circumstances. When the time and ground happens, the verses verdict becomes valid and absolute. If the timing and circumstances aren’t right, then we should look for another fitting verse for that situation. If another verses ground becomes valid, then the sentence of that verse must be carried at that time. So every verse has its ground and time which its sentence can be carried. We call this tedric.
femeni’teda aleykum fa’tedu aleyhi Bi misli ma’teda aleykum So, whoever attacks you, attack them back in the same proportion. Give them the same response. Vettekullahe But remember, don’t forget your responsibilities for Allah while doing it, va’lemu ennAllahe ma’almuttekiyn; and know that Allah is with those who restrain themselves.
So what really wants to be pointed out is this. If you have to retaliate the attackers, you cannot do more than they have done. If they violate your rights, then you are bound to retaliate only equal to that measure. That doesn’t necessarily mean, violate all the way. Retaliation is a punisment, not a violation. That’s why attacks must be forced back with the same amount of power. But that doesn’t mean, harm them back as they harm you. This becomes one of the rules in Islamic Law. La darara, vela dirar..! Islam prohibits harming as a revenge for harming.
So how should we understand this, we should look at this as; there’s no crime in Islam without its punishment. We should look at this as; it’s our very own and natural human right and a principle of faith to defend ourselves. The retaliations equality is a must, so is the regards equality. The punishment for violation shouldn’t be like Jews applications.
What were Jews doing? If you killed a Jew, it was like you killed an entire race of Jews, that was the logic. A world is the equivalent of a Jew’s life. typical Jewish logic. No, if a person is murdered, the murderer should be punished as equally. But they weren’t doing that. In fact there’s a verse in the Book of Isaiah. A section in that book. There it is said all tribes that aren’t Jewish will bow down before you with their faces to the ground; they will lick the dust at your feet. That’s a jewish logic. Do you get this? I sincerely believe this was no way a celestial message. I believe this was an attitude of Jews considered for themselves at the times of seclusion.
At that point they were calling people other than themselves; goim. Goim means what? It has two meanings; one, stranger, other meaning is used for both infidel and enemy. Like “others were infidels, others were enemies.” Who were others? Every people who are not among the sons of Israel.
As you know the Jews turned the celestial ways of life sent to them, to a racist nationalism. They turned the situation to a holy race mentality. That’s why Tora became a national book for them. Jehova became a national god and Moses became a national leader for them. But in fact, Moses was an Islam prophet, just likeTora was a celestial guide sent to all humanity and the sheriah, the laws were all Islamic laws. But they nationalized them.
There was an inbalance at the opposite side. The inbalance of Christianism. What was that? The expression in Bible. If someone hits your cheek, turn to the other side. Islam said neither of them. Neither ifrat (overdoing) like Jews and tefrit (underdoing) like Paul Christianism. Also I never saw a Christian who may turn his other cheek in case he’s hit, that’s humanly improbable.
Hadn’t America bombed hundreds of thousands children just because his single ship was bombed in Iraq? This attitude in Gulf War, was that a type of behaviour of turning his other cheek? Tell me, please. Where are all those cheek turners? This is impossible, an utopic behaviour. That’s why Islam sees the reality of life. Islam never puts life against Allah. Islam calls people to a reasonable and possible life style, not a distant and impossible utopia. This is important. This is one of the proofs that Islam is calling people to a reasonable and possible life style.
There’s war in life. It’s inevitable. You cannot make wars disappear, just by denying it. The war is within humans. Where there’s people, there’s war. So you cannot reach anywhere just by denying wars. But you can adjust, you can put terms of war anyway possible, disciplinize it. Hostility exists, and you cannot prevent people from committing murder. But you can judge them fairly, punish them fairly. Because if you ignore them, if you treat them like they don’t exist, you just bury your heads to sand.
War is a truth of life. We cannot ignore it unfortunately. Who wouldn’t miss a world without war? It’s impossible, not to. But wanting is one thing; seeing the truths of life is another. Because it doesn’t end just by wanting it.
Maybe the people who desperately wants no war in life, one day may be forced to fight. That’s why Qur’an never offers people to bury their heads to sand. On the contrary, it offers people to raise their heads, face the truths of life and stand firmly, in order to preserve the beauties in life. Qur’an advises to make life more beautiful. It doesn’t pull people to a dream world. The orders here prove these facts.
vettekullahe va’lemu ennAllahe ma’almuttekiyn; We translated this part before, moving on.
