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TAFSIR LESSONS AL-ANFAL (49-75) (60)

EuzuBillahiminesheytanirracim”

BismillahirRahmanirRahiym

Dear Qur’an friends. In our previous lesson we have reached 48th verse of Anfal Chapter. If we recall the events we have learned how satan can blow to humans hearts and trick them with empty promises and the consequences of those who fall for them.

Actually the Anfal chapter shows us the insight of Badir day by giving us Yevmul Furkan, the day when the truth is seperated from the false. And how should we take lessons from this day and win over our inner battles of our hearts. The ways of finding our paths and win our inner struggles.

After those verses of seperating the friends from enemy, the believer from heathens there was a third party showed their hands after the fate of Badir Battle was finalized. Now we will study these verses about hypocrites and how they created mischief.

49-) Iz yekulul munafikune velleziyne fiy kulubihim meredun garre haulai diynuhum* ve men yetevekkel alAllahi feinnAllahe Aziyzun Hakiym;

Remember when the hypocrites and those who were devoid of healthy thought due to the doubt in their hearts said, “Their religion has deluded them”… But whoever places their trust in Allah (i.e. prevents the interference of their emotions and submits to the autopilot inherent within their creational program, that is, believes that the Names comprising their essence will fulfill their functions) indeed Allah is the Aziz, the Hakim. (A.Hulusi)

Lo! the Hypocrites and those in whose hearts is a disease, say: “These people,- their religion has misled them.” But if any trust in Allah, behold! Allah is Exalted in might, Wise. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Iz yekulul munafikune velleziyne fiy kulubihim meredun the day of Yevmul Furkan, the day the hearts were tested, faiths were challenged, the day the truth was seperated from the false, the day the white was seperated from black and another group came to the frame, greys, two faces, hypocrites, ill-hearteds.

garre haulai diynuhum “Their religion has deluded them” The children of grey said this. Their religion had tricked them. What did they mean by that? There was this fact of strong and crowrded Meccan army and a bunch of believers opened their flags against them. It cannot be explaned with a regular logic. And since a hypocrite cannot walk the same path of faith with a believer one course of mentality remained for them. Finding this struggle vain and illogical. In their opinion it can only lead to a messacre of believers so they commented like this. Their religion has tricked them. According to hypocrites, the way of thinking for believers deluded them to wage war against a strong army.

A typical perspective of a hypocrite. They believed in the strength of numbers, how can they understand the power of faith. Grey is unable to believe that day can cover the pitch black of night. Here they were looking from the perspective of satan, a twisted, blasphemous, ill hearted point of view.

Fiy kulubihim maradun, (Baqarah/10) Those who have the illness in their hearts. He who has this illness has the ill sight as well since they cannot see anything straight.

ve men yetevekkel alAllahi feinnAllahe Aziyzun Hakiym; But if any trust in Allah, behold! Allah is Exalted in might, Wise. A notion of success without counting Allah can only be the notion of satan. Counting Allah as one first otherise all counts becomes meaningless. A believer should have this ideology. I’m zero by my own. But Allah is one. An done always makes values of zeroes like me. So I should know my place and count Allah as one. Only then I might have a value and strength.La havle vela kuvvet illa billah” Power and strength only belongs to Allah. Qur’an wants us to gain this perspective.

50-) Ve lev tera iz yeteveffelleziyne keferul Melaiketu yadribune vucuhehum ve edbarehum* ve zuku azabel hariyk;

And if you could but see when the angels take the deniers of the reality at death, striking their faces and their backs, saying, “Taste the scorching suffering”! (A.Hulusi)

If thou couldst see, when the angels take the souls of the Unbelievers (at death), (How) they smite their faces and their backs, (saying): “Taste the Chastisement of the blazing Fire-(A.Yusuf Ali)

Ve lev tera iz yeteveffelleziyne keferul And if you could but see Unbelievers at death. Here “elleziyne keferu” by context looks like heathens but with the background of all things it has a much wider population.Considering the history and continuousness that created the situation not only we counted the heathens but people who keep on resisting the faith and stucked in blasphemy. So with this concept we can read the part as “If you could see those people who stucked on blasphemy tasted their deaths.”

Melaiketu yadribune vucuhehum ve edbarehum* when the angels they smite their faces and their backs ve zuku azabel hariyk saying, “Taste the scorching suffering.”

Qur’an promptly brings the frame to another part and shows us the fate of that twisted perspective. People who look from satans perspective not only loses the chance of success but the chance of existence as well.

This expression has an alternate meaning too. The part which the angels smiting their faces and backs. But the meaning I choose is the one which the word yeteveffa word has the secret meaning that refers Allah. In literacy the pronoun yeteveffa is a secret subject but singular. If it was a reference for angels it should be plural. So by that literal design the sentence should be translated as this. “While “He” was taking their lives, angels were smiting them.”

51-) Zalike Bima kaddemet eydiykum ve ennAllahe leyse Bi zallamin lil abiyd;

“This is the return of your deeds! And Allah does not do wrong to his servants!” (A.Hulusi)

This is “Because of (the deeds) which your (own) hands sent forth; for Allah is never unjust to His servants: (A.Yusuf Ali)

Zalike Bima kaddemet eydiykum This is the return of your deeds! It’s not a punishment given to you by someone else. You create your own punishments. Allah only rewards you. It is you who has the power of punishing yourselves. That’s how Rahman and Rahim shows His power.

Allah gives mercy to all creation. Even the blasphemers. Not just roses but their thorns too. Not just sheeps but wolves too. So in all these blessings if a man suffers a penalty or punishment its because of his own doings.

ve ennAllahe leyse Bi zallamin lil abiyd; And there’s no possibility of Allah does wrong to his servants!

Why do I translate the sentence like this. It’s the literal text actually. If a negative comes by the form of “da” it refers to the actions improbability. It’s a rule in arabic language. So by definition there’s no chance no possibility that Allah makes his servants suffer.

52-) Kede’bi ali fir’avne velleziyne min kablihim* keferu Bi ayatillahi fe ehazehumullahu Bi zunubihim* innAllahe Kaviyyun shediyd’ul ‘ikab;

Theirs is like the dynasty of the Pharaoh and of those before them… They denied the existence of Allah in His signs (the manifestations of His Names) so Allah seized them upon their error… Indeed, Allah is the Qawwi, and the Shadid al-Iqab (severe in enforcing the due consequence of an offence). (A.Hulusi)

“(Deeds) after the manner of the People of Pharaoh and of those before them: They rejected the Signs of Allah, and Allah punished them for their crimes: for Allah is Strong, and Strict in punishment: (A.Yusuf Ali)

And now Qur’an takes us to another historical scene almost saying like “Watch them and see subjects of my actions.Watch and learn how my words had came to life long before you.”

Kede’bi ali fir’avne velleziyne min kablihim Theirs is like the dynasty of the Pharaoh and of those before them..

Qur’an does that a lot. Comparing pharaoh and blasphemers with sons of Israel and muslims. It turns to people who resist on Qur’an’s message and says, “Look at the fate of Pharaoh. See the end of those who resist Allah’s message” And then turns to muslims and adds “Be mindful of sons of Israel who became jewminded. Tyrants are the swords of Allah. He takes revenge with them and then turns to sword to themselves and takes the revenge from them. Evvali mu seyfullah yente kulu bihi summe yente kimu bih. That’s the reason of this message. Qur’an show this example of sons of Israel who were once muslims and believers and became victorious against the tyrant pharaoh but then fell into blasphemy themselves and betrayed Allah message and become jewminded beings.

keferu Bi ayatillahi fe ehazehumullahu Bi zunubihim* They rejected the Signs of Allah, and Allah punished them for their crimes: innAllahe Kaviyyun shediyd’ul ‘ikab; for Allah is Strong, and Strict in punishment.

53-) Zalike Bi ennAllahe lem yeku mugayyiren ni’meten en’ameha ala kavmin hatta yugayyiru ma Bi enfusihim ve ennAllahe Semiy’un ‘Aliym;

Thus it is… Allah would not change His blessing upon a people (from their essence) until they change what is within themselves! Allah is the Sami, the Aleem. (A.Hulusi)

“Because Allah will never change the grace which He hath bestowed on a people until they change what is in their (own) souls: and verily Allah is He Who heareth and knoweth (all things).” (A.Yusuf Ali)

Zalike Bi ennAllahe lem yeku mugayyiren ni’meten en’ameha ala kavmin hatta yugayyiru ma Bi enfusihim

Qur’an brings forth the social change law. This is a verse that informs us the social change is a part of humanities constant laws. By this law, a community cannot or would now change a blessing of Allah for them unless they become stranger to themselves.

It’s identical to Rad chapter 11th verse. The key to this verse is the expression, hatta yugayyiru ma Bi enfusihim

hatta yugayyiru ma Bi enfusihim literal translation is unless they change what they possess. It has a neutral meaning. Muspet and menfi, both positive and negative meaning. But since it is used with the concept of Allah’s blessings, we can deduce the change is from positive to negative.

So by that point of view becoming a stranger to themselves quote that I made earlier becomes more clear. Because a blessings recieved in the past from Allah has taken away because they betray themselves is exactly the meaning of alienation. Whoever alienate themselves become distant with Allah too.

So here we see the social and personal changes. It’s explained with a sense of motive and result. If the keystone of a society as a human begins to change, the society begins to change as well. And the change of human begins with the change of heart. So all begins from that point.

You cannot change the world as a whole, that’s for sure. But you have to. The change is the law of nature. So what should you do? A change is necessary but impossible and yet it is the law. There’s a contradiction here? No, it begins from the closest being to you. It’s you. You can change yourselves so begin with that, says Qur’an.

ve ennAllahe Semiy’un ‘Aliym; And Allah hears all things knows all things.

Two names of Allah at this verse. If you change yourselves, if you show the willpower to this change Allah knows that. And gives you the strength fort his change. Allah clears the path by opening your minds, your hearts and your souls.

54-) Kede’bi ali fir’avne velleziyne min kablihim* kezzebu Bi ayati Rabbihim* fe ehleknahum Bi zunubihim ve agrakna ale fir’avn* ve kullun kanu zalimiyn;

Just like the state of the dynasty of Pharaoh and those before them! They denied the existence of their Rabb in His signs (qualities pertaining to their Rabb) so We destroyed them for their mistakes and drowned the people of Pharaoh! They were all wrongdoers. (A.Hulusi)

(Deeds) after the manner of the People of Pharaoh and those before them”: They treated as false the Signs of their Lord, so We destroyed them for their crimes, and We drowned the People of Pharaoh: for they were all oppressors and wrong- doers. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Kede’bi ali fir’avne velleziyne min kablihim Just like the state of the dynasty of Pharaoh and those before them! The expression form we saw in 52nd verse comes again.

kezzebu Bi ayati Rabbihim* They denied the existence of their Rabb in His signs fe ehleknahum Bi zunubihim so We destroyed them for their mistakes ve agrakna ale fir’avn and drowned the people of Pharaoh.