195-) Ve enfiku fiy sebiylillahi ve la tulku Bi eydiykum ilet tehluketi ve ahsinu* innAllahe yuhibbul muhsiniyn;
Give unrequitedly (feesabilillah) in the way of Allah (to reach Allah) and do not destroy yourselves (by being stingy.) And do good! Certainly, Allah loves the doers of good. (A. Hulusi)
And spend of your substance in the cause of Allah, and make not your own hands contribute to (your) destruction; but do good; for Allah loveth those who do good. (A.Yusuf Ali)
Ve enfiku fiy sebiylillahi ve la tulku Bi eydiykum ilet tehluketi And spend of your belongings in the cause of Allah, spend in the way of Allah. ve la tulku Bi eydiykum ilet tehluketi and do not destroy yourselves. Don’t put yourselves in danger by your own hands.
What can you understand from a verse like that which comes within a passage of war related section? You might think something like “We shouldn’t throw ourselves to the line of fire in war.” No, that’s not the case. The army contributed in the conquest of Constantinople was in that mentality but one person who was with them at the time, the Abu Eyyup el Ensari whose last resting place is in Istanbul now, corrected them. He said, “No this is not the real meaning of this verse.” This incident is genuine, we read it from several sources like Buhari and Muslim’s books.
– This verse shouldn’t be understood like that. Because this verse came for us. Us, the true ensar (the helpers, guardians)… Because we had thought like that. Allah raised and glorified Islam. Islam spreaded and we came victorious over our enemies. So we should go back to our possessions, we should go back to our businesses. But this verse arrived after that. “O true believers, don’t torture and damage yourselves by throwing yourselves to earthly businesses and material affairs.” Not spending in the cause of Allah is, destroying yourselves with your own hands.
This was the comment of Abu Eyyup El Ensari for this verse.
Yes, dear friends. Those who don’t spend in the cause of Allah, those who aren’t in the sacrifice in the way of Allah; those are the ones who are putting themselves in danger. This is the reality, this verse has been telling us.
ve ahsinu Always do good. innAllahe yuhibbul muhsiniyn; Allah loves good-doers.
Look, the 190th verse ended with a similarity like this. Allahe la yuhibbu . Allah doesn’t like. Here it ends as “Allah likes.” Interesting, the words like and don’t likes are growing. Don’t you wonder? You might know the reason if you read the “Heart Country”. But for those who haven’t read it, I say this. You cannot find this type of addressings in Mecca originated verses. Most of the Mecca verses scares with torment and punishments. Because the generation Qur’an educated was in a childhood phase at that time.
But it grew in Madina. The generation which Qur’an had educated grew into a grown-up phase so the concepts turned to likes and don’t likes. From burns and don’t burns; likes and don’t likes. The concept of likeness is the pinacle in a relationship. When the words had come, “I like you.” or “I don’t like you.”, they were staying still on their tracks like nails. They were saying; “Can it be a bigger calamity than not having the love of Allah? What could be worse than losing the love of Allah? And if Allah loves us, what prize could be greater than that?”
So when the relation came to that level, the scares, and torments were gone and “Allah likes”, “Allah doesn’t like” type speechs came. This is the highest point between Allah and a person. The relationship based on love.
196-) Ve etimmul Hacce vel ‘Umrete Lillah* fein uhsirtum femesteysera minel hedy* ve la tahliku ruusekum hatta yebluğal hedyu mahilleh* femen kane minkum meriydan ev Bihi ezen min re’sihi fefidyetun min Siyamin ev Sadakatin ev Nusukin, feiza emintum* femen temette’a Bil ‘Umreti ilel Hacci femesteysera minel hedy* femen lem yecid feSiyamu selaseti eyyamin fiyl Hacci ve seb’atin iza raca’tum* tilke asheratun kamiletun, zalike li men lem yekun ehluhu hadiril Mescidil Haram* vettekullahe va’lemu ennAllahe shediydul ‘ikab;
Complete the Hajj and Umrah for Allah. If you are prevented (from this) then make an offering (qurban) and do not shave your heads until your offering is slaughtered. And whoever among you is ill or has an affliction (preventing him from Hajj), should compensate by fasting, charity or sacrifice. When you are in times of safety (when the afflictions are lifted), whoever wants to experience and benefit from Umrah until Hajj, should offer a sacrifice that can afford with ease. And whoever cannot find (such a sacrifice) should fast three days during Hajj and seven days after return; ten days in total. This is for those whose family (place of living) is not in the area of al-Masjid al-Haram. And protect yourselves from disobeying Allah. And know well that Allah is severe in due retribution. (A.Hulusi)
And complete the Hajj or Umrah in the service of Allah. But if ye are prevented (from completing it), send an offering for sacrifice, such as ye may find, and do not shave your heads until the offering reaches the place of sacrifice. And if any of you is ill, or has an ailment in his scalp, (necessitating shaving), (he should) in compensation either fast, or feed the poor, or offer sacrifice; and when ye are in peaceful conditions (again), if any one wishes to continue the Umrah on to the Hajj, He must make an offering, such as he can afford, but if he cannot afford it, He should fast three days during the Hajj and seven days on his return, Making ten days in all. This is for those whose household is not in (the precincts of) the Sacred Mosque. And fear Allah, and know that Allah is strict in punishment. (Abdullah Yusuf Ali)
Ve etimmul Hacce vel ‘Umrete Lillah And complete the Hajj or Umrah in the service of Allah.