I remember another verse with such a fierce attitude. Felemma asefunentekamna minhum feauraknahum ecme’iyn; (Zuhruf/55) Whenever they make Us angry, they upset us, we took our revenge. So this is exactly what’s going on here. The literal meaning is making them taste the pain of their own doings. This is the meaning of revenge. So we drowned them.

fe ehleknahum Bi zunubihim so We destroyed them for their mistakes ve agrakna ale fir’avn and drowned the people of Pharaoh. ve kullun kanu zalimiyn Why did we do all these? Do you know what features condemned them to such a terrible fate? Because they were resisting on tyranny. Zalimiyn. The name zalim has multiple meaning but has a stable and preset feature. Becoming a tyranny one should not only do the act of tyranny but to accept it from within. So in this definition we might say a tyrant is a person who takes the concept of oppression and makes it into his nature.

55-) Inne sherred devabbi indAllahilleziyne keferu fehum la yu’minun;

The worst of living creatures in the sight of Allah are those who deny the knowledge of the reality! They will not believe! (A.Hulusi)

For the worst of beasts in the sight of Allah are those who reject Him: They will not believe. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Inne sherred devabbi indAllahilleziyne keferu fehum la yu’minun The worst of living creatures in the sight of Allah are those who deny the knowledge of the reality! They will not believe!

A person who doesn’t choose denial by himself, like somehow by seeing it from his parents or enviroment or society and becomes a denier. He wasn’t the worse form of the living creatures though. There’s a form worse them him. The moment the signs of Allah has reached him, he begins to resist it with a conscious mind. This is the lowest of the low, and is considered the worst of the creation by Qur’an.

56-) Elleziyne ahedte minhum summe yenkudune ahdehum fiy kulli merretin ve hum la yettekun;

They are those with whom you made a treaty (the Jewish tribes in the vicinity of Medina Munawara)… But they break their pledge every time… They do not protect themselves (they do not beware Allah). (A.Hulusi)

They are those with whom thou didst make a covenant, but they break their covenant every time, and they have not the fear (of Allah). (A.Yusuf Ali)

Elleziyne ahedte minhum summe yenkudune ahdehum fiy kulli merretin ve hum la yettekun

Qur’an entered a new passage, They are those with whom you did make a covenant, but they break their covenant every time,

Actually based on this verse we might deduce several principles about the covenants and the reactions of non-muslims to these bonds.

First of all these verses informs us the possibilities, no encouragements for non muslims and making bonds. Because the dialogue is abour encouragement.

So if we think about the content of this bond, we remember the days that these verses had arrived and the Badir Battle was ongoing. Corruption, it mentions some individuals broket he covenants they did. So if we think this throughly who were the ones who broke their contracts there. It was Madina Covenant. A famous contract that had done with Madina Muslima and the Madina Jews in the first year of Hejira. With this contract they became allies so if muslims received an attack jews too should retaliate and vice versa. It’s a bond between the people of the books from both sides and based on the idea of unity but it was broken in Badir Battle. At least several jewish clans and groups had broken that with the head figure like Ka’b bin Eshref.

In fact when the heathens lost the battle to muslims the rabbi and the leader of the jewish clans Ka’b bin Eshref said this. “After this moment the underground is better to me then above.” That’s how he resented the victory of muslims and how he thought closely to heathens.

It’s a perspective.Our prophets perspective was the opposide direction which was the Allah’s signs. That’s why many notes in Madina contract found its source in Qur’an. The 42 and 50th verse of Maida chapter mentions such noted with we also learn from a hadith from Abu Davud that the Jews of Madina were the ones who broke it first.

57-) Feimma teskafennehum fiyl harbi fesherrid Bihim men halfehum leallehum yezzekkerun;

If you catch them in war, disperse them and those behind them that perhaps they will take a lesson. (A.Hulusi)

If ye gain the mastery over them in war, disperse, with them, those who follow them, that they may remember. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Feimma teskafennehum fiyl harbi If you catch them in war fesherrid Bihim men halfehum leallehum yezzekkerun disperse them and those behind them that perhaps they will take a lesson.

58-) Ve imma tehafenne min kavmin hiyaneten fenbiz ileyhim ala seva’* innAllahe la yuhibbul hainiyn;

If you fear betrayal from a people, let them know in advance that you invalidate the treaty! Indeed, Allah does not like the traitors. (A.Hulusi)

If thou fearest treachery from any group, throw back (their covenant) to them, (so as to be) on equal terms: for Allah loveth not the treacherous. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ve imma tehafenne min kavmin hiyaneten fenbiz ileyhim ala seva’ If you fear betrayal from a people, let them know in advance that you invalidate the treaty!

Qur’an sees breaking a contract a moral weakness but also encourages that the background of the situation, specifically betrayal should be felt. That’s why Qur’an doesn’t want a morally grey area even with the relations with the enemy. Even in war there’s amoral norm. Because battling with someone cannot be reason to act with indecency.

This is the stream of all these verses and pages in this chapter. War ethics. Everyone look out for morality in the times of peace. The real deal is to follow the rules in the battle. All people can act with decency to their friends. Hard one is to act with the same morality to your enemies. Qur’an takes our attention to this point and draws the line which most of the communities on earth has failed to pass.

innAllahe la yuhibbul hainiyn Indeed, Allah does not like the traitors. Don’t be the first on betrayal. Don’t betray the other side even if they betray you first. Cancel your covenant in case of betrayal. And let the other party know in advance that you too break the bond. Qur’an sets the rules of the system 1400 years ago, the ethics of battle in international terms.

59-) Ve la yahsebennelleziyne keferu sebeku* innehum la yu’cizun;

Let not those who deny the knowledge of the reality think they can save themselves by escaping… Certainly, they cannot render Allah powerless from doing what He wills! (A.Hulusi)

Let not the Unbelievers think that they have escaped: they will never frustrate (them). (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ve la yahsebennelleziyne keferu sebeku* Let not the Unbelievers think that they have escaped:  innehum la yu’cizun; Certainly, they cannot render Allah powerless from doing what He wills.

60-) Ve e’iddu lehum mesteta’tum min kuvvetin ve min ribatil hayli turhibune Bihi aduvvAllahi ve aduvvekum ve ahariyne min dunihim* la ta’lemunehum*Allahu ya’lemuhum* ve ma tunfiku min shey’in fiy sebiylillahi yuveffe ileykum ve entum la tuzlemun;

Gather your power against them as much as you are able to and prepare steeds (of war) with which you may terrify the enemy of Allah, your enemy, and others whom you do not know, but Allah knows… Whatever you spend in the way of Allah, its reward will be paid back to you in full, and never will you be wronged! (A.Hulusi)

Against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power, including steeds of war, to strike terror into (the hearts of) the enemies, of Allah and your enemies, and others besides, whom ye may not know, but whom Allah doth know. Whatever ye shall spend in the Cause of Allah, shall be repaid unto you, and ye shall not be treated unjustly. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ve e’iddu lehum mesteta’tum min kuvvetin ve min ribatil hayli Gather your power against them as much as you are able to and prepare steeds turhibune Bihi aduvvAllahi ve aduvvekum ve ahariyne min dunihim* la ta’lemunehum*Allahu ya’lemuhum which you may terrify the enemy of Allah, your enemy, and others whom you do not know, but Allah knows. As in be prepared. Prepare to battle in order to preserve the peace. Be strong. Not to use it on every opportunity but in case you may need it. Be strong and merciful, because if you forgive while you are weak that makes you afraid. Mercy of the weak is scareness, mercy of the strong is honor. That’s why be strong.

ve ma tunfiku min shey’in fiy sebiylillahi yuveffe ileykum Whatever you spend in the way of Allah, its reward will be paid back to you in full ve entum la tuzlemun, and never will you be wronged.

An expression that I’d like to stay on with a couple of sentences.

AduvvAllahi ve aduvvekum this is important, enemies of Allah and enemies of you. There’s a truth that given here. All enemies of Allah are firstly the enemies of all believers. Here is the frame of the phrase “enemy.” They are the enemies of Allah. Because all people fight against Allah also fight against the happiness of humanity. That’s why enemies of Allah are the natural enemies of you, this is the subtext of this verse.

61-) Ve in cenehu lisselmi fecnah leha ve tevekkel alellah* inneHU HUves Semiy’ul ‘Aliym;

If they incline towards peace, then incline also (to make peace)! Rely upon Allah (hold Allah as your representative, trust that the Name Wakil in your essence will fulfill its function)! For He is the Sami, the Aleem. (A.Hulusi)

But if the enemy incline towards peace, do thou (also) incline towards peace, and trust in Allah: for He is the One that heareth and knoweth (all things). (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ve in cenehu lisselmi fecnah leha ve tevekkel alellah* But if the enemy incline towards peace, do you (also) incline towards peace, and trust in Allah: inneHU HUves Semiy’ul ‘Aliym for He is the One that hears and knows all things. Self defense and punishing the wicked should be the reasons of war. But peace is essential. So if they incline to peace, you should too.

Why? Because the main reason of eternal signs, the revelations is not to slaughter others but to revive them. Not to destroy humans but to make them exist. Not to kill them but to resurrect them.

When do people waste their own lives really; it’s when there’s an obstacle between faith and the soul. Because that’s when there’s another obstacle begin to emerge, the block of happiness and joy against all humanity. No person have the right to prevent others from happiness.

Faith is the other name of humanities happiness. And no person should prevent others to achieve this happiness. Jihad is about to remove the obstacles between men and faith.

62-) Ve in yuriydu en yahde’uke feinne hasbekallah* “HU”velleziy eyyedeke Bi nasriHI ve Bil mu’miniyn;

If they want to deceive you, then sufficient for you is Allah! It is He who supported you with His help and with the believers. (A.Hulusi)

Should they intend to deceive thee,- verily Allah sufficeth thee: He it is that hath strengthened thee with His aid and with (the company of) the Believers; (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ve in yuriydu en yahde’uke feinne hasbekallah If they want to deceive you, then sufficient for you is Allah! If they want to trick you via the trap of peace, then Allah is sufficient for you. As in, if they want to make peace, then make peace with them, even if they want to trick you by doing that. Because Allah is enough for you. So always be on the side of peace.

“HU”velleziy eyyedeke Bi nasriHI ve Bil mu’miniyn It is He who supported you with His help and with the believers.

63-) Ve ellefe beyne kulubihim* lev enfakte ma fiyl Ardı cemiy’an ma ellefte beyne kulubihim ve lakinnAllahe ellefe beynehum* inneHU Aziyzun Hakiym;

He has joined the hearts (of the believers) as a single heart through the love of sharing! If you had spent everything on the face of the earth you could not have brought their hearts together… But Allah brought them together (through intrinsic attraction of similar frequencies). Indeed He is al-Aziz, al-Hakim. (A.Hulusi)

And (moreover) He hath put affection between their hearts: not if thou hadst spent all that is in the earth, couldst thou have produced that affection, but Allah hath done it: for He is Exalted in might, Wise. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ve ellefe beyne kulubihim He has joined the hearts. Here’s the answer to the question how can Allah help? How can Allah support the ones He love? How can Allah strengthen them? He doesn’t sent weapons from heaven but Allah surely create a nuclear reactor by merging the hearts. One single heart becomes a thousand, a million heart. One single head becomes a machine that consist thousands, millions of minds. You begin to love not with a single heart but with a billion hearts of power.

Innemel mu’minune ihvetun (Hucurat/10) Believers can only be brothers and sisters of each others. Even you may not come from the same mother, you become universal siblings. That’s how Allah helps.

lev enfakte ma fiyl Ardi cemiy’an ma ellefte beyne kulubihim If you had spent everything on the face of the earth you could not have brought their hearts together. This isn’t a treasure that can be earned by physical meanings. Love cannot be bought. Not with money, not by force. An owner of a heart can only feel love if Allah allows him.