Hacc, or Ha’g in Hebrew; it’s actually a Samian word. Both in Aramic, Hebrew, Syrianic, Celdanic and Arabic; this word always have the same pronunciation and the same meaning. In Hebrew, the word Ha’g can be used both for holiday and the pilgrimage. The literal meaning of this word is circling something, walking around of something. In Arabic; this word has also other meanings like, going some place often and accepting a spot a center.
As you know, Hacc is a worshipping act ordered to Muslims by Islam. The duty of Hacc; in certain times, certain conditions for those who can find a way. I’m saying this fact, basing on the verse of Ali Imran, 97.
..ve Lillahi alenNasi hiccul beyti menisteta’a ileyhi sebiyla..(A.Imran/97)
Pilgrimage thereto is a duty men owe to Allah,- those who can afford the journey (A.Imran/97) (A. Yusuf Ali)
It’s a duty for those who can find a way to go there, who can afford it. At this point, those who can find a way; maybe it’s not about the money, maybe another path might be opened. If there’s a way, it’s a duty for every true believers to consider that path and go to Hacc. It’s all about doing certain worshipping acts, certain rituals at certain times and places.
Hacc is, renewing the contract with Allah.
Hacc is a convention of community.
Hacc is a persons own journey to the story of mankind as Adam.
Hacc is, finding the lost and forgotten heaven again.
Hacc is a persons adventure of becoming pure, 0 miles again.
Hacc is, playing the roles of Abraham, Ismael, Hagar and Muhammad (p.b.u.t). This is hacc.
I will explain other things about Hacc in our following lessons further. For now, I will continue.
fein uhsirtum femesteysera minel hedy If you are prevented (from this), if you are under detain, your way is blocked, if there’s an obstacle between you and Hacc duty, femesteysera minel hedy then make an offering that you can afford. Make a sacrifice (qurban) that within your power.
You remember the previous incident from this verse, these verses were sent down while the Hudeybiye Situation was going on. Because the heathens had blocked the path in Hudeybiye and according to the contract they signed, the Hacc duty would be done next year for them. But they, muslims were on the road with their offerings. So Rasulallah made his offering in ihram (seamless white garment which should be worn while doing the duty of Hacc), so did the true believers.
ve la tahliku ruusekum hatta yeblugal hedyu mahilleh Just like the expression of Razi; the word here, mahilleh as don’t shave your heads until you reach the offering grounds. Raci explained this verse as; don’t do that until you make your offerings. But we can also understand the situation like this. If there’s a situation occured while you are in the middle of your journey to Hacc, and you have to go back from your path. Send your offerings if you can after you put on your ihrams. Don’t remove your ihrams until your offerings have been made. If you cannot be able to send, offer it as you stand but don’t remove your ihrams until doing so. Shaving heads is a symbol for removing the ihram. It shows the end of Ihram order period. That’s why this expression came here.
femen kane minkum meriydan ev Bihi ezen min re’sihi fefidyetun min Siyamin ev Sadakatin ev Nusuk And whoever among you is ill or has an affliction with his head should compensate by fasting, charity or sacrifice. He should do one of these three things. If he’s ill or has a medical situation about his head, he can do fasting, he can give charity or offer a sacrifice. He should do one of them as compensation. feiza emintum After he reaches safety.