All the systems, all the governments, leaders, tyrants have tried people to love them. Whatever they have done, it’s never enough. No force, no power or law can make people to love someone or something. No treasure and wealth can by the real affection of people. That’s why the real love can only be achieved by Allah’s path. False love masked itself as passion but the final destination always comes with the form of obsession. If love is there by Allah, Allah can make it eternal to the end.

This is also gives us the answer to another question. Why should we trust Allah. Why is it necessary to follow Allah’s rules. That’s why. There’s no ruler or leader that can rule a persons heart other than Allah.

ve lakinnAllahe ellefe beynehum* inneHU Aziyzun Hakiym But Allah brought them together for He is Exalted in might, Wise.

64-) Ya eyyuhen Nebiyyu hasbukallahu ve menittebe’ake minel mu’miniyn;

O Nabi! Sufficient is Allah for you and those who follow you from among the believers. (A.Hulusi)

O Prophet! sufficient unto thee is Allah,- (unto thee) and unto those who follow thee among the Believers. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ya eyyuhen Nebiyyu hasbukallahu ve menittebe’ake minel mu’miniyn O Prophet! Sufficient is Allah for you and those who follow you from among the believers.

65-) Ya eyyuhen Nebiyu harridil mu’miniyne alelkital* in yekun minkum ishrune sabirune yaglibu mieteyn* ve in yekun minkum mietun yaglibu elfen minelleziyne keferu Bi ennehum kavmun la yefkahun;

O Nabi! Encourage the believers for battle! If there are among you twenty (people) who endure, they will overcome two hundred. And if there among you one hundred who endure, they will overcome one thousand of those who deny the knowledge of the reality… They are a people with no understanding! (A.Hulusi)

O Prophet! Rouse the Believers to the fight. If there are twenty amongst you, patient and persevering, they will vanquish two hundred: if a hundred, they will vanquish a thousand of the Unbelievers: for these are a people without understanding. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ya eyyuhen Nebiyu harridil mu’miniyne alelkital O Prophet! Rouse the Believers to the fight.

harridil mu’miniyne This expression has the meaning of encouragement in every classic translations. Rallying, rousing has some additional meaning so it’s also acceptable.

Actually the word Harrad means depletion both physical and mental depletion. Mental breakdown and becoming ill has the same essence in words.

This expression turns the phrase upside down almost like an old saying, Haddad word becomes harrid and in arabic language gives the meaning of rallying over weakness. Marradahu means illness. In Ragip El Isfahani’s translation this phrase becomes the power of wiping out all weaknesses and illnesses as well as concerns and fears.

There’s nothing to fear as the saying goes. A higher purpose is pointed here. The death becomes so real, the afterlife becomes so close, the fear becomes irrelevant at this point. That’s the aftermath of this encouragement.

in yekun minkum ishrune sabirune yaglibu mieteyn* If there are twenty amongst you, patient and persevering, ve in yekun minkum mietun yaglibu elfen minelleziyne keferu they will vanquish two hundred: if a hundred, they will vanquish a thousand of the Unbelievers:

20 people from you can overcome the 200 of them. This ratio cannot be achieved in any of the battles that the prophet had the lead. So from this sentence we should look for the meaning not the actual numbers in order to understand it properly.

Crowds and heads may be more than your side, but if your side is willful and conscious and with character and have resistance many of the minor groups can overcome the threats of simple crowds.

..kem min fietin kaliyletin galebet fieten kesiyraten Bi iznillah (Baqarah/249) Many of the minor groups that have the character and willpower overcome the large and ignorant groups. This is the truth that is told here.

Bi ennehum kavmun la yefkahun; Because why? This little sentence is the keystone of this verse. Because they are a bunch without deeper understanding.

Yes, Qur’an lays out all the reasons. This is the main reason why 20 people can overcome 200 people. Or with a general sense, a handful of people can gain a victory against a mountain full of people. By acting with order and plan and with conscious and willpower.

Whatever their values and faiths are like, people who act with order and plan, who think about the end and act accordingly can win against orderless, chaotic groups, people without discipline and purpose. This is a law of nature no matter what each sides values are like.

66-) El Ane haffefAllahu ankum ve alime enne fiykum da’fa* fein yekun minkum mietun sabiretun yaglibu mieteyn* ve in yekun minkum elfun yaglibu elfeyni Biiznillah* vAllahu me’as sabiriyn;

Allah has now lightened your burden, for He knows you have weakness… So, if there are one hundred among you who endure, they will overcome two hundred… If there are one thousand among you, they will, with the permission of Allah (B-izni-Allah), overcome two thousand… Allah is with those who are steadfast (patient). (A.Hulusi)

For the present, Allah hath lightened your (burden), for He knoweth that there is a weak spot in you: But (even so), if there are a hundred of you, patient and persevering, they will vanquish two hundred, and if a thousand, they will vanquish two thousand, with the leave of Allah: for Allah is with those who patiently persevere. (A.Yusuf Ali)

El Ane haffefAllahu ankum Allah has now lightened your burden ve alime enne fiykum da’fa for He knows you have weakness.

Here we read the hardships of those people in Madina who had to endure the absense of many critical needs.

fein yekun minkum mietun sabiretun yaglibu mieteyn* So, if there are one hundred among you who endure, they will overcome two hundred ve in yekun minkum elfun yaglibu elfeyni Biiznillah* If there are one thousand among you, they will, with the permission of Allah (B-izni-Allah), overcome two thousand… vAllahu me’as sabiriyn; Allah is with those who are steadfast.

Some might indicate that this verse nullify the previous one but that sort of thinking is not only outrageous but unnecessary as well. Because even with all the planning and willpower if one side is weak and without ordenance surely a 1 to 2 ratio is enough. But if both sides are with adequate weapon and armors then the balance can easily shift to 1 to 20 if they are well organized and has the willpower to do so.

There are two different situation are told to us. That’s why there’s no need to object on to another. It’s this siatuation that we might notice the depths of faith. Because if you have only faith you start with plus one. It’s like saying when you go to the conflict you count yourself as one and your faith as another. So if you can read the laws of nature with accuracy the ratio of 1 to 2 reaches 1 to infinity. Faith gives you limitless opportunities, it says.

67-) Ma kane li Nebiyyin en yekune lehu esra hatta yushine fiyl Ard* turiydune aradaddunya* vAllahu yuriydul ahirete, vAllahu Aziyzun Hakiym;

It is not for a Nabi to have captives (without war) until he is dominant in the land… You desire the goods of the world (by wishing to capture rather than to slay your opponent), but Allah desires (for you) the eternal life to come… Allah is the Aziz, the Hakim. (A.Hulusi)

It is not fitting for a Prophet that he should have prisoners of war until he hath thoroughly subdued the land. Ye look for the temporal goods of this world; but Allah looketh to the Hereafter: And Allah is Exalted in might, Wise. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ma kane li Nebiyyin en yekune lehu esra hatta yushine fiyl Ard It is not for a Nabi to have captives without war until he is dominant in the land.

Another verse that created conflict among classic era translations. It is not for a Prophet to have captives without war until he is dominant in the land. There are many proofs both linguistic and context but the first era translations took it as with no survivor policy. As in unless you kill more of them. Especiall the hatta yushine fiyl Ard phrase. Until the end, until you kill all of them.

This is a verse that put restrictions on taking slaves outside the battle. Why?

1-hatta yushine fiyl Ard phrase was translated as shedding a lot of blood of enemies which was a translation without having the whole picture realized, classical era translators like Taberi and Kurtubi took this path.

Razi opened the first argument on this one. But didn’t show his side either. Though Issan means the peak of something, the highest point. So if we take the phrase in literal form it’s about a battle at its climax.

2-This translation also applies to the situation because in Badir Battle, there were prisoners. But taking prisoners as slaves is not the way of a prophet it is said. So the situation also support the verse.

3-If we take the verse with the lights of 7, 28 and 42nd verses the other reference is the loot in Badir Battle. So by this perspective, attacking the loot and trying to usurp the things as well as the men who were in charge of those things, basically fighting for simple material causes is not the was of a prophet. So with both inner and outer context this is the most accurate approach. The next sentence also support this way.

turiydune aradaddunya* You look for the temporal goods of this world; vAllahu yuriydul ahirete, but Allah looks to the Hereafter. vAllahu Aziyzun Hakiym And Allah is Exalted in might, Wise.

68-) Lev la Kitabun minAllahi sebeka lemessekum fiyma ehaztum azabun aziym;

Had it not been for a previous decree of Allah regarding this matter, you would surely have suffered on account of the ransom you took. (A.Hulusi)

Had it not been for a previous ordainment from Allah, a severe punishment would have reached you for the (ransom) that ye took. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Lev la Kitabun minAllahi sebeka lemessekum fiyma ehaztum azabun aziym Had it not been for a previous decree of Allah regarding this matter, you would surely have suffered on account of the ransom you took.

So here attacking the caravan and taking prisoners and loots from them was wrong and yet in Badir Battle it seemed right. It’s because of the earlier permission. It’s the expression we read in 7th verse of this chapter. Allah promised you one of the two groups. This was Allah’s promise to believers.

But as we also read the 5 and 6th verses they wanted the caravan, the more harmless option. The wealth that didn’t require any effort. But Allah wants to establish the religion unlike them. Allah wanted them to face the army. The subtext of these verses gives us the clear image of the whole frame. Don’t fight over worldly powers. There’s only one thing that justifies a battle and it’s to make people earn the faith in their hearts. This is the only justified cause to take up arms.

69-) Fe kulu mimma ganimtum halalen tayyiba* vettekullah* innAllahe Gafurun Rahiym;

So, consume the lawful and the clean among what you took of spoils… And protect yourselves from Allah. Indeed, Allah is the Ghafur, the Rahim. (A.Hulusi)

But (now) enjoy what ye took in war, lawful and good: but fear Allah. for Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Fe kulu mimma ganimtum halalen tayyiba* vettekullah* So, consume the lawful and the clean among what you took of spoils but fear Allah. innAllahe Gafurun Rahiym for Allah is Oftenly Forgiving, Most Merciful.

Take notice Qur’an friends. Vettekullah. Know your responsibilities to Allah, fear Allah. War ethics. Even in war acting with indecency is unacceptable. So even they are your enemies, your mission is to protect your moral principles. Even in war you should act morally.

70-) Ya eyyuhen Nebiyyu kul limen fiy eydiykum minel esra, in ya’lemillahu fiy kulubikum hayren yu’tikum hayren mimma uhize minkum ve yagfir lekum* vAllahu Gafurun Rahiym;

O Nabi! Tell the captives in your hands, “If Allah knows good (faith) is in your heart, then He will give you something better than what has been taken from you, and He will forgive you! Allah is the Ghafur, the Rahim.” (A.Hulusi)

O Prophet! say to those who are captives in your hands: “If Allah findeth any good in your hearts, He will give you something better than what has been taken from you, and He will forgive you: for Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.” (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ya eyyuhen Nebiyyu O Prophet kul limen fiy eydiykum minel esra, say to those who are captives in your hands in ya’lemillahu fiy kulubikum hayren “If Allah finds any good in your hearts, yu’tikum hayren mimma uhize minkum He will give you something better than what has been taken from you ve yagfir lekum* and He will forgive you vAllahu Gafurun Rahiym for Allah is Oftenly forgiving, Most Merciful

Remember dear friends, we had studied the concept of conquer in 19th verse. It was saying; In testeftihu fekad caekumul feth.. You wanted conquest now conquest is in your reach. A verse so in balance that it finds the audience in both sides, both the believers and heathens.