femen temette’a Bil ‘Umreti ilel Hacc and whoever wants to unite Umrah with Hajj, or to be specific, whoever experience Umrah before Hacc, whoever wants do Temettu Hacc which is the name of Umrah; whoever has this intention, femesteysera minel hedy should offer a sacrifice that can afford with ease.
femen lem yecid feSiyamu selaseti eyyamin fiyl Hacc but if he cannot afford it, if he goes to Umrah but unable to find offering; He should fast three days during the Hacc ve seb’atin iza raca’tum and seven days on his return, tilke asheratun kamiletun Making ten days in all. So he should make a 10 days fasting, 3 in Hacc and 7 after his return. Who? Those who go Temettu Hacc, the people who go to Umrah before Hacc, who go there with these intentions but unable to find an offering or unable to afford an offering. They should make their compensations like that.
zalike li men lem yekun ehluhu hadiril Mescidil Haram Of course these orders are for those whose family not in the living area of Masjid al-Haram. These are not for those who live around Masjid al-Haram.
vettekullahe And know your responsibilities to Allah, va’lemu ennAllahe shediydul ‘ikab; and know well that Allah is strict in punishment.
197-) ElHaccu eshhurun ma’lumât* femen ferada fiyhinnel Hacce fela rafese ve la fusuka ve la cidale fiyl Hacc* ve ma tef’alu min hayrin ya’lemhullah* ve tezevvedu feinne hayrez zadit takva* vettekuni ya ulil elbab;
Hajj is during well-known months. Whoever intends to undertake Hajj during those months should abstain from ill speech, inappropriate conduct and behavior, and from quarreling. Whatever good you do, Allah knows it. Take provisions, but indeed the best provision is taqwa (protecting yourself in the way of Allah from the inadequacies of your identity). O you of understanding and deep contemplation, protect yourselves from Me (from My retribution in case you do wrong)! (A.Hulusi)
For Hajj are the months well known. If any one undertakes that duty therein, let there be no obscenity, nor wickedness, nor wrangling in the Hajj. And whatever good ye do, (be sure) Allah knoweth it. And take a provision (with you) for the journey, but the best of provisions is right conduct. So fear Me, O ye that are wise. (A.Yusuf Ali)
ElHaccu eshhurun ma’lumat Hacc is in well-known months. What’s meant by well known months is this. Shawwal,Dhu al-Qidah and Dhu al-Hiccah. Last three months of a Qamari Calendar.
This verse opens a debate these days about its content. Is it like the ancient times, old scholars aspects as the time to put on Ihrams or is it a license that Hacc is legit while these three Hacc Months are still going on. Scholars open this debate shows this verse as evidence and defend it by saying this.
-Hacc has been getting crowded, billions of people have been coming to Hacc and some dies in that chaos. Sometimes the count reaches to hundreds. That’s why basing on this verse, we should be able to do our Hacc duties in various days within these months. That’s their offer.
So is that true, can we derive this from this verse, I believe we cannot do that. Why? femen ferada fiyhinnel Hacce fela rafese ve la fusuka ve la cidale fiyl Hacc Before explaining this section, I want to give an answer.
1-In verse there’s a passage saying; ElHaccu eshhurun ma’lumat. Obvious, well-known months. According to the records there’s no practice at all. As in Qur’an only points out that the well-known months are just months known since the times of Prophet Abraham. Everyone knows about them, thousands of people. Knows, so Qur’an doesn’t need to explaing it any furthers. But even the evidence points out about well-known months, we cannot find any evidence about Hacc duty can be done anytime in that period, not in a few days time. We cannot find a single person who can do his Hacc duty outside the regular Hacc days zone.
2-The following verse, Baqarah /198 has an expression saying; feiza efadtum min ‘Arafatin pour down from Mount Araphat. People pouring down…
Again in 199th verse, the following one; Summe efiydu min haysu efadanNas “return from the place whence it is usual for the multitude so to do”.
We understand that Hacc is a must duty that can be done with entire peoples participation.
3-Again another verse 203, another expression comes as “numbered days”. Opposite page; ma’dudat, eyyamin ma’dudat numbered days. Those are Hacc days, if they are not constant days, the Hacc Holiday days, it’s Hacc days altogether. eyyamin ma’dudat What should we do on these numbered days? That’s the question? So the Hacc duty shall be done in those days.