Looking to heathens and says, “O heathens, you wanted conquest, victory, you want to win. Now the victory came to you. The eternal conquest came to the doors of your hearts. Open your hearts and let it in.” So from this interpretation we understand they there’s a possibility of winning for heathens as well. Not the battle of Badir but the more important one, the battle of heart, the change of heart. So here’s your chance it was said. Open your hearts to faith because it came to you.

So here we see a similar concept in this verse, it is said; “If Allah finds any good in your hearts, He will give you something better than what has been taken from you, and He will forgive you” Yes merciful Allah will forgive you too, is there any need for more victory or success. Allah’s mercy and forgiveness is in your hands, you just only accept it.

71-) Ve in yuriydu hiyaneteke fekad hanullahe min kablu feemkene minhum* vAllahu Aliymun Hakiym;

If they intend to betray you, surely they have already betrayed Allah before, and He empowered you against them! Allah is the Aleem, the Hakim. (A.Hulusi)

But if they have treacherous designs against thee, (O Messenger!), they have already been in treason against Allah, and so hath He given (thee) power over them. And Allah is He Who hath (full) knowledge and wisdom. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Ve in yuriydu hiyaneteke fekad hanullahe min kablu If they intend to betray you, surely they have already betrayed Allah before feemkene minhum they will betray you again if they can.

The last part may seem different than classic translations but literal approach this has an accurate ground. They may be able to betray you again so don’t be surprised. But don’t break your rulesi your Beraat-i zimmet just because they choose this path. As in don’t leave your door open and say “We cross that bridge when we come to it.” Be cautious because those who betray Allah won’t hesitate to betray you.

Feemkene minhum expression is the only path we translate if not take the hypothetical approach. There are other meanings however, most used one is this explanation. According to this. Allah will provide the believers the means to destroy them.

I prefer the first translation naturally because the literal meaning has more ground and possibility for such occasions. The verse suggest acting morally and ethicallly even with the doubts of betrayal from them is imminent. Here we understand the wisdom of these words when we witnessed history, the records that shows slaughtered babies and children of people just because they might try to create chaos of do something to the leadership of the grounds they lived on.

vAllahu Aliymun Hakiym; And Allah is He Who has (full) knowledge and wisdom.

72-) Inneleziyne amenu ve haceru ve cahedu Bi emvalihim ve enfusihim fiy sebiylillahi velleziyne avev ve nesaru ulaike ba’duhum evliyau ba’d* velleziyne amenu ve lem yuhaciru ma lekum min velayetihim min shey’in hatta yuhaciru* ve inistensarukum fiyd diyni fealeykumun nasru illa ala kavmin beynekum ve beynehum miysak* vAllahu Bi ma ta’melune Basiyr;

Indeed, those who have believed, and migrated (for this cause), and fought in the way of Allah with their possessions and their lives, and sheltered the immigrants and helped them, they are the ones who are allies of one another… But as for those who believed but did not migrate, you are not responsible for them until they migrate! If they ask for your help in religion, then it is your debt (duty) to help them, unless it is against a people with whom you have a treaty… Allah is Basir of what you do (based on the secret of the letter B). (A.Hulusi)

Those who believed, and emigrated, and fought for the Faith, with their property and their persons, in the Cause of Allah, as well as those who gave (them) asylum and aid,- these are (all) friends and protectors, one of another. As to those who believed but did not emigrate, ye owe no duty of protection to them until they emigrate; but if they seek your aid in religion, it is your duty to help them, except against a people with whom ye have a treaty of mutual alliance. And (remember) Allah seeth all that ye do. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Inneleziyne amenu Those who believed ve haceru and migrated for this cause… Migration is all about moving to another location to create more opportunities. It’s not a one dimensional act. It’s not about moving physically to another location. Migration is also spiritual. Moving from blasphemy to faith. It can be political, social and from individual to community.

ve cahedu Bi emvalihim ve enfusihim fiy sebiylilluh with their property and their persons, in the Cause of Allah velleziyne avev ve nesaru as well as those who gave (them) asylum and aid. This ones about the ensar. The Madina community who helped to muhajirs. Though these verses cannot be contained by a single occasion, it carries a universal meaning as well.

ulaike ba’duhum evliyau ba’d these are all friends and protectors, one of another. Qur’an brings a new kind of bond to two groups that never had one before. Until now, they were only aware of one kind of bond, blood. There was no higher of important bond beside that. It was like “Is he from us, then support him even if he’s wrong. Other party might be angel but he’s useless if he isn’t from us.” This kind of logic.

Qur’an brought a new kind of religion bond. More celestial bond. Religion bond measures a person by his virtue and wisdom. Is he right, that’s the most important question. Religion is always with the rightful party even against the tyranny. This kind of principles can only be achieved with this kind of bond.

velleziyne amenu ve lem yuhaciru ma lekum min velayetihim min shey’in hatta yuhaciru But as for those who believed but did not migrate, you are not responsible for them until they migrate!

Here we have another possibility comes to us. If there’s no pressure on faith, one can live with non-believers. As in a person can live with the blasphemers in their land but only if there’s no oppression to their faiths. Just like Ibn Teymiyye once said, Mulk (Countries) have been finished by oppression, not blasphemy. A believer can live among the blasphemers. But then he cannot ask for asylum or guardianship from a muslim community which fulfill their political goals.

ve inistensarukum fiyd diyni fealeykumun nasr there’s an exception. If they ask for your help against the oppression of faith they are enduring, your duty is to help them. All possible helps should be made because it’s about the debt of your brothers and sisters.

illa ala kavmin beynekum ve beynehum miysakun except against a people with whom you have a treaty of mutual alliance. So your help should have the meaning of betrayal. Just like in Hudeybiye Rasulallah carried this principle to the letter. This shows us that all kinds of resistance against the freedom of faith is the reason of an Islamic societies existence.

vAllahu Bi ma ta’melune Basiyr; And remember Allah sees all that you do.