4-Another proof; the 28th verse of Hacc Sura; fiy eyyamin ma’lumat we see this again; known days. So what days are these? Either the days of bayram, or the 8-9-10-11 and 12th days of Dhu al-Hiccah. Beginning from the day of Tavria and the following five days ending with the end of bayram. Which is the 5 days period of Hacc duty. Araphat vakfe (Hacc duty of stopping), Muzdalifah vakfe, Mina vakfe and “Remy-i Cimar”, devil stoning, giving sacrifice and tavaf. Tavaf (Circling) of Visiting. Those are the acts and we have no proof, no evidence nor a record that these actions may be done outside of these five days. So we cannot understand otherwise.
So how should we understand this verse then? We should translate this verse as the prophet explained; even this was not a strong records and I really don’t want to comment on this but I also care the clarity of this translation; prophet explained this verse like this;
As in; these well-known months eshurun ma’lumat has been given us as a time period that we put on our Ihrams and take them off. I will continue the rest in our following lesson.
[Additional Info: DEBATES OVER THE TIME OF HACC
Let’s think about it. Is there a word, a small reference about Kurban Bayram and his previous day of Aripha? Allah orders fasting, not says “do the bayram”. Allah says “Give sacrifice.” It’s not the same thing as a holiday season. On top of that, sacrifice has only been ordered in Hacc duty.
The acts of bayram and the sacrifices we’ve been made are not duties, they are named as vacip (secondary duties). Both of the religious holidays are gifts from our Prophet, so they are all ISLAMIC TRADITIONS.
Like I said, traditions. We put this traditions to a higher ground, and now we cannot see the orders that Qur’an set for us. We almost left them back somewhere. We give a day, a celestial position; a day even Allah never mentioned in Qur’an, never ordered for anything; and we fall into a wrong assumption that Hacc duty cannot be valid if not occured on that same day.
In his speech Mustapha Islamoglu, made a small explanation about this matter. It’s also interesting that the information is not strong. He says; these months, Shawwal,Dhu al-Qidah and Dhu al-Hiccah. They are highly possible.
And in his speechs last paragraph, he shows several verses as proof of “not having hacc duty whenever you want in that time period.”
One of the examples is the 199th verse of Baqarah, and his comment was; I’m quoting, “We understand that Hacc is a must duty that can be done with entire peoples participation. From a neutral parties perpective; it’s impossible to make a deduction of “All Islamic community must complete their Hacc duty in one run.” just by looking at these two verses of 198-199/Baqarah. What we should get from these verses are the details of how we should do our Hacc duties.
With others who come to do the duty of Hacc; leave Araphat altogether and dhikr Allah in Mesha-i Haram, altogether. These days, it’s not possible for every pilgrim to reach there and those who can have to face serious accidents for the crowded nature of that spot. So if the hacc duty is available in Haram months, even with large groups, every pilgrim can do his hacc duty with peace.
Islamoglu also gave the example of the verse 203 of Baqarah and said, (What should we do on these numbered days? That’s the question? So the Hacc duty shall be done in those days.)
So let’s look at the verse and understand who really the verse is saying. Do you really understand the meaning of “Hacc shall only be done in counted days and not the other times?” or do you thing our Rabb has been explaining the tiniest details of Hacc duty that we should follow.
The beginning of the verse says; zhikr Allah in numbered days and look what is the reason of this. If you have a hurry to complete the Hacc duty, you can do it in two days. That means Allah says us that the Hacc duty can be done in two days and within that time, we should zhikr Allah. This is the advise from Allah. Allah gives us two days period for the shortest hacc duty but not limits us in certain days of Haram Months. So I ask again; do you understand from this verse that we should complete our Hacc duty in a single opening time period or Rahman is telling us the complete details of Hacc duties. Allah says; “I explain my verses to their fullest so that you may understand. How interesting that we find a way to fit Qur’an in our ways instead of just following its way.
So if you believe that Allah put true believers in this hard task of limiting the Hacc duty in a single day of 9th of Dhu al-Hiccah (which I should add again that Qur’an never mentions; not even once); true believers which also explained in the 27th verse of Hacc Sura by saying; “among men: they will come to thee on foot and (mounted) on every camel, lean on account of journeys through deep and distant mountain highways;”. If you believe that our Rabb would make this limitation for true believers who faced such hardships just to get there (mind the ways of traveling in past times), then I suggest you ignore this words and forget them. (Haluk GUMUSTABAK).]
“Ve ahiru davana velil hamdulillahi rabbil alemiyn” (Jonah/10) “Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the Worlds!” All products of our claims, causes and lives are for Allah and our last word to our Allah is “Hamd”. “Esselamu aleykum.”