73-) Velleziyne keferu ba’duhum evliyau ba’d* illa tef’aluhu tekun fitnetun fiyl Ardi ve fesadun kebiyr;

And those who deny the knowledge of the reality are the protectors of one another (they support each other)! If you do not do this also (aid and support each other) then you will be subject to provocation and degeneration on the earth. (A.Hulusi)

The Unbelievers are protectors, one of another: unless ye do this, (protect each other), there would be tumult and oppression on earth, and great mischief. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Velleziyne keferu ba’duhum evliyau ba’d* The Unbelievers are protectors, one of another: illa tef’aluhu tekun fitnetun fiyl Ardi ve fesadun kebiyr If you do not do this also (aid and support each other) then you will be subject to provocation and degeneration on the earth.

This verse shows us the political agenda of a society perfectly. A muslim community is formed on earth to fulfill their goals. So what are these goals, what are the reasons of this community?

1-Preventing tyranny on earth

2-Preventing anarchy and chaos on earth.

This is the ultimate duty of all muslims on earth. If you manage to prevent tyranny and oppression from taking root, you manage to connect the seed with water and earth, you manage to connect the people with faith.

74-) Velleziyne amenu ve haceru ve cahedu fiy sebiylillahi velleziyne avev ve nesaru ulaike humul mu’minune Hakka* lehum magfiretun ve rizkun keriym;

Those who have believed, fought in the way of Allah and sheltered (the immigrants) and aided them, they are the believers who live their faith duly! For them, there is forgiveness and abundance of provision. (A.Hulusi)

Those who believe, and emigrate, and fight for the Faith, in the Cause of Allah as well as those who give (them) asylum and aid,- these are (all) in very truth the Believers: for them is the forgiveness of sins and a provision most generous. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Velleziyne amenu ve haceru ve cahedu fiy sebiylillahi velleziyne avev ve nesaru Those who believe, and emigrate, and fight for the Faith, in the Cause of Allah as well as those who give (them) asylum and aid,- ulaike humul mu’minune Hakka these are all in very truth the Believers.

lehum magfiretun ve rizkun keriym; for them is the forgiveness of sins and a provision most generous.

75-) Velleziyne amenu min ba’du ve haceru ve cahedu me’akum feulaike minkum* ve ulul erhami ba’duhum evla Bi ba’din fiy Kitabillah* innAllahe Bi kulli shey’in ‘Aliym;

And those who have believed later, and migrated and fought together with you, they are also with you! Those who are related (by blood) are nearer to one another (they protect and take responsibility for eachother) in the Book of Allah Indeed, Allah is Aleem over all things (as the essence of everything with His Names)! (A.Hulusi)

And those who accept Faith subsequently, and emigrate, and fight for the Faith in your company,- they are of you. But kindred by blood have prior rights against each other in the Book of Allah. Verily Allah is well-acquainted with all things. (A.Yusuf Ali)

Velleziyne amenu min ba’du ve haceru ve cahedu me’akum It’s not a repetitioni this is different. Comes with the same words maybe but with a different approach. And those who accept Faith subsequently, and emigrate, and fight for the Faith in your company.

The expressions starting with elleziyne amenu first introduce us to past tense but other expressions like min ba’du take the speech to future times. Here in this verse we read about the people who will join the faithful, join the jihad and later migrate to join the cause.

feulaike minkum they are of you ve ulul erhami ba’duhum evla Bi ba’din fiy Kitabillah But kindred by blood have prior rights against each other in the Book of Allah. This may seem like a contradiction but if we translate it with literal words we get this meaning. If the bond of religion comes together with the bond of blood, the bond becomes so much stronger. It creates a closeness so beautiful, it opens other doors to brotherhood, friendship and guardianship. It creates a law with double approach.

innAllahe Bi kulli shey’in ‘Aliym; Verily Allah is well-acquainted with all things.

We have reached to another chapters end in great Qur’an country. It informed us about many things definitely. For an open mind it creates many many folders and notions.

Some of which we should keep in our minds.

1-One cannot create a lifestyle without counting Allah. You cannot plan anything without Allah. So believers count Allah when you plan on something.

2-Faith is the greatest opportunity. Use your faith as a mean, a chance, not as a prisoner in your hearts. Make it the leader of the country that is your heart. Use your faiths.

3-The real victory is living the Yevmul Furkan of Badir on our hearts.

Vetteku fitneten la tusiybennelleziyne zalemu minkum hassaten (Enfal/25) This was the verse that gives us this concept. Everyone can win the Badir on earth but winning the Badir on heart is no easy feat. This is a field that tests both the good and the bad. That’s why many who won the battlefield lost the victory in their hearts.

4-Everyone should be at alert to inner temptations. Don’t see yourselves immune to the sweet talks of satan and your own egos.

5-If a battle is a faith battle, it is jihad for both the allies and enemies. If a wars motive is faith then there’s no loser on that war. Everyone wins one way or another.

We call “Eyvallah” to all these. Amenna ve saddakna ya Rabb! We hope and pray that we can act on these in our lives.

“Ve ahiru davana velil hamdulillahi rabbil alemiyn” (Jonah/10) “Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the Worlds!” All products of our claims, causes and lives are for Allah and our last word to our Allah is “Hamd”.

“Esselamu aleykum.”

 
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Yazan: 01 Ekim 2021 in QUR'AN